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A FEW words of preface seem necessary, especially for the sake of 
those who wish to make serious use of this book. Let it, then, 
be clearly understood at the outset that it makes no attempt or 
pretence at completeness. In so vast a subject this would scarcely 
be possible for any man, no matter how accomplished or favourably 
situated. Least of all has it been possible for the writer, a busy 
minister working absolutely single-handed in a Scottish provincial 
town, with the oversight of a large congregation which has had the 
first claim upon all his time and energy and has always received it. 
Why, then, attempt such a task at all ? Because it seemed so needful 
to be done. No proper conspectus of the whole subject has appeared 
hitherto ; and the writer does think that through the gatherings of 
fully twenty years he has been able to do something. He would 
humbly hope he may receive a little thanks for what he has done, 
rather than censure — all too easy to utter — ^for what he has left 
undone. Every student may at once discover omissions, perhaps 
a good many mistakes also, though the writer has done Ms 
best : he can only cherish, the hope that at least he has made the 
pathway easier for the more thorough men who are sure to come 

CJonsultation of works only to be found in large libraries — 
Domesday, the O.E. charters, the RoUs, and Chroniclers — ^has all 
had to be done during brief and occasional visits to Edinburgh and 
Glasgow, where even the best libraries are far from perfect in this 
respect. Still, one has been able to gleam not a few valuable forms, 
especially from the more recent issues of the Close and Patent Rolls 
(which have hardly been touched by others yet), and from several 
of the early chroniclers. Unless it be in the notes to Anecdota 
Oxoniensia, next to nothing of permanent value on English place- 
names appeared until so recently as 1901, when the lamented Dr. 
Skeat issued his brochure on Cambs. The gazetteers and guide- 
books, even the best of them, are nearly all useless on our subject; 
generally a great deal worse than useless from a scientific point of 
view: and we cannot even exclude the latest edition of the Encyclo" 
pcedia Britannica. But invaluable help has been received from the 
numerous works of Dr. Skeat, and from not a little private corre- 
spondence with him, in which the Cambridge professor of Anglo- 
Saxon showed himself aboundingly generous, up to within a fort- 
night of his death. Much is owed both to the books and to the 
private help of the late Mr. Duignan, who was also most kind. One of 


the best place-name books yet issued is Wyld and Hirst's book on 
Lancashire, to which the writer is very deeply indebted. The book 
is marred only by a few serious omissions (like Bacup), and by a 
rather overfondness for Scandinavian, and an oversuspiciousness of 
Keltic origins, which occasionally leads to curious results, as in the 
case of CJondover. Mr. M'Clure's book has been found to contain 
much splendid material with some weak admixture. Baddeley's 
Gloucester is a first-rate bit of work; the writer's only regret is 
that it came so late into his hands. He has a similar regret with 
regard to the work of Dr. Mutschmann. Several others, containing 
valuable information, were unf ortimately issued just before or after 
his own MS. was completed in November, 1913; they will be found 
in the BibHography. The stern exigencies of space have forbidden 
many other acknowledgments of indebtedness. 

The number of Domesday forms given is by no means complete, 
and the identification in a few cases may be a little uncertain owing 
to lack of local knowledge. But the iiiformation given is certainly 
fuller than is available elsewhere. All village names not important 
enough to be mentioned in the Postal Guide have been passed over, 
except in cases of special interest. Postal Guide spellings have 
usually been taken as the standard. 

Wales has been a great difficulty. Accessible and trustworthy 
literature has proved very scarce (see p. 66). Letters have been 
exchanged with a number of kindly correspondents; but hardly 
anybody has been found able and wiUing to give real help, except 
that excellent antiquary, Mr. Palmer of Wresbam, and Sir Edward 
Anwyl, whose all too scanty commimications have proved of 
great value. As to Cornwall, the writer worked diligently for 
three weeks in the Public Library at Fahnouth, and was fortu- 
nate in being able to supplement his studies from the valuable 
Cornish library of the Rev. Wilfrid Rogers. R. 0. Heslop, Esq., 
of Newcastle, has given useful hints about names in Northumber- 
land, and Rev. Charles E. Johnston, of Seascale, has helped with 
those of Cumberland. Numerous other correspondents must be 
gratefidly acknowledged in a body. Their help has been none 
the less real, and the writer's gratitude is just as hearty, though 
it is impossible to mention all their names. 

Professor Ernest Weekley, of Nottingham, our best living authority 
on English personal names, has read all the proofs and has enriched 
nearly every page with some valuable suggestion, though, of course, 
he is responsible for no statement in the book. The writer tenders 
to him his warmest thanks. Fresh information and accredited 
corrections of any kind will always be welcome. 

St. Andrew's Manse, Falkirk. 
June 15, 1914. 



PEEFAOB - - - - - - - - V 






IV. THE ENGLISH ELEMENT - - - - - - 23 

THE COMMON ELEMENT - - - - - - 34 


VI. THE ENDINGS ....... 46 

Vn. THE NORMAN ELEMENT - - - - - - 63 


ENGLISH PLACE-NAMES - - - - - - 81 


EXPLANATIONS - - - - - - - 87 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ....... 628 








To many this needs an apologia; it is such a useless, dry as - 
dust study this, they say. And yet the apologia is easUy writ, 
because : — 

1. Place-name study helps to satisfy a widespread and very 
natural curiosity; and everything which helps to satisfy a 
legitimate and intelligent curiosity is good, and deserves some 
meed of commendation, not a frown. But this, if the first is 
perhaps the lowest of the uses, we shall name. 

2. It is one of the most valuable and readily available of our 
sidehghts on history. The history of the far past is as a rule 
dim enough, and needs every beam of light, even the faintest, 
which we can throw upon it. In England, it so happens, we 
have records of place-names in abundance long before we 
have regular history in abundance. Often where the direct 
record is of the meagrest, the most tantahzingly scanty sort, 
place-names may be practically the only definite evidence we 
have on certain important points. The early history of Cum- 
berland is a good case in point. Moreover, place-names help 
much to indicate the breadth and depth of the impact of the 
foreign invader, and England had invaders not a few. 

3. Our study helps not a little to reveal and illustrate racial 
idiosyncrasies, modes of thought, feeling, and taste. Tastes 
Keltic were, and are, very different from tastes Saxon. Our 
names, e.g., show what men or class of men each race admired 



and revered most, the men whose memories they sought most 
eagerly to perpetuate. In the case of Angle, Saxon, and Dane, 
they tell at least a Httle, perhaps not a great deal, as to who 
were their favourite heroes ; whilst in the case of the Kelt they 
show who were his favourite saints. The bluff Saxon seldom 
troubled himself much about saints, at least so far as to 
enshrine them in a place-name; though one or two instances, 
Hke Chadkebk or Kewstoke, might be cited to the contrary. 

4. It gives most valuable evidence as to the processes of 
phonetic change and decay, and the lines on which those changes 
proceed. The laws, once found and firmly estabhshed, are 
weUnigh as sure and helpful as those in the most exact of the 
physical sciences. It is often of extreme interest to the 
philologer to trace these sound-changes; and our place-name 
records often afford valuable supplement to the dictionary, 
supplying missing links, and giving, in a good many cases, 
earlier evidence of the use of a word than any surviving literary 
record. Examples of this will be found passim (see, e.g.. 
Bishop Burton, Hatheeleigh, Reach, Rye, etc.). 

5. Lastly, we need not hesitate to add, the study of place- 
names is a useful discipline, a taxing exercise of scholarly 
patience, in a department where much has already been done, 
but where a vast amount of hard work still awaits the doer. 
In a much-traversed, much-contested territory like England 
and Wales, the student needs to remove each successive layer 
of names as carefully, and to scrutinize them as dihgently, as a 
Fhnders Petrie when he is digging down into one of Egypt's 
ancient cemeteries, or as a Macalister exploring one of the 
great rubbish mounds at Gezer or Lachish, And the place- 
name student has his own little joys of discovery,^ his own 
thrills over a much-tangled skein at last unravelled, as weU as 
a Schliemann at Mycense, or a Flinders Petrie at Abydos. He 
also has his own sure retribution if he neglect the laws of his 

1 E.g., Professor Kuno Meyer's recent discovery, in an old Irish 
MS., of the name ' Ard Echdi' (height of the horse), the exact Irish 
or Gaelic equivalent of the Epidion akron of Ptolemy, c. a.d. 160, 
Ard Echdi is said to be ' in Kintyre,' which confirms the supposition 
long since made, that Ptolemy's name stood for the Mull of Kintyre. 
This diccovery also confirms our belief in Ptolemy's accuracy, whilst it 
shows that, in his day, Kintyre was inhabited by Kelts of the p group, 
not by Kelts of the c or 1c group, as all Scottish Kelts are at this day. 


study, and dogmatize upon unsufficient evidence. Bad guesses 
are sure to bring to him shame and confusion. But in this 
study sober conjecture is not to be despised, even if it afterwards 
prove wrong. It is often the only resource which lies open. 
But one must use aU the evidence available, and one must know 
and remember the rules, which nine out of every ten place-name 
guessers do not. 



Written record of British history before the arrival of Julius 
Caesar's legions in 55 B.C. there is all but none. True, the 
Cassiterides — i.e., ' tin islands ' — are referred to by Herodotus, 
the father of history himself, as well as by Strabo ; and these 
Cassiterides must have included part of the mainland of 
Cornwall as well as the Scilly Isles. There is a Cassiter Street 
in Bodmin at this day. The general name, Britain,^ also 
goes back to Aristotle. For the rest there yawns a vast 

On Rome in Britain we shaU be very brief; the subject has 
already been discussed so often, with such fulness and care, 
by more competent pens. We get many names in England 
in Ptolemy's weU- known Geography, written in Greek c. 
A.D. 150. So far as Britain is concerned it is not first-hand 
knowledge, but a pure compilation, and, except in the case 
of a few rivers, Ptolemy's names can rarely be identified with 
certainty with names stiU in use. We get a large number of 
town names along the routes given in the Antonine Itinerary, a 
document only put into its final shape c. a.d. 380. We get 
a good many more in the Notitia Dignitatum, which dates about 
twenty years later. All the evidence afforded by these, our 
three chief authorities for Roman names in England, will be 
found set forth and discussed in scholarly fashion in M'Clure's 
British Place-Names. Of course, we have a few names, a 
mere handful, which come in earUer. Only in very rare cases 
do these represent names which still survive. Caesar gives us 
Cantium or Kent, Tameses or Thames, Mona or Man. Vectis 
or Wight goes back to PHny, a.d. 77. His name for England 

* The printing of a name in capitals always means. See details in 
the List. 



is Albion, possibly ' the white (L. alhus) land,' from the white 
chalk cliffs about Dover. Tacitus, a little later than Pliny, is 
the first to mention Londinium or London, and the Sabrina or 
Severn, also a R. Avona (probable reading), and that is about 
all— a very meagre array. The Roman Itineraries cover the 
whole country from the Scottish Border to Exeter, or Isca 
Damnoniorum. Rome made little mark S. and W. of that. 
But the Itinerary names are seldom identifiable with existing 
names, and have given rise to endless controversy. A good 
many of them will be found discussed in our List, s.v. Carlisle, 
Dover, Manchester, Worcester, and the like. But the names 
which have come down to us from pre-Saxon times, though 
writ in Latin, are practically all Keltic, or pre-Keltic, and so 
faU, properly, to be dealt with in our next chapter. 

Chester or Caistor, as we find it alone, -caster, -cester, or 
-Chester as we find it in combination, is usually thought to be 
the sure sign manual of the Roman, and proof of the existence 
of a former castra, camp, or fort. But numerous though these 
' caster ' names be^ none of them reaUy go back as names to 
Roman times. Names like Alia Castra for Alcester are spurious 
inventions. Chester itself comes in as a name quite late, and 
few if any 'casters ' are earher than the beginnings of the O.E. 
Chronicle. Gloucester is found in a grant of 681 as Gleawe- 
ceasdre, and Worcester is nearly as early. Thus, -caster. 
O.E. ceaster, is a Saxon rather than a Roman appellative. 
There are also one or two names which embody the L. colonia, 
*a settlement,' usually of veteran soldiers. Lincoln is cer- 
tainly a case in point, and Colchester, O.E. Colenceaster, is 
confidently given as another, with fair reason too. But 
very possibly it means no more than ' camp on the R. Colne,' 
and this river name must be Keltic or pre-Keltic. In either 
case the present names, Lincoln and Colchester, seem to have 
been of Saxon, not of Roman, make. 

Thus, of real Latin names in England there are almost none. 
Skeat wiU not even admit Speen, Berks, to be the L. Spinse. 
But Catterick, S. Yorks, is known to be the L. cataracta or 
'waterfall,' and Pontefract is the same region, though first 
found in Norman documents, may have come down all the 
way from the Romans. But Centurion's Copse, Brading, is a 
siUy modem corruption for ' St. Urian's copse ' ; and Aquilate, 


Staffs, is not Aqua lata, but comes from Aquila, Latin rendering 
of the Norman smuame L'Aigle. Monkish Latin has certainly 
had to do with a few of om: present names. Monksilver, e.g.', 
must be from silva, ' a wood ' ; Merbvalb is Mira valle, and 
Gaia Lane, Lichfield, is med. Latin for 'jay,' Nor. Fr. gai, gay; 
whilst the earliest known spelling of Devizes seems to be 
Divisis, which we venture to translate — the Latin is barbarous 
— place ' at the borders ' or * divisions.' The history of Atjst 
is also very interesting. 

The great fact remains that in Britain, unlike neighbouring 
Gaul or Spain, no Roman language has been spoken for 1,500 
years. The Britons kept, and still keep, their own mother- 
tongue. Only a few townsfolk and wealthier landowners would 
ever speak Latin at all. Hence it is that this chapter so soon 
comes to an end. 



Of all the problems connected with the place-names of England 
there are few so interesting or so intricate as those connected 
with the Keltic element — how much, or perhaps we should 
rather say, how Uttle, of the old British speech stiU survives 
in Enghsh place-names. On this subject much nonsense has 
been asserted, even by learned men who ought to have known 
better, or who, at any rate, should have been more careful 
about their facts before making such large claims for the Keltic 
element as they have. The truth is, the deeper and the more 
thorough the investigation, the smaller seems the sure Keltic 
residuum, whilst very small indeed now is the group of names 
of which we can make nothing sure at aU, though convinced 
that they must either be Keltic or pre-Keltic. There must be 
several pre-Keltic names in Wales, but in England they are 
confined chiefly, and possibly altogether, to a handful of river 
names. There are, e.g., two or three names in Cheshire which 
are hard nuts to crack, rivers like the Biddle, Bollin, Croco, 
and Etherow ; whilst Kennet, a river name in both Berks and 
Cambs, is another of the rare insolubles. It is such an age since 
these long-skulled, dark-haired, dark-eyed pre-Kelts (probably 
also pre- Aryans) ceased to speak their own tongue on British 
soil, that their names, as weU as everything else belonging to 
them, except a few skuUs, have been practically wiped out; 
and time spent in speculating on their language or their names 
can be little else than time wasted. 

Not a great many centuries before Julius Caesar, the great 
Aryan family of Kelts began to arrive on our shores. The 
Goidels or Gaels, because to-day in force in Northern Scotland, 
Ireland, and Man, must, it is generally supposed, have arrived 
first. But of Goidels in England we now know exceedingly 



little. Their very existence there, once upon a time, is proved 
by not much else than a few inscriptions, commonly called 
Ogams. There have been none fomid E. of Devon or Wales, 
only one in Cornwall, and barely fifty altogether. But these 
Ogams can only date from late in the Roman occupation, and 
seem to suggest that the makers of them had crossed over from 
the S. of Ireland, perhaps from about Waterford, to Pembroke. 
There was also an Irish invasion or immigration into Cornwall 
in early historic times. But of the earliest Goidels in England 
we know almost nothing. Next came the Brythons, the p 
group as scholars caU them, as opposed to the k or q group, the 
Goidels. Comparison of the abundant remaining skuUs of the 
Neohthic Age in Belgium and in England, seems to indicate 
that the English Kelts we know best came from the tribe of 
the Belgae, and crossed over to us where the sea was narrowest. 
The Belgae were akin to the Gauls, and the Gauls were un- 
doubtedly nearer of kin to the Brython than to the Gael, so 
far as their very scanty linguistic remains show. The Picts, 
who were akin to the Brythons, especially to the Cornish, seem 
to have been confined to Scotland, though in Searle's Onomasti- 
con we find nine names of men compounded with Peoht or 
Pict — e.g., Peoht-hehn, -red, -wine, -wulf, etc. 

However, over a large area of England we now know for 
certain that there are next to no Keltic names at all. Where a 
competent investigator has been at work, like Dr. Skeat 
among the names of Berks, Cambs, or Herts, W6 can now say 
confidently that there are no surviving Keltic names except 
those of two or three rivers; a very different story this from 
what was supposed not so very long ago. AU over the S.B. 
of England, and indeed in the whole region along the coast 
from Tyne to Solent, Keltic names are extremely rare. It is 
doubtful if in that section there be thirty such names all 
told. In Lincoln, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Middlesex, Surrey, 
Sussex, the Keltic element seems represented by only five, 
three, or possibly even one name each ; for in Middlesex, apart 
from London and Thames, which it shares with x)ther counties, 
what is there save Brent ? In the Midlands, too, Keltic 
names are few and far between, except on the Welsh border. 
In Bucks, Bedford, Oxford, Warwick, there are next to none. 
And what is stranger and more unexpected, even in the far 


N., in Westmorland and Durham, hardly a single true 
British name survives. Of the original English Goidel our 
place-names preserve scarce one footprint. It is doubtful if in 
all England, outwith the borders of Northumberland and 
Cumberland, there can be picked out a single clearly Goidelic 
name,^ and, of course, the Border names are probably due to 
the filtering S. of the Scottish Gael, 

On the other hand, as is well known, in districts where the 
Saxon invader arrived late, in Cornwall, 'the horn of the 
Welsh,' and in Monmouth, Keltic names are still in an over- 
whelming majority. In Cornwall there are perhaps no true 
Enghsh names of any consequence, except modem upstarts 
like New Quay, and two names on the very eastern edge — 
Launceston and Saltash. Next to Cornwall and Monmouth, 
the region for Keltic names is, very naturally, that along the 
Welsh border, and in what was the old Brythonic kingdom of 
Cumbria — i.e., Lancashire and Cumberland — also, as we have 
already noted, all along the Scottish Border. In Hereford, 
Salop, and Cheshire, and in these three northern counties, 
Welsh names (or Gaelic names) of rivers, of hills too, and vil- 
lages and towns, are still fairly plentiful. Many river names in 
Devon and Somerset, and quite a handful in Stafford, are 
Keltic ; so also is a fairly numerous group of towns or villages 
in Somerset and Dorset. Whenever we find such village 
names surviving, it is pretty clear proof that extermination or 
driving out of the Brython at the hand of Saxon or Angle 
had not been so swift or ruthless as in most other parts. It 
is curious, however, that Keltic village names are so lacking 
in Devon. 

It is the Welsh dictionary which is our chief aid in searching 
out the Keltic names. English Keltic names are certainly for 
the most part of Brythonic type. But, as we have abeady 
noted, near the Scots Border we have a few purely Goidelic, 
interesting as showing that the present Border was once upon 
a time by no means the southern border of the Gael. There is 
a W. glyn as well as a G. gleann ; but we can scarcely err in 

1 Perhaps the best attempt has been, to show the Gr. crioch, cricTie, 
' boundary, limit,' in the nimierous names in, Creech and Crick, and 
even Penkridge. But the evidence which will be found s.v. Creech, 
Crick, Crickhowell, etc., seems conclusive against it. 



holding that all the Glens in Northumberland are of Gaelic 
origin. Near Haltwhistle alone we find three — a Glencune, 
a Glendhu, and a Glenwhelt. Glencune reappears in Cumber- 
land, near Ullswater, as Glencoin. Both are clearly derived 
from the G. cumhann or comhann, with the mh mute through 
' eclipse,' as it is called. Glencoe, the far-famed, has the same 
origin; it is spelt Glencoyne in 1500, and Glencoan in 1623. 
Another Glen, with a very Highland smack about it, lies E. of 
Keswick, Glenderamackin, which is pure Gaehc for ' glen of 
the stream with the bulbs or parsnips.' 

The Kielder Water near the Northumberland border is as 
clearly G. caol dohhar {bh mute), ' narrow-stream.' The G. ao in 
names has run through nearly all the vowel sounds. We have 
it taking on the long ee of Kielder away up in Eddrachilis, 
W. Sutherland, pronounced Eddraheelis, G. eadar-a-chaolais, 
'between the straits or narrows.' Pure Gaehc, too, is 
Mindrum, Coldstream, G. min druim, ' smooth hill ridge.' In 
Cumberland such names are rarer, but we have a few very 
interesting samples, like Cardurnock, on the shore S. of Bow- 
ness, G. cathair [th mute) dornaig, ' fort at the pebbly place, ' 
the same word as Dornock on the other side of the Solway, 
and as the better known Dornoch in the far north. Culgaith, 
Penrith, is unmistakable Gaelic too, cul gaoiih, ' at the back of 
the wind,' the ih being preserved here, whilst in Gaehc for many 
a generation th has gone dumb. As already noted, of clearly 
GaeUc names farther south there are perhaps none at all, unless 
it be Cannock. 

By far the most important group of Keltic names in England 
are the names of rivers. No first-class river in England, abso- 
lutely none in Wales, has an Enghsh name. One writer 
instances as probably Enghsh these six — Eamont, Loxley, 
Swift, Waveney, Witham, and Wyth-burn. The first three, all 
quite small streams, probably are ; and, as we shall see by-and- 
by, there are plenty more. But the last three we may pretty 
confidently conclude to be Keltic (see the List). Why the 
rivers should be so tenaciously Keltic it is not quite easy to say, 
for the same rule by no means holds true about the other 
unchanging natural features of the land, the hills, the bays, 
etc. But a hill belongs to one district only, a river of any size 
to several. It would thus be fairly easy to change the name 


of a^ hill, but to change the name of a river would often have 
caused great confusion, and so the Saxons kept the old names 
on, and adapted their tongues to them as best they could. 

It is worthy of note how intensely commonplace and un- 
imaginative the bulk of our river names are. When examined 
they are very often found to mean 'river ' or 'water,' and 
nothing more. Phonetics, not imagination, has lent the 
variety. To take the commonest first, the name Avon; 
there are seven Avons in all, three of them tributaries of the 
one R. Severn. The earliest known form, that of Tacitus, 
Avona, already gives us the spelling of to-day; but reference 
to the List will show that spellings with h and / pro v are early 
found too, clearly showing the connection between W. afon 
and G. abhuinn or ohhuinn, both meaning ' river, ' and nothing 
more. In England Avon is generally pronounced with d, but 
sometimes, as in Shakespeare's Avon, with ce. In Scotland 
we find the same thing, the pronimciation usually avon, but 
in S. Lanarkshire always sevon, as in Strathseven or Straeven. 
This last pronunciation is also seen in fair Ravenglass, S. 
Cumberland, of which many absurd and law-defying interpre- 
tations are current, but which is simply W. yr afon glas, ' the 
greenish ' or ' bluish river.' We probably get it again in the 
Norfolk R. Waveney, where a common EngHsh diminutive 
ending has tacked itself on. In Scotland, but not in England, 
the G. amhuinn or ohhuinn reappears more than once as 
Almond. *In England, however, we have various other forms. 
In Salop the root shows itself in Ouny or Onney, and we have 
it again in the Oun-dle of Northants, Bede's Un-dalum, forms 
paralleled in old Keltic Gaul, as in the Garonne, Rhone, 
Saone, and the like, whilst with Ouny we may also compare 
own, the pronunciation of G. abhuinn in some districts; and 
the form Onn-ey {EngHsh diminutive ending) probably has its 
parallel in such a f amihar Scottish name as Carr-on. 

Still more protean in its shapes is that root for ' water ' or 
'river,' variously spelt in different regions. Axe, Esk, Exe, 
Usk; the Romans spelt both Exe and Usk, Isca, and Ux-bridge 
certainly. Ox-ford possibly, represents the same word. This is 
the old Keltic uisc, the G. uisge, as in the famous usquebaugh 
or ' eau de vie.' Simeon of Durham (c. 1130) writes of Exeter 
as ' Britannice Cairuisc, Latine Civitas Aquarum.' Whitley 


Stokes held that Esk is Pictish, cognate with O.Ir. esc, ' marsh, 
fen.' But in face of the evidence, it seems very superfluous 
to talk of Pictish in England, even in S. Cumberland (R. Esk 
and Eskdale). We cannot prove that Ox- in Oxford is the 
same root ; stiU it is quite likely that Oxford, R. Ock, Berks, 
and Ockbrook, Derbyshire, are all cognates. The Latin name 
of the Thames at Oxford is Isis, already so given by Leland 
c. 1550, but exactly 200 years earlier we find it in Higden's 
Polychronicon as Ysa. It seems most likely that Isis also is 
related to uisc and to the R. Ouse. A plausible O.E. origin 
can be suggested for the Ouse, which is partly confirmed by 
the forms given under Great Ouse. But Oxnam, on the 
Roxburgh border, though already, c. 1150, Oxeneham, stands 
upon a Httle burn called the Ousenan ; and this hiUy region can 
never have been very suitable for oxen, so that Ox- as weU as 
Ouse, which appears four times in England, may well mean 
' river ' too. 

The Cheshire Dee, Ptolemy's Deva, the modem W. Dwfr 
Dwy {' two rivers '), likewise means ' river,' whilst the R. Dove, 
Derby, and R. Dovey or Dyfi, S. Wales, are both forms of 
this W. dwfr or dwr, O.W. dvhr ; and the same root, W. dwr, or 
G. dobhar {bh mute), is also seen as forming half of such stream 
names as Adder or Adur (there are three such rivers), J5erwent 
(three also), Darwen, and Kielder. The Westmorland R. 
Lowther is probably but Keltic for ' canal ' or ' trench.' The 
R. Aide, Suffolk, seems cognate with the G. allt, ' a burn,' seen 
pure and simple in the Alt, Lanes, and as a compound in many 
a Scots name — Aldourie, Garvald, etc. Then Wey, a river- 
name both in Surrey and in Dorset, is plainly W. gwy, ' a river,' 
especially a slow-flowing one, probably seen again in the Suther- 
land G. uidh. And, of course, we have the same root in the 
R. Wye, Domesday's Waia, and in the Gowy, a httle Cheshire 
tributary of the Mersey. Tyne, too, may mean ' river ' and 
little more. All this, when summed up, forms a remarkable 
mass of evidence in proof of the statement with which we 
began, that EngUsh river names very often mean plain ' river ' 
or 'stream,' nothing else. 

Again, there is a considerable group of names which mean 
simply ' quiet, smooth,' or, possibly, ' broad river.' The forms 
in the group vary a good deal — Taff (and Llan-daff), Tame 


(and Tam-worth), Tamar, Tavy, Taw, Teme (tributary of 
Severn), Thame, Thames;' almost certainly Tone (and Taun- 
ton) and Tweed, too. A similar group is formed by the three 
rivers, Leven, Lanes, Leaven, Yorks, and Levant, S.W. Sussex, 
aU from W. ttev, which likewise means ' smooth ' ; but these 
EngUsh Levens can hardly have the same origin as the many 
Levens {q.v.) of Scotland. As for the rest of our Keltic river 
names, many of them are very hard to explain, and a good 
many may remain for ever insoluble, their history has been so 
completely lost. Only a few English river names — Ribblb, 
e.g. — can confidently be claimed as evidence of the certainly 
widespread river- worship of our Keltic ancestors. What there 
is to say will best be noted in our chapter on Wales. Rivers 
like the Lug, a case in point, are common to both. 

If the meaning of our river names be often difficult to 
unravel, we are in a far worse plight about many of the names 
of our most conspicuous hills and mountains, largely because 
in so many cases we have no early record of the spelling, and 
sa we have been deHvered over to much guesswork, more or 
less sober. Nobody, e.g., seems to know where the name 
Pennines came from, and about such an attractive name as 
Helvellyn we can only make guesses. But, as with the rivers 
so with the heights, many of our Keltic hiU names either mean 
simply 'height,' or else are compoimds including that. S.g-, 
the W. mynydd, ' hill, ' may crop up alone in Mint, Westmorland, 
and Munet, Salop, ^ but it is surer in compounds, such as 
Long-mynd, Ok-ment Hill (Devon), and Stad-ment (Here- 
ford). Brean, on the Somerset coast, is but the plural of W. 
hre, ' a hiU, a brae ' ; and the Northumberland Carrick, like its 
Scottish and L^ish kindred, means simply an outstanding rock, 
whilst Tor in Torbay and Torquay, Cat Tor, etc., is another 
word for ' a (tower-like) hiU.' 

There are two places called simply Penn, which is W. for 
'head, height,' very common in Cornwall too. This fenn in 
combination recurs in numerous cases from Cumberland to 
Worcester and Somerset. The Chevin, Yorks, is a manifest 
corruption of W. cefn, ' a ridge ' ; whilst the Peak of Derbyshire 
is one of our very oldest names, and almost undoubtedly British, 
though, curiously enough, we can only make shots at its 

1 On the Forest of Dean Meends, see Baddeley, Gloucestersh., app. iii. 
See also Mindton, 


meaning. The inquirer ought to consult the Oxford Dictionary, 
8.V. Names in England (not in Scotland) with the prefix Dun- 
are almost always Saxon, not Keltic ; but we get the Keltic or 
W. form in Dinmore Hill, Hereford, W. din mawr, 'big hill,' 
whilst Dinder, Wilts, is apparently din dwr, ' hill by the river.' 
Moel, the W. for ' a bold, conical hill,' G. maol, is very common 
in W. hill names; but we probably see it also in the Cumber- 
land Millbreak, ' speckled hill,' and in Malvern, ' hill of alders,' 
whilst the Lickey Hills near by do but give us the W. llechau, 
pi. of Uech, ' a rock, a stone.' Pure Welsh hill names have 
seldom survived amongst English shires, but there is one con- 
spicuous exception in Pennygant, a name of many modern, 
but few or no ancient, spellings, representing either penn y 
gwant, ' height of the butt or mark,' or y gwynt, ' of the winds.' 
The well-known Somerset Quantocks yield us a very interesting 
name. In an old charter long before the Conquest they are 
spelt Cantuc, in Dom. Cantoche, which is at once decipherable 
as W. cant uch, ' upper, higher circle.' 

As to valleys, we have several examples of the Keltic glen in 
Northumberland, and at least one, GLEisrconN", in Cumberland. 
Besides it is now generally admitted that the common English 
combe is a loan- word from the W. cwm, ' a hollow ' ; and this 
last is still to be seen in quite a group of names in Cumberland. 
Unfortunately, in this former home of the Brythons, surviving 
evidence, dating before the twelfth century, is exceedingly 
scanty. Indeed the only Cumberland Cum- which seems to 
be known early is Cumdivock, found in one of the very few 
early charters, c. 1080, as Combedeyfoch. The prefix; here 
certainly wears its English form, but the name seems, pure 
Keltic none the less. We cannot identify deyfoch with any 
English root. Except Cumcatch ('vaUey of Caecca '), and 
probably Cumwhitton, all the rest of the Cums- appear Keltic — 
Cumlongan, Cumrangan, Cumraw, Cum whin- ton, and the rest. 
On our sea-coast the after-coming and more sea-loving 
Saxon and Norseman have allowed the Kelt to leave little 
mark. Of inlets of any consequence with Keltic names there are 
very few, the chief exceptions being the Humber, which must 
be an aspirated form of Cumber, W. cymmer, 'a confluence,' 
and the Solent, another difficult name, though probably con- 
taining the Keltic sol, ' tide.' Morecambe Bay is plainly a repro- 


duction of Ptolemy's MopiKa/x^i], but the name seems to have 
appeared, or reappeared, quite recently, and must be due to 
the antiquaries, a very rare state of matters with a place-name. 

When now we proceed to town and village names, we do 
find a considerable number indisputably Keltic, but not nearly 
so many as has commonly been thought. Still, a few of the 
very greatest names in England, both in Church and State, 
are Keltic, not Teutonic : London, to begin with, and York and 
Carlisle, with Jarrow and Truro a little less notable; great 
travellers' rendezvous also like Dover and Crewe, as well as 
Carlisle and York, whilst ancient dwelling-places like Dor- 
chester and LiN-coLN are half Keltic, half Roman (or Saxon). 
There has been a good deal of debate about several of these 
names, not least about London, which, through its com- 
mercially commanding site, is probably the oldest, whilst still 
the greatest, of British cities. These debatable names wiU 
be found fully discussed under their proper headings. York 
looks very English in its present shape, but it is nothing else 
than a Saxon re-spelling of a Keltic Eburach. Lincoln is often 
associated with lindens, but, as it is as old as the second century 
at least, the Lin- must be Keltic. Dover, with its cognates 
CoNDOVER, Salop, and Dovercourt, Harwich, is a very 
interesting name, being simply British for ' water ' or ' channel 
of water, ' W. dwfr, G. dobhar, the true British sound being still 
preserved for us by our French neighbours, who call it 

Apart from the sporadic names just cited, Keltic towns and 
village names occur in any considerable numbers only in ten 
counties : Northumberland, Cumberland, Lancashire, Cheshire, 
Salop, Hereford, Monmouth, Somerset, Dorset, and Cornwall; 
Durham, York, and Devon have strangely few, all things con- 
sidered ; whilst several counties, like Westmorland, Rutland, 
Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, Huntingdon and Hertford, seem 
to have practically no sure Keltic names at all. This is 
so far as the present writer has noted. Only, for present 
purposes, he has seldom found it possible to go beyond 
the ordinary good atlases and books of reference, the Postal 
Guide and Bradshaw. Cheshire he has specially investigated, 
and for this reason probably he has found there more Keltic 
town and village names than in any other shire (except, of 


course, Monmouth and Cornwall), about twenty-two in all; not 
a very large number wherewith to head the list, and several of 
these are too insignificant to find place in any ordinary map 
or gazetteer. Next come Cmnberland with eighteen, and 
Salop and Hereford with sixteen ; but a minute investigation 
would certainly produce more in these last cases. Dorset, it 
is remarkable, has at least seven. Only on the Welsh border 
and in Cumberland do we find names of the regular W. or 
Keltic tj^e — names like Cakdubnock or Penruddock, Cimi- 
berland; Bettws y Crwyn, Gobowen, Trefonen, or Buildwas in 
p Salop ; and Pontrilas or Rhiwlas in Hereford. 

But more interesting, and always surrounded with some 
perplexity, even doubt, are the solitary names which occur, 
like islets in the ocean, in purely English regions — ^names like 
Penge (Surrey), Wendover (Bucks), QuEMER-ford (Wilts), 
or Yale (Derby). It is difficult to account for such isolated 
survivals from the old British days, except where the names 
embody a river, as is the case with Wendover and Quemer-f ord, 
this last being W. cymmer, ' confluence, ' the same name as the 
well-known Quimper in Bretagne. The number of stiU remain- 
ing Keltic names in Somerset and Dorset indicates a long and 
not altogether imsuccessful struggle of Briton against Saxon. 

The O.W. and G. lann, mod. W. llan, Corn. Ian, cognate 
with our own Eng. land, occurs, as is well known, a good many 
times on the English side of the Welsh border. Its original 
meaning is ' a level spot,' then 'an enclosure,' then ' a sacred 
enclosure, a church-yard,' and then, as it usually is to-day, ' a 
church'; just as the common G. cille or cil, so frequent in 
Scottish and Irish names in Kil-, means ' graveyard ' before 
it means 'church,' though in this case the cille comes from 
L. cdla, * a chamber,' and then ' a (monk's) cell.' In England 
this cille is found perhaps only in Kyl-oe in the extreme North. 
The earliest recorded EngUsh Lan- seems to be Lantocal 
[B.C. 8. 47), in a charterwhich is dated 680. It is described as 
near Ferramere, a place unknown. It may he the same name 
as Landicle, Cornwall, ' church of St. Tecla.' The only Lan- in 
Domesday seems to be Landican, West Cheshire, which is 
possibly W. llan diacon, 'church of the deacon,' though it is 
not now a parish church. Crockford's Directory gives only 
Llandecwyn, Carnarvon. Of the soft II or thl there is no 


trace till long afterwards. But there are at least five regular 
Hans in Hereford. Elsewhere there seems only one, Llany- 
mynech, Salop, ' church of the monk ' (L. monachus). There 
is also in Hereford a spurious Llan- (a modern notion, counte- 
nanced by His Majesty's Post- Office), Llangrove, Ross, which 
all old spellings, as weU as its present appearance, prove to be 
neither more nor less than Long Grove ! 

The names of our Enghsh counties also present a large 
pre -Saxon element, often with a Latin ending, as, e.g., 
Glou-cester, Lan-caster, Lei-cester, Lin-coln, Wor-cester, and 
even the simple Chester or Cheshire ; more rarely with a Saxon 
ending, as in Corn- wall and Dor-set, Mon-mouth and War- wick. 
Not seldom, however, the shire name is pure British, as in York, 
Kent, and Devon, whilst fair claim for a Keltic origin may also 
be put in for Berks and Wilts, as well as for both Ox-ford 
and CAM-bridge. Thus, out of the forty shires, only twenty- 
three have names clearly post-Keltic in their ancestry, a very 
noteworthy fact. The origin of several of our shire names is 
highly disputable; they will be found discussed as far as 
possible under their proper headings. 

Considering that England and Scotland were peopled at first 
by the same two Keltic races, the Goidel and the Brython, it 
is surprising how few Keltic place-names are common to both. 
Of town and village names there are aU but none. There is a 
Crewe near Granton, Edinburgh, but it seems modern. There is 
a Currie, Midlothian, as well as a Curry, Somerset. Press, 
Coldingham (Berwickshire), is very near to Prees, Salop, aitd- 
Clun, Salop, is very near to -the common Scottish Clunie. 
There is a Troon, Camborne (Cornwall), in addition to the well- 
known golfing resort on the Ayrshire coast; and the puzzling 
name Blyth occurs both N. and S. of the border; so does 
Glass (Glass Houghton, as well as Glass, Huntly). But Ross, 
while a town name in England, is name of no town in Scotland. 
Aught else worth mentioning there appeareth not. With 
river names, of course, it is quite different. We have Adder, 
Allen, Alt, and Avon, all common to both; so, too, are Dee, 
Don, Douglas, Eden, Esk, and Leven, and perhaps others ; whilst 
the Scots R. Devon is considered to have the same origin as 
that of the English shire. 




{Monmouth and Cornwall excluded. Names before the line in each 
county are natural features ; names after it towns and villages.) 

Northumberland . 




Amble (?). 

Blyth (?). 

Breamish (?). 


Carter (Fell). 


Glen, R. 





Kinkry Hill. 



Tippalt (Bum). 



Us way -ford. 

Amble (?). 







(East) Ord. 



AIne or Ellen, R. 















Arrad (Foot). 





(Castle) Carrock. 






Cum whin-ton. 





Penrith (?). 





Pendragon (Castle). 


Fendrith HiU. 





Alt, R. 




Glaze-brook (?). 

Hesketh (?). 





Morecambe (Bay) . 

Pendle (HiU). 

Ribble (?). 

Wyre (?). 











Wigan (?). 




The Chevin. 



Gorple Water. 




Pennines (?). 


Pinnar (Pike). 





Glass (Houghton). 




Thirsk (?). 





Cat Tor. 


Dane or Daven. 





(Knolton) Bryn. 

Mowl (CJop). 


Weaver (?). 











Lach Dennis. 







Tallam Green. 

Tarvin (?). 

Tidnock. . 



Wincle (?). 


Glen, R. 



BuU (Gap), 


Erewash (?). 


Ock Brook. 






Barr (Beacon). 

Blythe (?). 


Ocker (Hill). 





Weaver (HHls) (?). 


(Great) Barr. 





Onn (High 













Buildwas Abbey. 






Kinver (Forest) . 



Munet (?). 

Myddle (?). 


Trefonen. . 

Wem (?). 




Dover-beck. - 


Mann or Maun. 




Bar-don HiU. 

Glen (Magna). 


Guash (?). 

Wilney (?). 



Cam or Granta. 

Tydd (?). 


Ise, R. (?). 

Arrow (?). 



Gladder Brook. 
Lickey Hills. 

Corse Lawn (?). 








Rhyd y Groes. 



Dinmore (Hill) . 
Howie (Hill). 





Llanf aino or - veynoe. 













Blyth (?). 



Kimble (?). 

CMltems (?). 








Car ant. 










Newent (?). 






ChichSt. Osyth. 


Rib (?). 
Ver (?). 






Hamble (?). 


1* cxn Ti <i4" 




X J 1 / o\ 


Creech HiU. 

Test or Tees. 


Loddon (?). 



Wight (Isle of). 







Cendover (?). 


Chute (Standen). 


Chilcott (?). 



Creech (St. Michael). 





Adder or Adur. 

Dunster ? 



(East and West) 






"R^TrfcTYl A 



"TT" 1 



Appledore (?). 





Lynne or Lymne. 




Allen. • 


Wandle (?). 






-r 1 





Tillywhim (Caves). 

Lundy I. 














Warminster (?). 




Appledore (?). 












Possible Pre-Keltio Names. 


Croco, R. 


Etherow, R. 


Itchen, R. (2). 

Bollin, R. 

Ithon, R. 


Kennet, R. 

Cole, R. 


Colne, R. 

Severn, R. 


Sow, R. (2). 
Stour, R. 
Teign, R. 
Trent, R. 
Writtle, R. 



This is, out of sight, the element in the place-names of South 
Britain, but it will be needless to tread again the well-trod 
path of early English history. We only need to repeat for the 
sake of the place-name student a bare skeleton of facts and 
dates to furnish a little clearness and coherence to his thoughts. 
As everybody knows, the Teutonic races of Middle Europe, 
who gradually swarmed over to our England, were chiefly 
three in number — Jutes, Angles, and Saxons. To these we 
must add a fourth race closely aUied to the Saxons, the 
Frisians of Holland, all the way from the Scheldt to the Ems 
and Weser in N.W. Germany; probably our own nearest 
kinsmen by blood. For, ' Good butter and good cheese is 
good English and good Friese.' Herdsmen, husbandmen, 
traders, and also sea-rovers were these our special ancestors; 
and it was the piratical raids of the Frisians that first brought 
the Teuton to our shores, which were just opposite their own. 
It was in a.d. 287. Soon after their inconvenient attentions 
became so serious that the Romans, still in power in this 
island, had to appoint a ' Count of the Saxon Shore ' {comes 
litoris Saxonici) to superintend and insure their repulse. 
None, however, settled down on our shores so early as that. 
When they first did so we do not know. Skene thought it was 
very early, probably before the traditional date, 449. Frisians 
certainly may already have reached Lothian before 500.^ 

By A.D. 410 the last of the Romans had left us, but the 
native Brython was not allowed long to enjoy his native land 
to himself. In 449 — there need be little doubt about the date 

1 For examples of Frisian names see Deaene, Fawlet, Nab, Etde, 
TiRLE, Whistlet, Wiske, etc. Skeat finds clear traces of a Frisian 
settlement in Suffolk. 



— ttie first Teutonic invaders with any intention of becoming 
settlers appeared off the coast of Kent — Jutes from Holstein 
in the S. of Denmark. A little later these same Jutes also 
settled down in the Isle of Wight and part of Hants. We 
cannot tarry over these dim bands, because we hardly know 
what exactly their speech or dialect was, and we can point to 
ahnost no definite trace of their influence. Though we may 
conjecture with at least some probability that one or two 
names, like Bapchtld and Honeychild in Kent, and Bon- 
church, Isle of Wight, may have had a Jutish origin. 

Next came the Saxons (L. Saxons, Ger. Sachsen, the High- 
lander's Sassenach, or Englishmen), a race first named by 
Ptolemy in the far E. of Europe, but already located on 
either bank of the Elbe when they made their first spring across 
the North Sea, and landed in 477 on the shore of what was 
ever after called Sussex, or South Saxon land. The first 
arrival of the third set of invaders of our isle, the Angles, the 
men who succeeded in giving their own name to aU England, 
is an event which cannot now be precisely dated. But probably 
before 540 they had landed in East Anglia, sailing over from 
that district of Holstein, which seems to have been called Angul 
because it was shaped like an ' angle ' or fish-hook. The king- 
dom of East Anglia was afterwards split into the ' North folk ' 
or ' South folk.' This last name, however, does not emerge 
till 1076, after the Norman Conquest, whilst the shire name 
Norfolk is first found in Domesday. But the great region of 
the Angle was in the North, from Humber right up to Forth ; 
and by 547 we find Ida as Anglian King of this Northumbria 
or North-humber-land. The original Anglian speech is now 
best represented by Lowland Scots and by the burr of the 
Northumberland miner. Before 1400 the same tongue was 
heard all the way from Hull to Aberdeen. But distinctively 
Anglian elements cannot be said to be prominent anywhere in 
our names. 

In 577 Ceawlin, King of Wessex or of the West Saxons, won 
the Battle of Dyrham (Gloucester), and so became master of 
the lower Severn — i.e., of Gloucester and of part of Somerset 
and Dorset. Thus early was the much weaker Brython driven 
out of his home even so far West. ^Ethelfrith of Northumbria, 
who sat his throne from 593-617, defeated the Brythons, or 


Welsh, and the Scots at Chester, and so added from Dee to 
E-ibble to the sway of the Anglian sceptre. Then, after a long 
interval, the great Off a of Mercia, 757-796, makes Shrewsbury 
an English, no longer a Welsh, town, drives the Welsh out of 
the mid-Severn valley, and builds a dyke from the mouth of 
the Dee South to the mouth of the Wye. This is the district of 
England where the Welshman's tongue is still required oftenest 
to interpret the place-names. Not till 924 did King Edward 
the Elder, son of AKred the Great, and his successor as King 
of England, become ' father and lord ' over Cumbria and 

When the Brython remained so long in power in the North- 
West, we do not wonder that true English names are few in 
Cumberland, and we do wonder that he has left so few place- 
names in N. Lancashire. Twelve years later than the English 
lordship over Cumbria, Athelstan, King of Wessex and Mercia, 
succeeded in absorbing Cornwall. But Knguistically that far 
Western ' horn ' was hardly absorbed at all, and to this hour 
purely English names are very rare in Cornwall. By 936, then, 
all modem England was nominally EngHsh, except Monmouth- 
shire, which is practically Welsh still. We may therefore 
affirm with some confidence that our real English place-names, 
except the few demonstrably medieval or modem, grew up 
between the sixth or seventh and the tenth century. 

The vast majority of our names of any consequence are 
as old as Domesday Book, whilst our contemporary charter 
evidence goes back in some cases to the end of the seventh 
century. Kemble, Birch, Napier, and Stevenson have printed 
for us a great store of O.E. charters, which yield us most 
valuable, and often unmutilated, forms for about the whole of 
the S.E. half of England, the N. and W. limits running 
round by Warwick, Stafford, and Gloucester. Pre-Domesday 
charters N. and W. thereof are, alas ! more than rare. Domes- 
day Book itself is a complete survey of most of England, its 
manors and villages, made by order of WiUiam the Conqueror 
in 1086-87, and is a wonderful standby. But it is very 
unfortunate that we have no Dom. for Monmouth, except a 
scrap, or for any part N. of Yorks in the E. The S. part of 
Lancashire is given under Cheshire, whilst N. Lancashire 
and the barony of Kendal, Westmorland, come under 



Yorks. For the rest Dom. wholly faUs. Exon Domesday is 
a special transcript of the record for Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, 
Devon, and Cornwall, with slight variations. Domesday is a 
priceless document. The pity is that any proper index to it 
is still so inaccessible even in many of our best libraries. 

Domesday, in some ways, reads strangely modern. Here 
we find, to a most surprising extent, the same names and land- 
marks, the same manors, parishes, and homesteads, as we do 
to-day. The analysis of Sir Henry Ellis, in his laborious Intro- 
duction to Domesday, also shows that there were in William the 
Conqueror's time about 1,400 tenants in chief, including 
ecclesiastical owners, and of under tenants 7,871. Of these 
last a surprisingly large proportion are Saxon, not Norman. 
Thus it is that we find so few names of Norman lords embedded 
in the names of our towns to-day. The vanquished has been 
more enduring than the victor; the Saxon, like the Sicilian, 
absorbed the Norman. Domesday also records some 1,700 
churches, whose distribution seems passing strange ; the record 
cannot be complete,. for it gives 364 in Suffolk, 243 in Norfolk, 
222 in Lincoln, but only 1 in Cambs, and none in Middlesex 
or Lancashire, Of all these 1,700 Domesday churches there 
is no proof that any one existed in England before the English 
arrived, unless we except Landican, which is just on the Welsh 
border of Cheshire, and a few in Cornwall. 

As to the spelling of Domesday, it will help the searcher much 
to remember that Domesday has no j, v, or t/;^ that it almost 
always has ch for k; that initial th is almost always written t, 
and medial th always d; whilst the Domesday scribes hate all 
gutturals, h, ch, gh, and very often boldly change them into st^ 
a fact which yields the clue to many a puzzle, as we shall find 
passim. The truth is, the Norman could not himself pronounce 
gutturals, nor did he find sh easy either, and so he usually 
writes plain s, or else as often he prefixes an e. The Norman 
knew very little of the English tongue and much disliked it, 
and so his English spelling is often inaccurate. Still he had 
rules of his own, as we have been trying to tell, and these rules 
once mastered, much of the seeming inaccuracy disappears. 
Thus it is quite according to rule that we have in Domesday 
cherche or chirche, and not kirk, and Chingeslei instead of 

^ In these cases h.e will look instead for ge, i, u, or w. 


Kingsley; torp and not thorpe, Torentun not Thornton; orc?e or 
vrde always instead of the common ending -worth ; Liste-corne 
instead of Lighthorne ('thorn- tree with the light hung on 
it '), and Bristoldestune for Brightwalton {' Beorhtwald's 
town ') ; Sorewell for Shorwell, Escafelt for Sheffield, and 
Eseldebourne for Shalbourne. 

The Norman scribe has his common errors, too — e.g., the 
putting of U for Id, especially in -field — Gamesfille for Ganfield, 
Licefelle for Lichfield, etc. More rarely we have II for dl, 
as in Celle for Cedle — i.e., Cheadle. Other little peculiarities 
the regular student discovers by degrees for himself. But, we 
must repeat, on the whole in Domesday we have the same names 
as to-day. A map of Domesday's England would show the 
parishes, manors, and landmarks much the same as we find 
them to-day. How very different it would be were the map 
one of eleventh-century Germany or France ! 

There is no Domesday for Durham, but the lack is consider- 
ably alleviated by the Boldon Book, a survey of the See of 
Durham made in 1183, which gives us all the town and village 
names of Co. Durham, and a good many in Northumberland, 
only a century later than Domesday. For this latter county 
we have also a good many references in the Coldingham 
(Berwickshire) charters, which begin but a very few years after 
Domesday. The copious nomenclature of Simeon, monk of 
Durham (d. 1130), also does much to atone for the failure of 
the Conqueror's Survey to reach the farthest north. For 
Cumberland and Westmorland we are particularly badly off, 
except for the Kendal district. Their record is poorer even than 
that of most of the Scottish counties, where as a rule we are 
far worse ofi for early records than in England. For N.W. 
England we have little till we come to the Pipe Rolls (enrolled 
accoimts of the sheriffs, etc.) of the latter haK of the twelfth 
century, and they mention but a handful of the place-names. 

But once we get well into the twelfth century we find great 
masses of evidence of all sorts waiting for examination. A 
good inkling of the variety of available evidence may be got 
by glancing at such a laborious and scholarly compendium as 
Wyld and Hirst's Place-Names of Lancashire. But a serious 
difficulty about using the place-name forms found in our O.E. 
charters is the corrupt and illiterate spelling in which so many 


of them are found, especially if they date after a.d. 1000, We 
have already noted that anything in the way of peculiarly 
Anglian or Northumbrian forms is rare. But the difference 
between Merciaji and Wessex forms is pretty considerable. 
Classic O.E. is the Wessex speech of the time of Alfred the 
Great, c. a.d. 900 — the speech then spoken all the way from 
Kent to Devon. It is according to this classic Wessex tongue 
that our O.E. dictionaries are arranged; so are all the spellings 
in Searle's laborious Onomasticon, or manual of O.E. personal 

But many of our charters are Mercian — i.e., they belong to 
what was once the central Saxon kingdom of England, the 
kingdom of Offa, and the rest. The many charters quoted 
by Duignan in his valuable books on Stafford, Warwick, and 
Worcester are all Mercian. The Mercian district stretched 
from Ribble to Bristol Channel, and from Humber to Thames ; 
Suffolk names, e.g., are distinctly Mercian. Remains of true 
Mercian before the Norman Conquest are rare, and until 
quite recent years their idiosyncrasies were little studied or 
understood. A brief but valuable statement thereanent will 
be found in Skeat's Our English Dialects, 1911, chap, viii., and 
a study of the parallel lists on pp. 71, 72 will be found helpful. 
We there see in special that the Mercian was inclined to dis- 
pense with those diphthongs of which the West Saxon was so 
fond. He said eall, the old Mercian said all, even as we do at 
this day. The Wessex man said sceap, the Mercian seep, 
which we have softened into sheep. In Wessex they said geoc, 
in Mercia ioc, which we have made into yoke. The Wessex 
scribe wrote gyrd, the Mercian ierd, we write yard. Such things 
need to be borne in mind when we are hunting through the 
O.E. dictionary to trace the meaning of a Mercian charter 
name, and it will easily be seen thai the spelling of many a per- 
sonal name becomes much shorter than we find it in Searle's 
classically spelt Onomasticon. The Beorhtwealds and Earn- 
beorns and Heathubeorhts get clipped down into Berthold 
and Arnbiorn and Eadbert, and even into forms stiU shorter 
and less easy to recognize. 

The student will thus perceive that the careful study of 
place-names at least helps, though not a great deal, in the 
study of our English dialects. Names at times take the regular 


dialect forms, as in Zeal Monachorum (Devon) or ZoY (Somer- 
set), where we have the regular West Country z instead of the 
normal 5 ; or as in the Gloucester Yatton, ' town at the yat ' 
(c/. Simmon's Yat), called in the North yztt — i.e., ' town at the 
gate, or opening, or pass.' 

The Kelt had a long start of the Englishman, and had ample 
time and occasion to give names to all the great natural 
features of the land. Thus, as we already know, all our chief 
rivers still bear Keltic or pre-Keltic names. But minor rivers, 
much more numerous than is generally supposed, bear purely 
English names, some of them very interesting. Here is a 
rough list of the chief, one or two a little doubtful: Anker, 
Bure, Coquet, Dearne (S. Yorks), Eamont, Ember, Harris 
(Yorks), Idle, Irk (S. Lanes), Ivel, Lark, Leam, Linnet 
(Suffolk, ' a play name '), Lyme, Manifold (Staffs), Mite, 
Ousel, Ray, Rea, Rede, Rye (Yorks), Soar, Stort, Swift, 
Waver, Wythburn. To take the first three only by way of 
illustration. Anker is a unique name of its sort, and com- 
memorates the dwelling of ancres, or female anchorites, at 
Nun-eaton. The Bure is possibly Frisian in name, its root 
the same as O.E. borian, to bore, Sc. bure and Du. boor, an 
auger ; while the Coquet is the Coc-wuda or ' cock wood ' of the 
very old history of St. Cuthbert. England has few mountains, 
a good many hills. As is but natural, most of these have 
Keltic names, though one has always to be on guard against 
traps. Inkpen Beacon, S. Berks, e.g., looks very like a 
tautology, with English beacon (O.E. been, bedcen) =W.penn. 
But it is not so, for Inkpen is ' Inga's pen ' or sheep-fold, just 
as Inkberrow, Worcester, is pure Enghsh for ' Inta's hill.' 
Beacon we find again several times, as in Worcestershire 
Beacon, etc. The regular O.E. word for ' a hill,' and then 
' fort on a hill ' — most hiUs once had their forts — is diHn; seen 
in ' the Downs, ' and in a good many names like Dunham, 
Dunmow, etc. Hill itself, in the Midlands hull, is good 
English from the earhest times ; but the common endings for 
' hill,' like ' fell ' and ' pike,' are generally Norse ; -ridge is half 
and half. Pure English are such curious names as Harrison 
Stickle, and all the Barrows and Berrows and Brows, as in 
Berry Brow ; so likewise the Tippings, Roseberry, Blackham, 
etc.. Tipping, in the E. Riding. 


The English influence on our nomenclature may perhaps 

best be studied further in connection with the common endings, 

detailed in our chapter on Endings (p. 46). We there learn 

how many of our names once described a lea or meadow (-ley, 

-leigh), how many a meadow by a river (' a hohn '), how many a 

' haugh,' or flat land by a river (O.E. Tiealh, dative hale, ' a comer, 

a nook '), found in hundreds of names now as -haU ; though this 

has nothing to do with our modern English hall. But we must 

beware of concluding too hastily that any name with an 

English-looking ending must be English ; -dale and -holm look 

EngHsh enough, but wiU often, the former perhaps always, be 

found to be Norse. Very common is -mere, ' a lake ' — ten times 

in Cheshire alone — often now -mer, as in Cromer, Dunmer, 

Wahner, etc. ; while the -mere may be attached to a non- 

Enghsh name, as in Windermere ; and nowadays in the south 

the mere has generally disappeared, altogether drained long 

ago. The endings -grave and -barrow often survive to tell 

of an old place of sepulture — Belgrave, Gargrave, etc, — whilst 

-or and -over are also common, representing two distinct O.E. 

words, ora and ofr, both meaning ' bank, edge, shore.' Cumnor 

is the former, e.g., and Hadsor the latter. The ofr often gets 

clipped down into -er, as in Hasler, Wooler, etc. 

There is almost no commoner ending than -ford, showing the 
extreme importance of the ford in the early bridgeless days. 
Ford and caster are much the commonest endings in Bede, 
whilst names in -bridge are very rare before the Norman 
Conquest. Among the very few exceptions are Bridgenorth 
and Quatbridge, (Salop), and Cambridge, found in O.E. 
Chron., 875, as Grantebrycge. Agbrigg (S. Yorks), Sawbridge 
(Daventry), Bridgford (Staffs), and Slimbridge (Glo'ster), are 
already in Domesday, but not many more. In shires hke 
Berkshire and Cheshire there are no early names in bridge 
at aU. 

The origin and boundary-making of the shires with English 
names has not yet been fully worked out ; but this much is 
clear: that the five great Danish boroughs — Derby, Leicester, 
Nottingham, Lincoln, and Northampton — and the districts 
around themwhich ' obeyed ' them, as the Chronicle often says, 
formed the nucleus of the five modem counties with these 
names. Similar Danish influence organized Hunts, Cambridge, 


Bedford, and Herts. ' Each of these counties had a jarl, or 
earl, whose headquarters were at the " borough." ' Thus 
most of the counties in old Mercia shaped themselves naturally 
rather than ' artificially,' as Freeman puts it. In Wessex the 
counties still retain the names of the princedoms founded by 
the successors of Cerdic. In some of them there was no out- 
standing borough, and even though the shire may contain a 
town of the same name, it was seldom called directly after that 
borough. ' Local divisions in Wessex were not made, but 

When we come to town and village names, by far the most 
important item in our repertoire, we find that they are over- 
whelmingly English, and, for the most part, tell us over and 
over again, with aggravating monotony, how that an English- 
man's house was and is his castle. To understand this group 
of names, one must first master what has to be said about 
-burgh or -bury, about the two -hams, about -ton (always inter- 
changing with -don and -stone), and about their compound 
Hampton, all of which originally implied an enclosure, prob- 
ably always at first fortified or capable of defence. One must 
also learn about -ing which gives a tail as well as a tale to 
so many English names, and is not by any means always a 
patronjnnic. Thence we learn that the overwhelming major- 
ity of our place-names teach us simply that thi.i was So-and- 
so's town or home. The chances always are that the first part 
of an English town or village name denotes the name of some 
man or woman, its founder or former owner. Wolverhamp- 
Tour has nothing to do with wolves, but with the Lady Wulf- 
runa. Chtllingham has nothing to do with ' chilly,' but with 
a man Cilia, just as Cardington is from a man Gar da, and 
SuNNiNGHiLL is ' hiU of the Sunnings.' A good many town 
and village names indicate their stance upon a river — names 
like Cheltenham, ' home on the Chelt ' ; Chorley, ' meadow on 
the Chor ' ; Crediton, ' town on the Greedy ' — though it is always 
to be remembered that the present names of rivers and brooks 
are often back formations, and that Chelt and Creedy may 
have originally been names of men. In like manner, Pin is 
but a recent back - formation from Pinner, Rom from 
RoMFORB, Yeo from Yeovil, as well as Chehner from 


Our great business, then, in connection with most names, 
really is to find out what man's name is therein denoted or 
included. Here some such guide as Searle's Onomasticon is 
indispensable, to be used, of course, after learning the phonetic 
lessons already insisted on. Searle took enormous pains to 
render his work as complete as possible, and yet the investi- 
gator is for ever finding how incomplete it still is. A run 
through any part of our list will soon show this. To take 
one example, Searle gives no name Elk or Elc, and yet 
we find two Elkstones, which make it extremely likely that 
Elk must have been a proper as well as a common noun. Many 
cases are more certain than this; e.g., the old forms of that 
puzzling-looking Cambs name B Abraham make it certain there 
must once have been a woman caUed Badburh, though Searle 
knoweth her not. He gives us no Beorc, but it is certain that 
Birch was very early the name of a man as weU as the name 
of a tree (see Barking and Barkley). It would be easy to 
multiply such examples indefinitely. 

The way in which O.E, proper names have become dis- 
torted or corrupted is very extraordinary, though Dr. Skeat 
always insisted that everything moved and worked according 
to phonetic law ; so that even such a desperate change as Sea- 
court, Berks, for ' Seofeca's worth, ' or farm, was shown to be 
all correct ! Though names like that are indeed a warning 
against all rash attempts to guess without evidence. Not far 
from Seacourt is Courage, and Courage is really ' Cusa's ridge ' ! 
And who would ever think that EUastone, Staffs, was originally 
' ^thelac's town ' ; that Shareshill in the same shire was once 
' Sceorf's hill '; or Stramshall once ' Stranglic's hiU '; or that 
Aberford, Adderbury, and Harbtjry all embody the one 
protean name Eadburh ? It has always to be borne in mind, 
also, that two villages with the same title to-day may have 
been derived from two quite different names yesterday. The 
very first names in our List show us how wary we need to 
be. Abberley actually was bom as 'Eadbeald's lea,' whilst 
Abberton, in the same shire, was at first ' Eadbeorht's town,' 
and its modern twin near Colchester comes from a woman 
Eadburh. Even more extraordinary is it to find that such a 
name as Adbaston, Salop, came originally from the same man's 
name as Abberley. 


But the disappointing thing is, that when, after much 
patient labour, we do find out the correct personal name em- 
balmed or embodied in the place-name, that is nearly always 
all we get for our pains. Stat nominis umbra. The Saxon, 
unlike the more modest and poetic Kelt, dearly loved to com- 
memorate himself, or, at any rate, his own family name, in a 
manor or farm or village. But, in a few generations, the 
history of the name is totally forgotten, and posterity can tell 
naught thereof. Only in a very few cases can we tell the story 
of the lord or lady, the abbot or monk, founder or name-giver, 
to the place. Malmesbury, Tewkesbury, Wolverhampton, 
are such cases ; there are not many altogether. Kingly names, 
hke those of the great Alfreds, Edwards, and Harolds, are, 
strange to say, scarcely represented at all. It is interesting 
to note, however, how often very old personal names, first 
found in some out-of-the-way place-name, still survive, and are 
in use to-day. Examples are — the personal name Gammell or 
Gemmel, found in Ganthorpe, Domesday Gameltorp ; Gentle 
or Gentles, in Gentleshaw, Rugeley, where a Jo. Gentyl is 
known in 1341; Gilhng in GiUingham, 1016 Gillingaham ; Gould 
or Gold in Goldsborough, Domesday Goldeburg ; and so on. 

Some of our simple names, names of towns and hamlets, not 
called after any princess or thane or any other person, are 
extremely common. Few can be aware how common some 
of them are ; here are some calculations which have been made : 
There are in England, it is said, 87 Newtons (47 in combina- 
tion, 40 alone), not reckoning Newtowns; 72 Buttons (36 in 
combination, exactly half) ; 63 Stokes ; 52 Westons (also exactly 
haK in combination); 47 Thorps (26 in combination); Walton, 
Upton, and Stone occur over thirty times each; there are 
21 Kirbys and 21 Leighs; and Hutton, Kingston, and Thornton 
are very common too. 

Seebohm, in his English Village Community (1883), p. 362, 
speaks of ' the hasty conclusion that the Saxons were totem- 
ists.' Yet not a Httle evidence seems at least to point that 
way. It is certain that many a village was called after the 
name of a beast — boar, lamb, ox, sheep, whale, wolf, etc. The 
only question is, Was the beast's name first applied to a man 
before it became applied to the village ? (See such names as 
Everthorpe and Everton, Whalley, etc.) 


Of modern whimsical names, like Four Throws, Hawkhurst, 
or Besses o' th' Barn andlClock Face (Lanes), England has 
singularly few — fewer far, in proportion, than Wales. 

The Common Element. 

Before we proceed to the study of the second great Teutonic 
element in our place-names, the Scandinavian, it will be inter- 
esting and instructive to remind ourselves how large is the 
element common not only to our Norse and purely English 
names, but common also to our Continental neighbours in the 
homes of our ancestors. At least a few of our name-endings 
may have originated either on Saxon or on Scandinavian lips — 
e.g., the common -thorpe and -hope; but when careful scrutiny 
is made, -thorpe will be found almost always Danish, and -hope 
almost always pure Enghsh. Thorpe is, of course, the cognate 
of the German dorf, 'village,' as in Diisseldorf, Waldorf, etc., 
found in Schleswig in the form Gottorp, and in Dutch as 
Apel-dorp, Leydendorp, etc., though -dorp is not nearly so 
common as our English -thorpe; in S. Africa, however, it is 
common enough — Krugersdorp, etc. Holm may come from 
either branch too; but if it mean 'a meadow,' it will 
probably be English, whilst if it mean ' a flat island,' just as in 
Bornholm, Salthohn, and many another such name in Denmark, 
it will be Danish. 

One of our commonest endings is -burgh or -bury; it is just 
as common both in Germany and Scandinavia. In Germany 
it is usually -burg, as in Hamburg, Magdeburg, and scores of 
other cases. In Denmark it may be -burg, as in Flensburg, or 
-borg, as in Viborg ; and -borg is as common all over Sweden 
and Norway. In Holland it is -burg, as in Doesburg, Elburg, 
etc. ; or else -berg, as in Geertruidenberg, 's Heeringberg, etc. 
In Norse names, -ham, ' home,' is not so common as in Eng- 
land ; but we have weU-known cases like Stal-heim and Trond- 
hjem. In Sweden it appears as Lofta-hammer,^ Sand- 
hammer, etc. (Icel. heim-r, ' village '). In Germany the ending 
-heim is exceedingly common — Hildesheim, Mannheim, etc. ; in 
Holland we have a few places ending as in England — e.g., Den- 
ham (Overyssel), as well as names like Arn-hem, Deutic-hem, 

* Some hold that here hammer means a square-shaped rock. 


etc. Names like Denham suggest a Frisian origin for our 
common -ham. 

The common English -stead is, of course, even commoner in 
Germany as -stadt, where it is one of the most frequent endings 
for ' town ' ; as -stadt it is almost equally prominent in Scan- 
dinavia and Dutch S. Africa, though hardly so in the Dutch 
motherland. The specially frequent Enghsh -ton does not 
seem represented on the Continent; but the less common and 
often intermingled -stone is very conspicuous on the map of 
Germany as -stein — Ehrenbreitstein, Oberlahnstein, etc. 
Havens are naturally common in most Teutonic lands — Bre- 
merhaven, Cuxhaven, etc., in Germany; Kjobnhavn (Copen- 
hagen), Frederikshavn, etc., in Denmark; in Sweden it is 
often -hamn (Icel. hofn), as in Slitehamn, Soderhamn, etc. ; but 
in Holland it occurs, though rarely, as with ourselves — 
Brouwershaven, etc. Holland, perhaps alone, gives us a 
counterpart of the common English -wick or -wich, ' dwelling,' 
as in Harder-wijk, Steen-wijk, etc. ; but if -kirk is common in 
N. England, names like Nijkerk or NeuMrch are common alike 
in Holland and Germany ; whilst the similar North of England 
-dale is common everywhere in Scandinavia as -dal, and in 
Grermany as -thai, ' valley ' — Neanderthal, etc. England has 
only one firth, that of Solway; but the common Norse -fjord 
reappears in Wales as Haver-ford, Milford, etc. The ending 
-by in England vies for frequency with -ton; and it certainly 
is represented abroad, especially in Sweden. In the one Uttle 
island of Oland there are five marked on an ordinary map. 
(See also Chtpping, etc.) 



In England, as in Scotland, the Scandinavian element is not 
only important, but obtrusive. To-day Denmark, Sweden, 
and Norway are each separate kingdoms, with separate lan- 
guages, though these are closely akin, and, to a large extent, 
mutually understandable. But in the days when our place- 
names were in the making, practically the same tongue was 
spoken all over Scandinavia, in Iceland and the Faroes too. 
The dictionary which we need chiefly to consult is the Icelandic, 
which is, to aU intents and purposes. Old Norse ; though some- 
times it is modem Danish which yields the most helpful forms 
for our exegesis. We commonly call the people who spake this 
tongue Norsemen ; the Old EngUsh chroniclers mostly call them 
Danes ; whilst, when they went away south and settled on the 
north coast of France, or far away in Sicily, we generally find 
them called Northmen or Normans. Need, ' hunger, lust for 
booty and adventure, and the scantness of their arable fields at 
home, combined to drive these hardy sea-lovers wide and far. 
And, though they always came at first with coat of mail and 
battle-axe, often they speedily settled down among us, and 
made admirable colonists, diligent practitioners in the arts 
and crafts of peace. 

Into aU the details of the Viking's many invasions of Eng- 
land, Wales, and Man we need not go again. The student can 
easily learn what he wants in the proper histories. Here, for 
. our purposes, we need give but the barest outline of facts and 
dates. The first Danish invasion might, perhaps, be termed 
that of the coming of the Jutes to Kent in 449. But it is at 
least doubtful if these Jutes ever lived in Jutland ; and, in any 
case, they were, in blood and speech, much nearer to the 
Angle and Saxon than the Norse. When the first Viking 



beached his boat on English sand we do not know; but men 
from the Hardanger landed near Dorchester in the reign of 
Beorhtric of Wessex, 786-802; and the first dated invasion is 
the sacking of Lindisfarne, in the extreme north, in 793. 
Vikings were very fond of sacking monasteries and seizing 
their sacred spoils, as many a Columban monk to his cost did 
find ; and, having come once, they oft came again. 

Glamorgan saw them in 795, and rocky little lona in 802; 
whilst already by 830 they had paid visits as far away as 
Cornwall. Before 850 they had overrun East Anglia (Norfolk 
and Suffolk), whilst in 855 Danes first wintered in Sheppey. 
Stronger and stronger they grew in our midst, as sore-pressed 
King Alfred was made to feel. But by-and-by the tide turned, 
and in 886 Alfred made his weU-known treaty with Guthrun, 
King of the Danes. In it the boundary between English and 
Danish rule was agreed to be, the R. Thames from its source 
east to the source of the R. Lea, then north-west to Bedford, 
and up the R. Ouse to the Roman Wathng Street, and so by it 
probably west aU. the way to Chester. All north of this fine 
was the Dane's, all south thereof Alfred's. The latter, be it 
noted, held Chester. Had the Danes held it, it would have 
been called Caster to-day (see p. 49). In 954 the English over- 
threw the Dane's rule in Deira (Yorks), whilst, be it carefully 
noted, Cumbria and Bernicia (Northumberland and Durham) 
never really came under Danish dominion at aU. 

It is weU known that this rule revived again in England 
under King Swegen, who came from Norway with a huge fleet 
and army, 1013-14, and reigned here for one year only. 
Then, after three years of strife, great King Cnut was able to 
seat himself on England's throne for eighteen years, and 
Danish influence was strong among us, though Cnut thought it 
wise to send the bulk of his Danish troops back to the lands 
from whence they canle. Cnut was succeeded by the two 
brothers, Harold Harefoot and Harthacnut. With the death 
of the latter in 1042, the Danish sceptre passed for ever from 
our midst. We may add, St. Clement Danes was the church of 
a large Danish settlement in London, of whom we are told by 
Ralph de Diceto.-^ - 

Such are the bare facts which the annalist tells: of battle 

^ Vol. i., p. 186, ed. Stubbs. 


and bloodshed much, but of the actual nature of the Danish 
settlement very little. Here the study of place-names comes 
in to offer at least some help. What it has to say about Wales 
will be found on pp. 71 and 72. To begin with, we find that 
Norse names are often strangely rare where the Norseman was 
once only too attentive, in the ancient kingdom of Bernicia 
e.g., from Tyne to Forth. In all Northumberland we can set 
eyes on the merest handful of Norse names. Lucker is sure, 
Brinkbuen and New-biggin-by-the-Sea are probable. On 
the Borders we have a number of ' fells ' — Carter, Fairwood, 
Girdle, and Peel Fells ; but as a rule it is only the ' fell ' which 
is Norse, not the rest of the name. There are a rare -giU or 
two, and a few dales — ^Allendale, etc. — but that is all. 

On the other hand, place-names clearly show Danish settle- 
ment where there never was Danish rule — viz., in Cumbria 
proper (Cumberland and Westmorland), which simply teems 
with names Danish rather than Norse, of all sorts ; perhaps the 
Danes first came over from their Uttle kingdom in the Isle of 
Man. In Cumbria, Dane and Gael or Brython must have been 
in close contact for many a day; and occasionally the Scan- 
dinavian borrowed a word from the Kelt. The best-known 
instance is the G. airigh, ' a shiehng, a shepherd's or herds- 
man's hut,' which the incomers shaped into -argh, -ark, or -ergh, 
as in Akklid and Pavey Ark, Sizergh (Kendal), and as far 
south as Grimsargh, Preston. Final -gh in Gaehc is now 
generally mute, but it does at times become guttural. The 
purely Scandinavian endings -beck, -by, -fell, -force {Jors, 
' waterfall '), -gill, -thorpe, -thwaite, are found everywhere in 
this region; it would be superfluous to give examples. More- 
over, some of these are almost or quite peculiar to it and to the 
closely neighbouring parts — e.g., -beck, -fell, -force, -gill, 
-thwaite. This would seem to indicate that some special divi- 
sion of the Scandinavian race must have been the settlers here. 
Yet it is very difficult for us now to say which or what it was, 
because, as we have seen. Old Norse was so largely a homo- 
geneous language. Sweden, at any rate, may be ruled out. 
Runes show that some Swedes did settle in England, but only 
as individuals, never in force; and, as for the rest, medieval 
chroniclers never seem to know any difference between Dani 
and Nordmanni. (It is usually held, however, that East 


Anglia and the region of the five boroughs — Derby, Leicester, 
Lincohi, Nottingham, and Northampton — were peculiarly 

An ending like -beck occurs farther south as -bach or 
even -beach, only now as English; and -force, it may be said, 
is so rare in the south, because waterfalls are so rare there 
too; the same reason might, perhaps, be urged as to -fell. 
But why should an ending like -gill be confined almost, though 
not altogether, to the north ? And, even more singular, why 
should -thwaite — ' an enclosed or cut- off piece of land ' — • 
never seemingly be found farther south or east^ than the 
neighbourhood of Huddersfield ? All we can say is, the many 
-thwaites in such a hiUy, rocky land as Cumberland is very 
fair proof that the Danish settlers there as a rule must have 
been, not blood-thirsty pirates, but peaceful and most indus- 
trious peasants, eager to make the best of things, just like their 
Norse kinsmen to-day. 

Another thing indicated by our surviving place-names is 
this : that Scandinavian influence in England remained strong 
enough to give and establish many names long after the Danish 
sceptre had fallen down ; and that means a good deal. In proof 
of this, we point to such facts as these : that in Cheshire to-day 
we can still find at least fifteen Norse names ; but of these only 
four seem to be foimd in Domesday, compiled 1086-87. This 
seems to show that a good many of these fifteen names did not 
come into being until a good while after the Norman Conquest.- 
In Cambs, which has curiously few Danish names, out of the 
five given by Skeat, four are in Domesday ; and, what is note- 
worthy, one of these four, Staine, has clearly been renamed 
by Danish lips, after Domesday. Duignan has not worked out 
the Norse influence in his books on Stafford and Warwick, and 
it is stronger in N.E. Staffs and in Warwick than his readers 
might think. We have traced eight clear cases in Staffs and 
about eleven in Warwick; six of the Staffs cases are in Domes- 
day, in Warwick three, whilst other two are found in O.E. 
charters ; but Rugby and Monk's Kirby have been altered by 
Danish tongues after Domesday. 

On the other hand, whilst history distinctly teUs of Viking 
visits to Cornwall in the middle of the ninth century, one could 
^ But Eastwood, Notts, used to be Easthwaite. 


scarcely have guessed it from the present-day names of that 
peninsula. This is all the more curious seeing that Norse 
names are so common on the south coast of Wales. All over 
the south coast of England, however, such names are very 
rare, until we come round east to Kent. There seems one 
curious exception in Bonchurch, Isle of Wight (Domesday, 
Bonecerce), which must surely tell of some Norse landing; or 
can it be a real old Jute name ? In Kent Norse names re- 
appear sparsely. We have two or three -giUs, and two weU- 
known -nesses, though it is possible that both Dungeness and 
Sheerness may be pure English. Nore is Norse, clear 
enough (' a bay with a narrow entrance ') ; and then there are 
the names in -child, to which M'Clure has called pointed atten- 
tion, especially Bapchild, found in O.E. Chron., 694, as Baccan 
celde or ' Bacca's weU.' This is interestinglyj even pro- 
vokingly, early. But the -child of Bapchild must be the same 
as the common ending -keld (O.N. kelda) in the north — Salkeld 
(' salt spring '), Threlkeld, etc. This, strange to teU, is also 
the root of St. Eolda, which, as is now well known, is no saint's 
name at aU. In a Kentish charter of 858 we also find a Hwyte 
Celda, or ' white well ' ; and there is still in Romney Marsh a 
Honeyckeld (' honey-sweet well '). Such names may weU be 
claimed for the Norsemen; and reference to the Jutes, who 
arrived in Kent in the fifth century, seems hardly in place, 
because, so far as we know, the Jute speech was English in 
type, not Norse. So, then, there were Norse settlers in Kent 
c. 694, of whom we have no direct historic record. With them 
we may venture to associate the men who named the few sur- 
viving ' giUs ' in Surrey and Sussex — GiU's lop. Heron's GhyU, 

When we come to survey as a whole the surviving evidence 
of the presence of the ' hardy Norseman ' in our midst, we find 
that it corresponds nearly, but by no means quite, with what 
we should expect from the historic evidence. The Danelagh, 
or that region of England where Danish law did rule, is said to 
have comprised at its widest aU the shires from Yorks south to 
Essex, Beds, Herts, and Bucks, and west to Notts, Derby, 
Leicester, and Northants. Now, Worsaae, in his Danes in 
England, estimated that of 1,373 Danish names in aU, over 
400 are in Yorks, 292 in Lincoln, 90 in Leicester ; in Norfolk 


and Northants about 50 each. These are all Danelagh shires.' 
But Cumberland and Westmorland have about 150 each too, 
and Lancashire, he says, about 50. But Mr. Sephton has, 
much more recently, estimated the Scandinavian names in 
Lanes at about 90. What he says is, that of 500 Lanes names 
on record before 1500, about 80 per cent, are Low German, 
18 per cent. Scandinavian, and only 2 per cent. Keltic. Wor- 
saae estimated that 14 other counties had 130 Danish names 
between them, and 18 counties none at all; or, to put it other- 
wise, about 1,000 of our Danish names lie within the old 
Danelagh, and only about 400 outside. 

So far as Yorkshire is concerned, mark and sign of the 
Dane, in place-name ending, is so ample that it would be a 
superfluity to dwell upon it. The same is true of Lincoln, 
most Scandinavian of all our shires, though little Rutland is 
very Danish too. As we come south, however, the mark and 
sign grow less clear, and in Hunts, Beds, Cambs, and Herts 
the trace is very sUght indeed. The most useful endings to 
take as guides or clues are -bie or -by, -caster, and -thorpe, 
and perhaps -toft. The ending -by, signifying simply ' a 
house, dwelling, or little settlement,' is ubiquitous. In Lin- 
coln alone we find it 212 times; in Norfolk there is quite a 
cluster round Great Yarmouth, the cluster extending as far 
as Barnaby, south of Lowestoft, in Suffolk; in the rest of 
Suffolk sign of Dane is rare to see.^ But -by holds on along the 
coast as far south as Kirby Cross and Kirby-le-Soken, near 
Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex. Then it seems to disappear, and 
not to emerge again until we reach the many inlets of Pembroke. 
Inland, -by ranges south to Badby, south of Daventry (North- 
ants), and west to Rugby (Warwick) — a shire not reckoned in 
the Danelagh. But, common though the ending be, there is not 
a single specimen in Cambs or in any of the southmost counties 
of the Danelagh, which shows how brief and shallow Danish 
influence there must have been. At the Danes' northern limit, 
Co. Durham, -by is said to occur four times, no more. 

The ending-caster is also somewhat of a guide to the Dane's 
presence, but by no means one so sure or serviceable as -by. 
Norse tongues alone preserved the Roman hard c in castrum 
or castra. On the lips of the Saxon, aided by the Norman, the 

^ But cf. Thingoe, etc. 



c has always softened into -cester or -Chester. E.g., the form 
is always -Chester even in Durham (Chester-le-Street, etc.) and 
Northmnberland (the Chesters, Hexham, etc.). But in Cum- 
berland we find the form to be Mun-caster ; in Lancashire, Lan- 
caster itself ; in Yorks, Don-caster ; in Lincoln, An-caster ; and, 
as far south as the north-west corner of Norfolk, we have one 
example in Bran-caster. But, as showing that Danish influence 
was far from all-powerful, even in its own territories, we have 
such weU-known names as Lei-cester, Chester-field, and Man- 
chester, as weU as Rib-chester, north-east of Preston. The 
ending -thorpe is also interesting and instructive to work with. 
Many would say that thorpe is quite an English word, and no 
sure token of Danish residence at all. But, as the Oxford Dic- 
tionary wiU show, thorpe in any form is a very rare word in older 
English; and, in any case, the true English form is trop or 
throp, found in place-names in almost purely English quarters ; 
only, very rarely. We have, e.g., Adlestrop, Chipping Norton, 
Pindrup, Upthrup, Westrip, and Wolstrop, all in Gloucester, 
and Staindrop (' stone-built village ') in S. Durham ; also at 
least once in Yorks, Wilstrop; besides, we have Thrupp both 
in mid-Oxford and S. Northants; and we have a Throope 
away down beside Christchurch, Hants. We have Thorpes, 
too, where any other Danish forms are very uncommon — e.g., 
Thorpe Thowles, north of Stockton-on-Tees; Thorpe-le-Soken, 
Essex; Thorpe Morieux, Bury St. Edmunds; and plain 
Thorpe, Leiston, Suffolk. But the only Thorpe in the Postal 
Guide, which is in a distinctly English district, is Thorpe, 
Chertsey. We thus are pretty safe in taking -thorpe as a mark 
of the Dane. It is particularly common in Yorks and Lines 
(there are sixty-three in all), and quite common in Norfolk; 
but as an ending it is very rare south thereof. Its other 
southern^ and also its western limit seems to be Eathorpe, 
Leamington, another proof of Danish influence outside the 
Danelagh; and we have Thorpe Constantino near Tamworth; 
Not so common an ending as -thorpe is -toft ('homestead'), 
though common enough in Yorks and Lines. In five cases it 
stands alone, and it occurs not only in the most Danish parts 

1 But also note, Upthorpe, Hunts, which seems to have been 
Upeforde in Dom. Astrope (Herts), ' East Thorpe,' gives us the English, 
not the Scandinavian, form. 


of tlie Danelagh, but also in Cambs and Suffolk, and in 
un-Danish Durham, in Toft Hill, Bishop Auckland. 

In Wales the Viking has left his permanent stamp on many a 
bit of the coast ; not so in England, because it is conspicuous for 
its absence of bays and fjords, unless it be in Essex and Cornwall. 
To Sheerness, Nore, and Dungeness in the south-east we have 
already referred. There seems little else in the way of name 
with Danish cast upon our seashore, until you reach the very 
Borders, where Solway Fieth is a doubly Norse name. The 
name Solway, though it has been much disputed, is almost 
certainly the O.N. sol-vag-r ('muddy bay,') the ending being 
often paralleled in Scotland (in Stornoway, Scalloway, etc.) 
Some of the many nesses or headlands between Lincoln and 
Kent — Skegness, Winterton Ness (Norfolk), the Naze, etc. — 
may have been named by the Vikings, but perhaps not in a 
single case is this certain — not even Skegness, which is a tau- 
tology, Skeg- being O.N. and -ness O.E. for ' headland.' One 
should perhaps refer here also to such a name as Airmyn, near 
the mouth of the Yorks Ouse, which is ' mouth of the R. Aire ' 
(also a N. name), from O.N. munn-r, ' mouth.' On the north 
coast of Scotland goe (O.N. gjd, ' gap, cleft ') is very common. 
In smooth-shored England we seem to have none, though 
inland, near CarHsle, there stands Cargo (? 'rock-gap '); but old 
forms are needed here. It may weU be ' Carig's hoe ' or ' how.' 

The chief mountain ending which comes to us from a Norse 
source is -fell, very common in the south of Scotland for a ' bare 
ridge, a stretch of waste hill land, ' and no less common on the 
Borders in Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, 
and down as far as Littledale Fell, south-east of Lancaster. 
Beyond that fell does not seem to go. 

Of rivers in England with Scandinavian names we have but 
few. River-names, as we have found, are usually very ancient, 
and are 'sweer,' as the Scots say, to change their names. 
There are, or were, in England, at least three rivers called 
Fleet ; the London one has now disappeared. And Fleet might 
be O.N. fijdt as well as O.E. fiedt, 'river, stream,' in either 
case the root idea being ' fleet, swift.' But probably all three, 
as well as Fleetwood, Lanes, are not Norse; Fleet, Hants, 
certainly is not. However, we do have a few clearly Danish- 
named streams — the Aire, Greta, and Wharf e, in Yorks; the 


Mease and Tern, in Staffs; and there may be others. The 
names just mentioned will each be found explained s.v. The 
old fords on our rivers far oftener show sign of Danish visitors 
than the rivers themselves. When this is so the Danish 
tongues have softened ford into forth — a very common ending 
in Cumbria and Yorks — but also found farther south, as in 
Handforth, N. Cheshire, and even at Forth End, Chelmsford; 
whilst Marlingford, Norwich, was Marlingforth as late as 1482. 

The chief Scandinavian endings not yet fully commented 
on are -beck and -with, found together with another character- 
istic ending -shaw, in Beckwithshaw, Harrogate, a hybrid 
name, where O.E. scaga is = Norse with, ' a wood.' The Scan- 
dinavian -beck is very close to the English -bach, and runs into 
it in S. Lines (see s.v. -beck). Becks, or ' brooks,' are common 
in the north-west, whilst in Durham we have Harwood Beck 
and Beechburn Beck. Wansbeck, the only one in Northum- 
berland, is a modern corruption. South of Lincoln they are not 
found. The ending -with (O.N. vid-r, Dan. ved., ' a wood ') 
is common in Yorks, as in Askwith, of course the same name 
as that of our present Prime Minister and of our peerless arbi- 
trator; also in Beckwith and Skipwith (which occurs again in 
S.E. Cumberland); yet even in very Danish Lincoln it now 
occurs but once, though it may recur in, or rather, there may 
have been similar Danish influence in, Chabnwood Forest, 
Leicester; c. 1165 Charnewid. 

Clear traces of Scandinavian mythology in our nomenclature 
are not frequent. Thor, the brave thunder-god, and Odin, 
ruler of heaven and earth, are commemorated often enough. 
But Thor in our place-names seems generally found originally 
in its Saxon form Thunor, as it certainly is in Thundersley, 
and as it probably is in all names in Thur- : Thitiileigh, Thtjr- 
liOW, etc. Similarly, Odin is found in our names perhaps only 
in his Saxon or Teutonic form Wodin (also Waden, Weden ; in 
Simeon of Durham, however, Othan); but in this shape it 
occurs frequently. Names of ordinary Norsemen crop up 
continually, especially in names ending in -by north of the 
Trent. The names in Butter-, like Buttermere, probably 
conceal or reveal a good many cases of Norse settlement. We 
may even find a Norseman in Windermere too, as well as in — 
to take, for example, a group at the end of Osbournby, 


Osgathorpe, Osgodby, Osmotherley (' meadow of Osmund-r ' !), 
Oughtrington ('town of Authgrim-r ' !). In such places the 
Norsemen's names have become greatly disguised and dis- 
torted — twisted, indeed, almost out of recognition — by tongues 
which knew not the men or the race which owned the names. 
Gamston and Ganthorpe, both from Gamel (' gamle Norge '!), 
are other interesting cases in point ; so is Gothersley, for ' Good- 
rich's lea ' ; and the subject has by no means been fully worked 
out yet. 

Rough List of Scandinavian Names in the Sheres where 


Cambridge. — Bourne, Brink-ley, Carl-ton, Staine, Toft. 
Cheshire. — Ayre (Point of), Chad-kirk, Frankby, Greasby, 

Helsby, ? Helstry, Irby, Earby West, Ness, Pensby, Quoys- 

ley, Raby, Thing- weU, Toft Hall, Whitby. 
Durham. — Butterby, ? Newbiggin, (Pontop and West) Pike, 

Raby, Roker, Tantobie, Toft (Hill), Wasker-ley. 
Northumberland. — Brink-burn, Lucker, New-biggin-by-the- 

Sea ; also the endings -dale, -fell, and -gill in several names 

Stafford. — Carr, Cheadle, Crake-marsh, Leek, Tern R., Thorpe 

(Constantine), Uttoxeter, Yarlett. 
Wi»RWiCK. — Biggin (2), Brinklow, (Monk's) Kirby, Prinsthorpe, 

Rugby, ? Tardebigge, Toft, Wibtoft, WiUoughby. 
Worcester. — Clent, ? Hag-ley, ? Sme-ster. 



In the case of English place-names a knowledge of the endings 
is quite half the battle ; and so we now set forth the chief of 
these in some detail. The student will find this section well 
worth mastering. He should first consult the Abbreviations, 
p. 87. 

-age is a rare and always puzzling ending, often not a true 
ending at all. In Wantage, e.g., it seems quite modern, 
whilst in Buebage the ending is reaUy -bage, modern form 
of O.E. bece, ' brook.' The sequence is -beck, -back, -bach, 
-batch, -baitch, -bage; and aU these forms are found 
represented among our names and their pronunciations. 
In CocKNAGE and Stevenage the -age is O.E. h)cecce, 
'hatch'; whilst Swan age is O.E. Swanawic, 'swan's 
haunt '; and Broomage, Larbert, Scotland, is 1458 Bru- 
minche, or 'broom, gorse links,' or 'meadow.' Cranage 
may be like Swanage, ' crane's abode,' but Ceessage 
seems to be ' crest edge.' 
-ay, -ea, -ey, -y. — These all represent, though -y only some- 
times, the O.E. ig, ' island ' ; ig is Wessex, the AngHan and 
O. Mercian is eg, in M.E. -ei, -ey, from O.E. ea, ' stream, 
river, brook ' ; so that the root idea is ' watery place, ' 
not only an island, but a peninsula — as often, Selsea, 
Bawdsey (HoUesley Bay), etc. — or any place surrounded 
with brooks or streams, or even a marshy place. Most 
places now with this ending can never have been true 
islands. Berks, e.g., has nine examples; and we not only 
have the Isle of Anglesea (O.E. Chron. Angles ege), but 
also an Anglesea Priory, Cambs. Places like Pevensea, 



Swansea, etc., are also cases in point. In the north -ey 
may be the O.N. ey, Dan. oe, with the same meaning 
But few English names in -ey are certainly Norse. The 
ending -y certainly sometimes represents ' island, ' as in 
Lmidy Island; and Skeat gives Coveny and Wendy in 
Cambs, but he refused Ely, Bede's Elge, or ' district ' 
not 'island of eels;' ge being rare O.E. = Ger. gau, 
what Bede calls 'regio.' In Marrick, Dom. Marige, 
N. Yorks, -ige has seemingly hardened into -ick; this 
is rare. 

-bach, -beach, -beck. — O.N. bekk-r, Sw. hack, 'a brook, a stream.' 
Not in Northumberland, where Wansbeck is a recent cor- 
ruption of Wannys pike; but we have a ' Bolebec,' in 1157 
Pipe Roll, Northumberland. It is found still, however, in 
Durham, in some tributaries of the Wear, where we even 
have a Beechburn Beck ! It is common in Cumbria and 
Yorks — Hokne Beck, Troutbeck, etc. — but perhaps not 
farther south than Lines. One of the most southerly is 
PmcHBECK, Spalding; but as that is already found in an 
810 charter Pyncebek, the -beck here is probably the O.E. 
bece or bcsc, found in this same charter in Holebech or 
Holbeach, in the same district, with the same meaning. 
Bach, also bache, and -batch, is a regular dialect name for 
'brook,' common especially in Cheshire — Bache, Com- 
BEEBATCH, Sandbach, etc. ; whilst in Dom. we have here 
a Bachehe. The O.N. gen. of beck — viz., bekkjar — is 
found in the two Beckermets, ' mouth of the brook ' ; 
whilst, as we noted above, Btjubage is, in 961, Burh- 

-borne, -bourne, -burn. — This last is now only northern, but all 
three are forms of O.E. burna, burne, burn, O.N. brunn-r, 
originally ' a spring, a fountain,' then ' a brook, a rivulet.' 
In Northumberland -bum is common, as in Scotland, 
Hartburn, Otterburn, Warkburn, etc.; in Cumberland it 
is rarer — Greensburn, near the Border, etc. Tributaries of 
the Wear vary between -bum and -beck; south thereof 
-burn ceases, and -borne or -bourne becomes common 
nearly everywhere. In old spellings in Berks, Cambs, etc., 
we have -burn or -burne, but not now. In Mary-le-6one, 
London, the r of bourne has vanished. 


-boro\ -horotigh, -burgh, -hury, all variants of O.E. hur:^, hurh, 2^ 
bure{g)h, ieri^, 3 huri, 3 — 4 borh, ioru (for other forms 
see Oxford Dictionary), ' an enclosed or fortified town ' 
(or village), rather than a simple fort or castle like 
dun, though cf. c. 820 Kent. Gloss., ' ad arcem, to bur^e.' 
The ending is very common all over, especially as -bury; 
-burgh, so common in Scotland, is rare in England ; even in 
the north it is rather -borough — Bamborough, Flam- 
borough, Middlesborough, etc. But we have Burgh-on- 
Sands, on the Solway, pron.^ Bruff, and Burgh, E. Lines. 
The ending has come down to -ber in Bramber {cf. harbour 
and its forms in Oxford Dictionary). The northern ending 
-bergh, as in Caldbergh, Sedbergh, etc., is not from -burgh, 
but is a variant of Barrow. But Farnborough at least 
three times in Dom. ends in -berg(e; and in Denmark 
to-day we have -berg, -borg, and -burg all representing our 
burgh. On the other hand, Crowborough, Leek, is c. 1300, 
Crowbarwe, perhaps dative of O.E. bearu, ' a wood '; and 
Hillborough, Warwick, is, in 710, Hildeburhwrthe, ' farm 
of Hildeburga.' 
-by, -bie. — North. O.E. by, probably adoption of O.N. bce-r, 
by-r, Sw. and Dan. by, 'dwelling, village,' from O.N. biXa, 
' to dwell,' same root as in North, big, ' to build.' Mawer, 
Vikings, p. 124, says it indicates Dan. rather than Norse 
settlement; but this contradicts his own statement (p. 11) 
that Northumbria was Norwegian ; and Yorks is crammed 
with -bys. However, there are only four north of Tees — 
Butterby, Durham, being one of the northmost — and 
there are none in Northumberland. We get the bce-r form 
in Canisbay and Duncansbay, Caithness, but not in Eng- 
land. The ending runs as far south as Badby and Kilsby, 
south of Rugby. There are none in Cambs or Herts, but 
there are several in Norfolk and Suffolk round the mouth 
of the Yare, and we have Kirby Cross and Kirby-le-Soken 
in N.E. Essex. There is also a Laghenbia, in Dom. 
Essex, ? where. There are at least eight in Cheshire, but 
perhaps none in the west to the south of Cheshire. The 

^ The meaning of tliese figures is explained at the end of the 

2 Pronounced. (See Abbreviations.) 


ending reappears in Jersey — Hougie Bie, ' dwelling on the 
-caster, -cester, -Chester. — L. castrum, castra, ' a camp, a fortifica- 
tion ' ; not always a proof of Roman work, though, along 
with -ford, -ceaster is the commonest of all the endings in 
our earliest historian Bede. Outside the Danelagh the c 
usually softened into ch, or from hard c to soft. Thus we 
get many -chesters even in the north — Chesterfield 
(1165 still Cestrefelt), Manchester (1421 still Mame- 
cestre), and even Ribchbster, north-east of Preston. 
Yorks is full of -casters ; and we even have Muncaster, in 
Danish Cumberland ; but in Durham and Northumberland 
the form is always -Chester — Binchester, Ebchester, and 
Rochester (Northumberland). The hard -caster comes as 
far south as Brancaster (King's Lynn), a very Danish 
locahty, but not farther; Warwick has none. The form 
-cester occurs rarely within the Danelagh, as in Leicester, 
and is the regular form in the more southern parts — 
Bicester, Cirencester, Gloucester, Worcester, etc. — 
all these cited being much more contracted on modern lips. 
O.E. ceaster has also become -xeter = cseter, as in Exeter 
and Wroxeter (this form seems late), but not Uttoxeter. 
Once we find the ending as -cetter, in Mancetter, 
Atherstone. (On the origin of the O.E. forms, see 
Caistor. ) 
-comb, -combe. — Common also in Cumberland as a prefix — Cum- 
divock, -rangan, -ranton, -whinton, etc. — ^or separately, as 
in Combe Down, Combe Florey, Combe Martin, etc. The 
proximate root is O.E. cumb, ' a hollow thing '; hence ' a 
bowl,' and then ' a (deep) valley ' or ' a hollow in the flank 
of a hill.' In origin it is probably Keltic, and cognate with 
W. cwm, ' a hollow.' As suffix, it is found chiefly in the 
south, especially in Somerset, Dorset, and Devon — in the 
first commonest of all. In Berks there are four, in Cambs 
none, in Warwick only Walcombe (no old forms), in 
Cheshire only Seacombe, which is at least as old as the 
days of Henry VI.; there is also Holcombe, near Man- 
chester ; and the suffix reappears in the north in Cumber- 
land, Gillercombe, and Glaramara and Langdale Combes, 
etc. ; also at least once in Durham, Escomb (Bishop Auck- 

60 THJ: place-names of ENGLAND AND WALES 

land). But in the north one must be careful to differen- 
tiate from coom sh^ {Oxford Dictionary), * a domelike hill,' 
of uncertain origin, as in Black Combe, White Combe, and 
Hen Comb, Cumberland, and Comb Fell and Combhill, 
Northumberland. Sacombe, Herts, is a corruption, being 
Sueuechamp in Dom. 
-dale. — O.E. dcel, or, perhaps nearly always in old names, O.N. 
dal-r, ' a dale,' the root meaning being probably ' deep, 
low place' {cf. Gothic dalath, 'down.'). Found from the 
Scottish Border south to Derbyshire, but much commoner 
in the north, where Norse influence was strong, and there 
usually ' a river-vaUey between hills, a glen ' — Allendale, 
Borrowdale, Ennerdale, etc. The southmost instances 
seem to be Darley Dale, Matlock, and Coalbrookdale, 
S. Salop. The simple Dale recurs in Pembroke, a very 
Norse locality; but -dales farther south, like Begdale, 
Cambs, Skeat looked on as merely modern — e.g., also Sun- 
ningdale, Berks, a recent coinage, suggested by the ancient 
SunninghiU near by. A pure English southern instance is 
Doverdale, Droitwich, in 706 Dourdale, 817 Doferdael. 
Rarely -dale becomes -die, as in Cheadle; and once at 
least it has been corrupted from -hale, ' nook ' (see -hall) — 
in Dinsdale, Yorks, Dom. Digneshale — unless Dom. be in- 
-dean, -den, -dene. — These suffixes usually stand for O.E. denu, 
' a valley,' same root as den{n), ' a den.' A ' dean ' now 
generally is a valley deep, narrow, wooded. The suffix 
occurs all over Great Britain; -dene is rare and southern 
{cf. North Denes, Great Yarmouth). O.E. den{n), 6v dcen, 
means not only ' den, cave, lair, ' but ' woodland pasture 
for swine,' seen in Denford, Berks, and perhaps in Forest 
of Dean. The suffixes -den and -dean are continually 
interchanging with -don or -dune, as in Basilden or -don, 
Burdon, c. 1130 Byrdene, Croxden, 1237 Crokesdun, Evers- 
den or -don, Morden, c. 1080 Mordune, Yattenden or 
-don, etc. Sometimes the -den may have an entirely 
different origin, and be a part of -warden, q.v., as in 
Garden, Hawarden, etc. 
-er (see -or, -over), 
-et (see Barnet, Coquet, Farcet, Hodnet, etc.). 


-fell. — O.N. iiall, Dan. fjeld, ' a mountain, a hill,' also in north 
of England, ' a wild stretch of waste hill land, a moorland 
ridge.' In either case the name is fomid only from the 
Northmnberland Border through Cumberland and West- 
morland, south to Littledale Fells, south-east of Lan- 
caster; perhaps not elsewhere. 

-ford, -forth. — One of the commonest, widest-spread, and 
earliest of our suffixes, a ford being such an important point 
in early days, when bridges were rare or non-existent. 
In Bede -ford and -ceaster are the commonest of aU end- 
ings. It is O.E. ford, from the common Teutonic root /ar, 
' to go '; it is cognate with L. port-us, ' harbour,' and W. 
rhyd, O.W. rit.f 'ford'; also with O.N. fior^-r or fjord} 
Probably it is to Norse influence we owe the soft form 
-forth so common in the north ; examples in un-Scandina- 
vian districts are rare; but note Gosforth, north of New- 
castle, Marlingford, Norwich, 1482 Marlyngforth, and 
Forth End, Chelmsford, probably all due to Norse tongues. 
The Postal Guide has four places simply called Ford; in 
Cheshire we have seven fords — five already in Dom. ; in 
Cambs, eight — seven in Dom. ; in Berks, no less than 
eighteen, all dating from Saxon days, though only eight 
seem in Dom. Duignan gives twenty-six -fords in War- 
wick, nearly all very old, and at least fourteen as old as 
Dom. But the ending has its traps ; especially does -ford 
tend to replace -worth, as in Duxford and Pampisford, 
Cambs, Beeford, Driffield, Whiteford, Bromsgrove {Dom. 
Witeurde), Offord, Warwick, etc. (see those names). Box- 
ford, Berks, was originally Boxore, ' box-tree bank ' or 
' shore.' In Devon -ford is asserted to stand as a rule for 
W. ffordd, ' road, passage ' ; in Stirlingshire -ford, which is 
fairly common, never stands for what we now caU ' a ford.' 
McClure, p. 242, has a useful note on the different kinds 
of -ford, those whose names teU their nature — Mudford, 
Sandford, Stamford, etc. ; those which teU what animals 
used them — Oxford, Shefford ('sheep-ford'), etc.; those 
which tell what kind of helps you will find there — Bam- 
forth ('beam ford '), Stafford, etc. 

^ Sometimes -ford directly represents fjord, as in Haverford, Mil- 
ford, Orford. 


-gill. — O.N. gil, geil, ' a deep glen.' Oxford Dictionary does not 
class this with ' fish gill, ' as is often done. In later English 
it comes to mean ' a narrow stream, a rivulet, ' but in names 
it usually signifies 'a narrow, slit-like glen or opening.' 
Rare in Northumberland, it is fairly common elsewhere in 
the north — Bullgill, Dallowgill, Ivegill, Lowgill, Ramsgill, 
etc. — and especially common around Grasmere. Gill is also 
used in the dialects of Kent and Sussex, but there gives 
name only to obscure places like Heron's Ghyll, Lewes, 
Gills lop (leap,' O.N. hlaup), on the N.E. Sussex border, 
etc. Sometimes -gill is curiously disguised, as in Ald- 
win:klb, 1137 Aldwin gel, or ' Baldwin's gill.' This village, 
near Thrapston, Northants, is one of the most southerly 
instances. We get -gill less disguised in Winskill, the man 
'Wine's ravine.' 

-hall, -all, -ell. — A very important and much debated suffix. 
There is a genuine O.E. heall, ' a palace, court, royal resi- 
dence, ' then ' a mansion, a hall ' ; and probably a few of the 
many hundred names ending in -hall are derived therefrom. 
E.g., we have Croxall, Lichfield, in 773 charter Crokes- 
halle, Dom. Crocheshalle ; and in Dom. we have Buben- 
halle, Brunhala, Crenhalle, Chenihalle, for Bubbenhall, 
Broomhall, Crewe Hall, and EaUinghall respectively; and 
these all may be from heall. But far the most plainly come 
from O.E. healh, ' a nook, a corner,' then ' a flat meadow 
by a river, a haugh,' which last is its modern representa- 
tive. Li charters and Dom. the ending is usually -hale, a 
Mercian dative; more rarely -heale, the ordinary O.E. 
dative. The ending is by far the commonest in old Mercia 
or the Midlands. In Cheshire alone there are over 250 
places with names ending in -haU or Hall (the latter often, 
not always, quite modern). We get the simple Hale {sic 
in Dom.), near Altrincham and Liverpool, and in the plural, 
as Hailes, Gloucester; whilst it is preserved as an ending 
in Enhale, Cambs, in O.E. charter Eanheale. 

The h easily drops away, and so we get -all, as in Bignall, 
Birdsall (York), Gnosall (still 1298 Gnoddeshale), Walsall, 
etc. ; or else we get -ell, as in Beadnell, Bracknell (the only 
case of hale in Berks), Bucknell; or even -el, as in Ellel, 
Dom. EUhale ; whilst the hale is even more merged in Paull, 


- Dom. Pagele. The endings -hall and -hill often run into 
one another, not seldom in the Midland form of hill — viz., 
hull — e.g., Minshull Vernon, Cheshire, is Dom. Manesshale 
or Manessele; Stramshall, Staffs, is c. 1300 Strangeshull ; 
and GoxHiLL, Hodnell, and Sugnall lend further illus- 
-ham, -am. — This very common suffix represents two distinct 
words, and only when we get O.E. charter evidence can we 
be sure which word it is. (1) O.E. ham{m), hom{m) in the 
oldest charters often haam — e.g., 692-93 Essex chart. Bed- 
den-haam and Deccen-haam (Degenham) — found also in 
all the Frisian dialects as ham{m), hem, him, ' a pasture, a 
meadow enclosed with a ditch ' ; Duignan adds, ' at the 
bend of a river,' so as to connect with the human ham, 
which is caused by the bend of the knee. In England the 
meaning is ' enclosed ground, generally pasture.' So far as 
we know, this by a good deal the rarer of the two suffixes— 
e.g., there are in Berks seventeen names ending in -ham, of 
which only five are clearly hamm, because we find in 
charters ' set Bennanhamme,' for Beenham, etc. In Cambs 
there are twenty-four -hams, but in no case do they clearly 
come from hamm, though Skeat cites abundant evidence 
from the eleventh century onwards. There is a Chippenham, 
Cambs, c. 1080 Chipenham, but the place of the same name 
in Wilts is O.E. Chron. 878 Cippanhamme. The same 
rarity seems to hold true elsewhere. There are several 
Hams on the Severn, and a few on the Wye and Trent, 
from hamm. (2) O.E. ham, our ' home,' whilst hamm, with 
its long a, represents an English hem. This is one of our 
very commonest endings, often clipped down into -am {cf. 
Cheam), or more rarely into -um, as in Bilsum, Gloucester, 
c. 955 BiUesham ; but in the north largely replaced by the 
Norse -by, except in Northumberland, where -ham is 
common and -by non-existent. We have a fair number of 
northern -hams — Askham, Brigham, etc., Cumberland, 
Bispham, Kirkham, etc., Lanes. But the inquirer always 
needs to be wary, because in the north, especially in Yorks, 
-ham or -am frequently represents an O.E. locative or 
dative — e.g., Hallam, Dom. Hallum, O.E. healon, ' on the 
slopes ' ; HuLAM, Sim. Dur. Holum, O.E. holon, ' at the 


holes ' ; also see Ilam, Kilham, Lytham, etc. Even -holme 
may at tunes represent simply an O.E. locative, as in 
HippERHOLME, Dom. Huperiin; -holm and -ham often tend 
to interchange, as in Dueham, etc. 

Though -ham is certainly abundant after the patronymic 
-ing, q.v., Isaac Taylor's statement that, in the O.E. 
charters, ham is found united with names of famihes, but 
not with the names of individuals, is abundantly incorrect 
(c/. Skeat, Place-Names of Cambs, p. 20) ; see, e.g., Becken- 
HAM, Beenham, Biddenham, Boxham, etc. 

-hampton — i.e., ham-tun — ' home town,' as in Bathampton, etc., 
is a very common suflSx also. Duignan cites seventeen in 
Ombersley and Astley, Worcester, alone — five now 

-holm see Holme. 

-hope, -op, -up. — O.E. hdp,, ' a piece of enclosed land, generally 
among fens and marshes; waste land.' Also, especially 
in N.E. England and S. Scotland, ' a small enclosed valley, 
branching off a larger one, a blind valley ' ; same root 
as O.N. hdp, a ' haven, place of refuge '; but we have no 
seaboard names in England akin to St. Margaret's Hope, 
Orkney and Queensferry. In Northumberland no less 
than seventy-three places end in -hope, and forty in Dur- 
ham. We have Easthope, Hope Rowdle, and Rattling- 
hope as far south as S. Salop, and a Woolhope in Hereford. 
But as this ending comes south, it tends to become -op; 
already in Dunsop and CUtheroe, also in Glossop Works- 
op; but Hatherop (Gloucester) is 1294 Haythorp. Even 
Kershope, on the Cumberland border, has become Kirsop as 
a personal name. Rarely we find -up, as in Bacup, Blake- 
up, sic 1604 (a hill on the Borders), and the personal 
name Kirkup =' valley with the church.' There are no 
-hopes in Berks, Cambs, or even Cheshire; but in Pem- 
broke we have Lydstep, which stands for ' Lud's or Llyd's 

-how. — This is O.N. haug-r, ' mound, cairn,' a rather rare suffix, 
and only in the north — Brant How, Great How, etc. It 
may shrink into -oe, as in Aslacoe or Thestgoe (this in 
Suffolk) ; or even into -o, as in Duddo, 11 83 Dudehowe, and 
as, perhaps, in Cargo, N. Cumberland. But Brisco, in the 


same shire, is, in its charter form, Birlsescagh — i.e., birk 
shaw or ' birch wood.' The same word appears again 
Frenchified, in the Channel Islands, as Hogue and Hougue. 
■ing, in our oldest charters often -incg. This is one .of the most 
interesting and important of all om: sufiixes ; in its way- 
unique, being absolutely personal in its reference, not 
local. The idea conveyed is one of possession, or intimate 
connection with ; hence ' son of, descendant, ' as in ^thel- 
ing, ' son of the ethel, the noble-born,' Cerdicing, 'son of 
Cerdic,' etc. We even have in the O.E. of Luke iii. 38, 
Adaming, ' son of Adam.' There are many place-names 
ending in -ing, like Barking, Basing, Reading, Woking, 
which originally meant, ' the sons or descendants of Beorc, 
Bassa, Read, Woe, ' and only thereafter ' place where these 
descendants dwelt.' In a name like Centingas it can never 
mean anything but 'men of Kent'; the suffix in O.E. 
charters is often found as -ingas, which is nominative plural 
or -ingum, genitive plural, as in Bede's Berecingas (Bark- 
ing), or O.E. Chron.'s Readingum (Reading). This patro- 
nymic -ing, though so common, is not universal, and 
chiefly southern; in Cheshire there are none, in Cambs. 
only two; in Stafford and Warwick Duignan gives none, 
unless Watlestg St. be called an exception ; but in Norfolk 
-ing is fairly common — Hiclding, Horning, etc.; whilst 
Horsfall Turner enumerates twenty-two for Yorks — 
Gembling [Dom. GhemeUnge), Kipling {Dom. Chipelinge), 
Pickering, etc. In Yorks there are, of course, the three 
Ridings — i.e., third-ings or third parts; only this comes 
from the equivalent O.N. -ung rather than the O.E. -ing, 
the O.N. being thrithjung-r; in c. 1066, Laws of Edw. 
Confessor, trehingas. The same ending reappears in 
Holland in such a name as Appingadam. Sometimes, but 
very rarely, the -ing is now -inge, as in E. and W. Ginge, 
Berks, in O.E. charters Gaeging and Gaincg, Dom. Gainz, 
'place of the sons of Gsega.' This softening into the 
modern / sound (-inge = -inj), is also found in such modern 
pronunciations as Nottinjam, Whittinjam, etc., fairly 
often heard. Also, very rarely, the -ing may be dropped 
in course of time, as in Cudeley, Worcester, in 974 Cudinc- 


If names ending in -ing are rare in some parts, names 
compounded with this patronymic suffix are found every- 

Generally the ending is -ingham or -ington, more rarely 
-ingford, -ingwell, or the like. In many cases these are 
genuine patronymics, denoting the home or viUage of 
somebody's descendants — Beddingham, ' home of the 
Beadings ' ; Bennington, ' home of the Bennings ' ; and so 
on; it is needless to multiply examples. But, unless the 
evidence for the -ing goes back to O.E. times, we can never 
be sure that we have before us a true patronymic. Many 
years ago, e.g„ the writer pointed out that in Scotland, 
where there are a good many names in -ingham and -ington, 
not more than two or three are real patronymics. One 
needs to be hardly less wary in England, because very 
often the -ing is but a later softening of the O.E. genitive 
in -an or -en, usually the masculine gender in -an, as 
Barrington,- c. 1080 Barentone, 'Bsera's village'; or 
Bedingham, O.E. charter Beddanham, ' Bedda's home.* 
Take the very first case that comes to us, Abingdon; it 
is 699 charter Abbendune, ' Abba's ' or ' Ebba's hill ' ; 
whilst Abington, Cambs, is Dom. Abintone, 'Abba's 
town ' ; not patronymics at all. Sometimes the -ing 
arrives very late ; Marchington, Uttoxeter, is 907 Msercham, 
'home on the march or boundary '; 10Q4 Merchamtune, 
or ' March Hampton ' ; not tiU the thirteenth century 
have we Marchynton, and the -ing is later still. Some- 
times, too, the -ing is a pure corruption, as in Almington 
for 'Alchmund's town,' or Ardington for 'Eadwine's 

Besides, we have always to beware of names in -ing, 
which have nothing patronymic about them; names like 
Holling Hall, where HoUing is but M.E. for 'holly,' or 
like Stocking Lane, Staffs, where, Duignan says, Stocking 
means ' grubbing up, clearing of wood or wild land ' ; whilst 
Stocking, Haresfield, is an O.E. locative, stoccan, ' at the 

Dr. H. Bradley {English Historical Review, October, 
1911) seems to have made out a strong case for -ing or 
-inge being also sometimes an ending to denote a place on 


a river or stream, of which Avening, Exning, Gutting, 
TwYNiNG, etc., would be examples. 

-high, -ley, -lie, -ly. — These are all modern forms of O.E. Uah, 
dat. leage, ' a bit of cultivated ground, a meadow, a lea.' 
This is one of our commonest endings, especially as -ley ; 
there are fifty-three in Cheshire alone, thirteen in Berks, 
twelve in Cambs — these two last small counties. The 
form -ly is rare,^ but we have Early, Berks, etc. ; -leigh, 
which represents the dative, is not common except in a 
few parts like Devon; there are none in Berks or Cambs. 
But Leigh alone occurs twelve times in the Postal Guide, 
from Lancashire to Kent. Two or three times in Yorks 
we find the suffix as -laugh, Healaugh ('high meadow'), 
Skirlaugh, etc. ; and in Cheshire it takes the form -lach, 
as in Shocklach. Traps in connection with this ending 
are few; but we have Cookley, Kjdderminster, 964 Culnan 

-hw, and, in the north, -law. — O.E. hldw, hlcew, ' a hill,' then, 
' a burial-groimd, barrow, tumulus.' The ending is 
common in the south — Challow, Hounslow, Marlow, etc. ; 
but -low is found in the north too, in Yorks at least three 
times — Barlow, Bierlow, and Chellow {Dom. Celeslau), 
but Barlow is Dom. Berlai ( = lea). Li the north, where 
the form is -law, it is usually written separately — Collier 
Law, Durham ; Black and Kilhope Laws, S. North- 
umberland ; etc. J. H. Turner gives no -law now in 
Yorks, but there were several formerly- — Chellow, as we 
have seen, also Ardsley, and Tinsley, in Dom. Erdeslau, 
and Times- or Tineslawe. We see the same tendency, 
-ley replacing -low, farther south, in Staffs, where Moxley 
was, c. 1400, Mockeslowe, and Muckley, c. 1600, Mucklow. 

-minster. — ^This and -caster form our only Latin endings. It 
is late L. monasterium, later L. monisterium, O.E. mynster, 
originally ' a monastery ' ; but, as a place-name suffix, 
-minster seems always to mean ' the church of a monas- 
tery, ' then ' any church, ' generally a large one. It is now 
found chiefly in the south — Axminster, Bedminster, 
Sturminster, Westminster, etc. ; but, of course, we freely 
speak of York Minster, Beverley Minster, etc. ; and in an 

^ Also cf. AcLE, etc. 


inscription of 1056-1066 in Kirkdale Church, Yorks, we 
read of ' Scs Gregorius minster.' The O.N. form mustari 
does not seem represented among om* names; but in 
Menstrie (Alloa), Scotland, we get a Gaelicised form, 
from G. mainistreach, ' pertaining to a monastery. ' This 
is very like the form in Aymestrey, Hereford, Dom. 
Eiminstre. Musters, Durham, is ' de Monasteriis.' 

-or, -over, also -er. — The ending -or represents two distinct 
words: (1) O.E. ora, 'margin, bank, shore, ' cognate with 
L. ora, found by itself as a name in Oare, Berks; but 
common as an ending too, as in Bognor, ' Bucga's shore,' 
CuMNOR, Keynor, and Windsor, whose early charter 
form is Wendles ore, which Skeat thinks may be ' the 
Vandal's bank.' But (2) -or, with -er, and its fuller form 
-over, represents O.E. ofer, 0. Fris. overa, overe, M. Fris. 
over, E. Fris. over, ofer, Ger. ufer, 'border, margin,' hence 
* seashore,' and especially 'river-bank'; by c. 1205 
Layamon, it has become oure. We get this word as a 
name in Owram, Yorks, in Dom. Overe, Oure, and Ufrun, 
which are locatives singular and plural, Ufrun becoming 
OwRAM after the type described under ham (2). The full 
form -over is still retained in Ashover, Bolsover, etc. 
But it has often been shortened into -or, as in Baddesley 
Ensor (or Edensor), Hadsor, c. 1100 Headesofre, and 
Haselor, c. 1300 Haselovre; and we get it as a prefix in 
Orgrave, N. Lanes, Dom. Ourgreve, ' grave on the bank.' 
Most names in -er also have the same root, though this 
has not hitherto been much recognized; especially those 
named from trees — Asher, ' ash- tree bank ' ; Beecher, 
Easier, ' hazel-bank ' ; Pinner, ' pine-tree bank ' ; and 
Thomer, as well as Iver, Uxbridge, which is probably 
' ivy bank ' ; and Hever, ' high bank ' ; and even Wooler, 
which has nothing to do with ' wool,' but is 1197 WeUoure, 
' well bank.' 

-thorpe, -torp, -trop. — This is O.E. c. 725 throp, c. 800 drop, 
later thorp, O.N. thorp, N. torp, O.Fris. thorp, therp, ' farm, 
hamlet, village.' It is very rare in O.E., and in place- 
names is due almost solely to Norse influence. It is found 
as a name simply as Thorp (e), five times in the Postal 
Guide, and often in combination — Thorp Arch, Thorpe 


Abbotts, Thorpe-le-Soken, etc.; also as Throop (Christ- 
church), and Thrupp, Mid Oxon and S. Northants. These 
last forms will be pure Eng., as are also the rare occurrences 
of the ending outside the Danelagh — ^Adlestrop, Eastrip, 
Somerset ; Huntingtrap, Worcester ; etc. Gloucester, a 
purely English county, contains many remarkable varia- 
tions of thwp — Hatherop, Pindrup, Puckrup, Westrip, 
Wolstrop, and even Upperup. Wilstrop, W. Riding, Dom. 
Wilestrop, is one of the very few cases of -trop in a Danish 
region, whilst Thorpe, Chertsey, is one of the very few 
cases of thorpe outside such a region. The ending -thorpe 
is common in Norfolk, and occurs three times in Warwick, 
in which cases it is certainly due to Norse influence; it 
does not occur at all in Cambs or Cheshire, once each in 
Hunts, Beds, and Herts. In Denmark to-day the ending 
-trup is very common. 
-thwaite. — O.N. pveit, pveiti, ' a piece of land, a paddock ' (lit. 
' a piece cut off,' a piece ' thwited ' or whittled off). This 
suffix is found only in the north-west, chiefly in Cumber- 
land; also, rarely, in S. Scotland. The limits seem to be — 
Seathwaite, Broughton-in-Fumess, Satterthwaite, Ulver- 
ston, Linthwaite (' flax plot '), and Slaithwaite, Hudders- 
field, and Hunderthwaite, N. Yorks {Dom. Hundredestoit, 
or ' bit cut off the hundred '). Modem lips have clipped 
Slaithwaite down to S16-at. We have one -twight in 
Norfolk, Crostwight, Dom. Crostueit; and see Eastwood. 
-toft. See Toft. 

-ton ranks with -ley as the commonest of all our suffixes. Dr. 
Lee estimated that about one-eighth of all the names in 
the first two vols, of Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus had this 
ending, whose root idea is ' enclosure, ' ' my property ' ; 
whereas, singular to note, this same root is never used as 
a place-name ending anywhere on the Continent. It is 
O.E. c. 725, ' tuun cors ' ( = cohors, L. for ' court '), later 
tiln, O.N. t'ijjn, 'enclosure, homestead, farm'; toun in 
Scot., town in W. Somerset, and tun in Norw. dialects are 
still used for ' a single farm.' In Cornwall town and 
town-place are still applied to the smallest hamlet or 
even to a farmyard. Then, probably after the Nor. 
Conquest, tun came to mean ' a town ' ; long before 


that it meant 'a village.' The root is often said to be 
akin to Keltic d/an, ' a fort,' as in the old ending -dunum. 
But this is doubtful, as diA^n means first, ' a hill,' and then, 
' the fort which so often crowned the hill. ' True, the 
forms -don and -ton do sometimes run into one another, 
as in Bishopston, 1016 Biscopesdun, Farndon (Cheshire), 
Dom. Ferentone, Gamston, Larton (Cheshire), Dom. 
Lavorchedone, etc., also Dunstall and TmsrsTALL. 

One needs to be careful about the common confusion 
with -stone, as in Atherstone, Beeston Castle, Brigh- 
ton, Brixton, etc., whilst Elkstone, Leek, was 1227 
Elkesdon (c/., too, the common interchange of Johnston 
and Johnstone). Perhaps oftenest, in these eases, the 
original ending was O.E. stan{e), 'stone'; but not in 
Johnston. An example of the reverse case is Woolstone, 
Berks, which is the O.E. Wulfricestun. Sometimes the s is 
the genitive of the preceding personal name ; and of course e 
may be added at the end of almost any old name. There 
are also some curious corruptions, like Austerson, Cheshire, 
which is DoTO.'s Alstanton, whilst Enson, Staffs, is c. 1300 
Eneston and Enson. In rare cases, as in Cotton, Cambs. 
the ending -on may be the old locative, ' at the cots, ' 
the same ending which in Yorks so often becomes -un, 
-um, and then -am; see -ham; so that -ham and -ton may 
mean the same thing, and yet not ' dwelling ' at all ! 
In rare cases -ton is, or was, used to give a Saxon look to 
a Keltic name — e.g., Clyst, Exeter, was 1001 O.E. Chron. 
Glistun, v.r. Chstun, whilst we also have a ' Clistune ' in 
Dom. Worcester, all probably being originally W. glwys, 
' a hallowed place, a fair spot.' In Mitton, which occurs 
several times, the -ton is corrupted from O.E. mythan. 
-warden, -wardine, -worth, -worthy, are best all taken together, 
being in root the same. Very common is -worth, O.E. 
worth, weorth, wurth, wyrth, ' open space, piece of land, 
holding, farm, estate,' akin to our Eng. worth. In Dom. 
it is usually found as -orde, or -vrde, -worde. Examples 
are so numerous that they need not be cited. J. H. Turner 
cites thirty-one cases, past or present, of the ending, in 
Yorks alone. Occasionally we meet a corruption, as in 
BiSHPORT for 'bishop's worth,' and, more serious, Sea- 


COURT near Oxford, which, was once Seovecwurde or 
' Seofeca's iarm.' Who would ever guess that"? In a £ew 
cases -worth has been replaced by -iord, as inDuxEOUD and 
Pampispoed, Cambs ; Offord, Warwick, and Tudworth, 
Yorks ; where Dom. has both Tudeworde and Tudeforde. 
We see the reverse case in Brinsworth, Rotherham, 
Dom. Brinesford, and Wigglesworth, E. Yorks, Dom. 
Wiclesforde. In either case the transition form was -vorde.^ 

-worthy is an ending purely S. Western. It is O.E. 
worthig, seen more fully in Worthing ; root and meaning 
the same as -worth. Seemingly it is not a diminutive 
but an extended form as in -warden. Examples are 
Badgeworthy, Holsworthy, King's Worthy, etc. 

-warden, -wardine, is an ending very common in Salop, 
whilst a few cases occur in the surrounding counties ; else- 
where it is unknown. It is Mercian O.E. worthign, ex- 
tended form of worthig and of worth ; see above, and 
meaning, as before, ' farm, holding, place of worth.' In 
Dom. Salop we have a simple Wrdine; but instances of 
the ending are also abundant in that shire — Belswardine, 
Shrawardine, etc. In N. Hereford we have Leintwardine 
and Pedwardine, in Worcester Bedwardine ('the monk's 
table farm '), and ToUerdine, in Fhnt Hawarden, whilst 
we have contracted forms in Garden, Cheshire; and 
Harden, Staffs; as well as Ellerdine, Salop. Gloucester 
gives us Ruardean, c. 1281 Rowardin, and Shepherdine. It 
is interesting to note that Lapworth, Warwick, is in an 816 
charter Hlappanwurthin and in Dom. Lapeforde. In 
Holland we have names like Leeu warden (Dutch, leeuw, 
' a lion '), where we seem to have the same ending; but 
there is no Dutch warden or worden in CaUsch's Dutch 
■wich, -wick. — This is O.E. wic, 'dwelling, village,' borrowed 
from L. vicus, 'village,' same root as Gk. olKo<i, 'house '; 
also borrowed in Corn, as Gweek, found in place-names 
there. One of the very earliest recorded instances of 
-wich is 'the port of Quentawic,' in Bede iv. 1, i.e., 
St. Quentin, Picardy. In the South wic is usually softened 
into -wich — -Greenwich, Harwich, Sandwich, etc. In the 

^ The natives now call Deskford, Banffshire, Deskurd. 


north it remains hard, as -wick — Ahiwick, Berwick, 
Cheswick, Withernwick, etc. But the hard -wick is also 
found in the south. We have both Berwick St. James 
and St. John near Salisbury, as well as one near Shrews- 
bury, and we have Chiswick near London as well as one 
in the far North. In Cheshire and Worcestershire -wich 
or -wych is popularly interpreted as indicating a brine 
or salt spring {cf. 716 charter ' In wico . . . Saltwich,' Wor- 
cester). But there is no O.E. authority for this, even 
though Nantwich is in W. Yr Heledd gwen, ' the white 
place for making salt.' Droitwich is in O.E. Chron. simply 
Wic. We get the hard form in Salwick, Preston, which 
can hardly mean ' salt bay,' O.N. vik, but rather, ' village 
where salt was made.' It is doubtful if any -wick in 
England means ' bay ' (though cf. Sandwich), whilst 
such are common in the north of Scotland. Skeat thought 
the -wick in Saltwich, Droitwich, etc., was the N. vik, 
* a smaU salt creek or bay ' ; and that the change to 
' brine-pit ' would be easy. But to some of us this seems 
very unlikely indeed, down inland at Droitwich, and so 
early as 716. In Yorks wic becomes Wike, Dom. Wic, 
and Heckmondwike, etc. The O.E. ending -awic some- 
times becomes -age, q.v. 
-with. — O.N. vith-r, Dan. ved, 'a wood,' is common in Yorks. 
J. H. Turner cites eleven cases — AskwitH, Beckwith, 
Bub with, etc., where Dom. spells vid, wid, uid, and vi, 
always avoiding ih. It is doubtful if -with ever really 
interchanged with -wick. We do have Skipwith twice 
in Dom. as Schipewic, and again in 1200 Scippewic, also 
Butterwick, Yorks, in Dom. both Butruic and Butruid; 
but as a rule in such cases c wiU be the common scribe's 
error for t. Occasionally -with is found changing into 
-worth; whilst Langwith, Derby and Notts, and Lang- 
worth, Lines, all ended with -wath, ' ford,' in thirteenth- 
century charters. 



The pure Norman period in England was but short — from the 
Conquest in 1066 to the accession of the Angevin Henry II. 
in 1154. However, from the marriage of ^thelred to Emma, 
the Duke of Normandy's sister, in 1002, Normans began to 
find homes in our land and to influence our affairs, an influence 
which lasted on till the accession of Edward I. in 1292, first of 
our Kings with an English name since fatal Senlac, and an 
EngUshman out and out. Hallam has well pointed out that 
Norman influence in England has often been exaggerated. 
Sir Henry Ellis's enumeration of the nearly 8,000 mesne tenants 
in Domesday shows how very large was the number of purely 
Saxon lords of the manor at that date; whilst it should be 
better known that French was never used among us for deed 
or law until the reign of Henry III., 1216-1272. Still, consider- 
ing the wide power of Norman lords and landholders, and the 
large use of French among all educated EngUshmen, Norman 
place-names in England are wonderfully f ew.^ Here the stolid 
Saxon peasant fairly extinguished the proud Norman peer. 

But there is one pretty large group, of Norman names in 
England, those beginning with Beau — or, before a vowel, Bel- 
(feminine, belle), 'beautiful, lovely,' a common prefix for a 
spot chosen because of its fine outlook or natural beauty. 
There are among us two Beaudeserts or ' lovely wilds,' a Beau- 
lieu, ' lovely spot,' reappearing corrupted in Bewdley and in 
Leighton Buzzard; also two Beaumonts and two Belmonts, 
' fine hills.' There are two Belchamps, ' fine plains,' better 

1 Of course the Normans profoundly influenced both the spelling 
and pronunciation of many English names, both local and personal. 
See p. 26, and names like Cerne, Osgodby, etc. ; but wholly Norman 
names in England are few. The whole subject is carefully worked out 
in Zachrisson's Anglo-Norman Influence on English Place-Names, 1910. 



known to us in the shape of Beauchamp or Beacham ; then there 
is not only a modern Belle Vue, ' fine view,' but an old Belvoir, 
' fine to see,' whilst the Beaurepair, ' lovely haunt,' of the 
Chron. of Lanercost, has now become transformed into Beau- 
park, Ebchester; but it remains as Belrepeir in Gloucester, and 
appears again in Derby as Belper. Belford, Belgrave, and 
a good many other names in Bel-, have an English, not a 
Norman, origin. 

Antrobus, Nantwich, is of an almost unique type for an 
English name ; but it surely must be Fr. entre huis, ' among 
the box-trees ' ; in Dom. it is Entrebus. Almost its only 
parallel so early is Montgomery, of which, and of other 
Norman names, we shall have something to say in the 
chapter on Wales Another old name in Mont- we have 
in Montacute, 'sharp hiU,' brought in the Conqueror's days 
from Normandy to S. Somerset. A few of pur abbey 
names also are Norman. It is not to be wondered at, so 
many French monks and clerics swarmed over to England 
with William I. ; hence Jervaulx and Rievatjx. These, how- 
ever, are only haH French, the fijst half in both cases being 
Enghsh; but vaux or vaulx is the plural of Fr. vol, ' a valley.' 
Bois, Fr. for ' a wood,' has been preserved in a few place-names, 
Chesham Bois, Bucks ; Theydon Bois, Epping Forest, etc. ; but 
not Cambois. Forest, too, as in New Forest, Forest of Dean, 
etc., is, of course, French. Then it should be noted that all our 
names with the suffix -market are due to Norman influence — 
Newmarket (4), Stowmarket, etc. About the earliest record 
of such names which we have found is in the Pipe RoU 
for 1179-80, Yorks, De Novo Mercato (Latinized form of 
O.Nor. Fr. mercat), now Newmarch, which gives us the modern 
Fr. marche, with the same meaning. 

Norman personal names are very conmionly appended to 
real old English names — e.g., Bovey Tracey, Hurstmonceux, 
MUton Deverel, Sutton MaUet, and Montis, etc. A run through 
Duignan's county books will show, however, that these double- 
barrelled names rarely came into use until well on in the Middle 
Ages. More rarely the Norman name (in most cases the pro- 
prietor's) is prefixed, as in Guyhirn, Royston, etc. A real 
Norman name, long a puzzle, is Barnet, first found c. 1200, 
Barnette. It is almost certainly a diminutive of Fr. heme 


or herme, 'a narrow space, a ledge, a berm.' Boulge, Suffolk, 
is also worth referring to, because it preserves an old Norman 
word for ' a heathery waste.' In the same region is Dover- 
court, which goes back to Dow., and so gives us the word court 
more than 200 years earlier than it is recorded m our English 
dictionaries. ^ 

A church or ecclesiastical building among us is usually 
denoted by -church in the south, -kirk or kir- in the north, 
or else by -minster. But Normans have their share here too. 
The O.Nor. Fr. capele, late L. cappella (Ut. ' a httle cape '), is 
now usually Chapel, which goes to form fourteen names in the 
Postal Guide — Chapel Allerton, Chapel Amble, etc. They may 
not all go back to Norman days, but such a name as Chapel-en- 
le-Frith certainly does; so do the four Capels, two in Kent 
and near Dorking and Ipswich, whilst there are ten Capels in 
Wales. There is likewise a Chappel in Essex. Very few of our 
names in Castle come in before 1300; but Castle Holdgate, 
Salop, occurs as Chastel Hollgod in the thirteenth century, and 
must be Norman. 

Three curious specimens of quasi-Norman names may bring 
this brief chapter to a close: Lappal, Halesowen, is in 1335 
Lappole, which "must mean ' the pool '; while in 1342 we read 
of ' Thomas atte Pole.' Surtees, Co. Durham, is in 1211 Super 
Teisam, the L. super having been changed into Fr. sur ; and the 
name, of course, means (place) ' on the Tees, ' Beachy Head, 
Sussex, if correctly interpreted, is unique in its way as an 
English cape name. It is always thought to be the Fr. beau 
chef, ' fine head ' or ' headland ' ; and there is a Beauchief near 
Sheffield. The French article le, ' the,' stiU remains in a curious 
number of cases — Chapel-le-Dale, Chester-le-Street, Newton- 
le- Willows, etc. 



Great progress has now been made in the study of the names 
of England and Scotland, still greater with the names of 
Ireland and of Man., As to the wealth of Keltic names in 
Cornwall much remains to be done, largely because Cornish 
is now so utterly a dead language. It has dictionaries, but 
none satisfactory to the place-name student; and perhaps 
nobody now aHve knows enough about it to do the subject 
justice, imless it be Mr. Henry Jenner. We have, indeed, a 
great store of Cornish names in Domesday, including twenty- 
eight which begin with Lan-, or 'church.'^ But, with rare 
exceptions, like Bodmin or Launceston, Domesday's names 
are not those famihar to most of us to-day. So, for lack of 
anything which we feel worth saying — we confess it with 
regret — we pass on. 

With Wales, and its very Welsh neighbour, Monmouth, the 
case is altogether different. Welsh is a tongue exceedingly 
alive. In 1911, 43-5 per cent, of the people still spoke Welsh, 
though that showed a decrease of 47,542 in ten years. On 
the other hand, only 14 per cent, of the people of Ireland then 
spoke Erse, and just over 4| per cent, of the people of Scotland 
spoke Gaelic. Excellent Welsh scholars abound, yet almost 
nobody seems to have fairly tackled the host of intricate and 
interesting Welsh names which await explanation. Men like 
Professors Rhys and Anwyl have given scattered hints; and 
one very solid contribution we do have — the Cymmrodorion 
Society's edition of Owen's PembroJceshire (1603), edited by 
H. Owen, with huge blocks of notes in small print by himseK^ 
Mr. Egerton PhiUimore, Professor Rhys, Mr. W. H. Stevenson, 

^ Out of the 200 old Cornish parishes, no less than 145 are called after 
Keltic saints — Irish, Welsh, Breton, or Cornish. 



etc., notes which often display acutest learning and insight 
concerning names all over Wales, but arranged with a terrible 
lack of method, and sadly unhandy for the busy student. 
The only book dealing with the whole subject seems to be Mr. 
Thomas Morgan's Place-Names of Wales, second edition, 1912. 
The author was prize-winner at the Newport Eisteddfod in 
1897 for a Dictionary of Welsh Names in Monmouth, so it may 
be taken for granted that he knows spoken Welsh thoroughly, 
and he has collected a lot of useful material. But he omits 
many important names, even Glamorgan, and he hardly refers 
to any mountain or hill, not even Plynlimmon, Worse stiU, 
Mr. Morgan has had no scientific training, and so, on many 
points, his little book is a very unsafe guide. 

Something might have been expected from the new edition 
of the Encyclopcedia Britannica, that wonderful monmnent of 
well-arranged learning. The article ' Wales ' gives a long list 
of Welsh words for river, hill, and dale, with specimen names 
derived from them. But the list is such that any tyro could 
easily compile it out of a dictionary for himself ; and no attempt 
is made to analyze or explain a single one of the hundreds of 
difficult Welsh names. Rarely, an article like ' Cardiff ' makes 
some effort to deal with the philological problems. But, from 
a place-name point of view, many of the separate articles are 
deplorable. All we are told — e.g., under 'Denbigh' — is: 'Din 
in Dinbych ' (the Welsh spelling) means ' a fort.' But, as we 
shall see, the strong probability is that Denbigh is a Danish, 
and not a Welsh, name at all. Under Wrexham, another 
puzzling name, we are told that the original name ' in the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,' is ' Wrightesham.' This last is not 
the original name, and Wrexham is never mentioned in that 
Chronicle at all, i 

As we have referred to Cardiff, the history of the great 
seaport's name is quite worth telling before we proceed further. 
The Britannica article gives a very imperfect record of the early 
forms of the name. But in all probability it is correct in 
holding that the usual explanation ' fort on the Taff ' must be 
wrong. No early writer ever calls it Caerdaf , (which would be 
the proper Welsh spelling if this were so), unless we make ex- 
ception of the English antiquary Leland, in the days of 
Henry VIII., and he was only writing down his own guess. 


The earliest spelling now known is of date 1128, Kardi; a little 
later we find Kardid, whilst in the Pipe Roll for 1158-59 we 
have Cardif. The modern Welsh is Caerdydd, pronounced 
Caer deeth. These forms suggest the meaning ' fort, castle of 
Didius.' Within the last few years it has become certain that 
Cardiff stands on the site of a Roman fort ; and so this Didius 
will probably be that Roman general who, in a.d. 50, fought 
against the Silures, the British tribe who inhabited this region. 
If this conjecture be right, Cardiff will take rank as one of the 
earliest known Roman stations in the British Isles. 

It is generally agreed that Wales was originally peopled by 
a non-Keltic race, almost certainly pre-Aryan, and now 
practically wiped out, though it has left its mark in the skulls 
of many of its successors. Next, it is agreed, came the Goidels 
or Gaels, Kelts pure enough. They probably spread over 
nearly the whole of modern Wales, and a little farther east, 
except where, near the Salop border, the Brythonic Ordovices 
became firmly fixed. Their leading tribes were the Silures 
in the south-east and the Demetae in the south - west. 
Brythons came in successive waves after the Gaels ; and while 
the Saxon was busy driving the native Briton westwards out 
of England, the Brython was as busy in Wales conquering the 
Gael, the conquest being aU but complete about a.d. 500. 
Legend and tradition make it weU-nigh certain that the Gaels 
were once in large force in Wales, and, in early historic times, 
were aided against the Brythons by counter invasions of Gaels 
from the south of Ireland. But, as they were completely 
conquered before civilization had made any great advance, 
they have left behind only a few inscriptions, rare and precious, 
in South Wales, especially Caldy Island, Pembroke, in Ogam 
characters. There are no such inscriptions in Mid Wales, 
and only one in the north. Of clear trace in Welsh place- 
names the Gael has left singularly little. It is difiicult to say 
now what must be truly Goidelic. The fact — e.g., that glyn, 
our Scottish glen — ^seems commoner in Glamorgan than else- 
where might perhaps seem to point that way. But the fact 
e.g., that we have a Clyne (modern Welsh dun, G. claon, ' a 
meadow ') both in Glamorgan and in Sutherland, is hardly 
convincing proof that the Welsh Clyne must be a name left 
behind by the now vanished Gael. But to one interesting 


pair we may venture to point — Rosemarket and Rhosmarket, 
both in Pembroke. Their old forms are Rossmarken and 
Rosavarken, for which no explanation is forthcoming in 
modern Welsh. The names must surely be the same as Rose- 
markie, Fortrose (c. 1228, Rosmarkensis Episcopus), where 
Dr. W. J. Watson takes the ending to be G. marcnaidh, old 
genitive of marcnach, ' place of horses ' ; and so the whole name 
is probably Goidelic for ' moor on which horses were kept or 

About Rome, too, and the tramp of her many legions through 
Wales, surviving place-names tell us sadly little, though Rome 
most certainly was here. There are no -casters or -chesters 
to be found; caer- or car- everywhere takes their place. For 
early place-name material we are worse off in Wales than 
anywhere else in our British Isles. In Wales — e.g., no Roman 
inscriptions have yet been found, though they are found every- 
where else, one or two even in Cornwall. We have already 
told how that Cardiff was probably a Roman fort soon after 
A.D. 50. But, as matter of fact, no Roman writer mentions 
any place in Wales tiU we come to Tacitus, who, in his Life 
of Agricola, c. a.d. 90, refers to Mona, the Welsh Mona or 
Anglesea, not Julius Caesar's Mona, the Isle of Man; whilst 
in his Annals, at least ten years later, Tacitus mentions Mona 
again and also Sabrina, the River Severn. Soon after Tacitus 
comes the famous Geography of Ptolemy, c. 150, who describes 
all Britain in ample detail ; and yet, perhaps, the only existing 
Welsh name identifiable in Ptolemy is Maridunum, which must 
be Caermarthen. This last seems, indeed, to be a translation 
of Maridunum, ' fort, castle by the sea.' In Welsh ' the sea ' 
is mor, but in G. it is muir, genitive mara ; so that this, too, 
may probably be taken as a Goidelic name. 

The present name we find first in Nennius, c. 800. He 
spells it Cair mardin, a spelling exactly preserved in (perhaps) 
its next mention, the Pipe Roll, 1158-59, whilst Giraldus, 
c. 1188, has Cairmardhin, or -merdhin. In Welsh II has come 
to have the soft or hissing thl sound, and so, at least since the 
twelfth century, Welshmen have taken the same to mean 
'fort of Merlin, 'the mighty magician of King Arthur's court. 
His name in modern Welsh is Myrddin; but already by 1148 
we find it in its Latin form Merlinus. One of the earliest 


known instances of the Welsh II, written as thl, is in the Rolls 
of Parliament, I. 463/1, not later than 1300, where we find 
a very familiar name spelt Thlewelyn.^ 

For a few other Roman names in Wales we can tm-n to the 
Itinerary or Road Book of Antonine (see p. 4). There were 
plenty of Roman roads in Wales, and wherever one finds sarn 
in a place-name, one may hopefully search for traces of a Roman 
road. But in the Antonine Itinerary we can identify only 
three known names of to-day, and there is doubt even among 
these — Gobannio (certainly Abergavenny), Nid (which may 
be Neath), and Leucaro, possibly Loughor, Caermarthen; 
all three on the Roman highway from Uriconium (Wroxeter) 
to Caermarthen. In the Ravenna Geographer, a. 700, we can 
probably identify Canubio with R. Conway. That seems 
to exhaust our stock for the early centuries. 

The Saxon has left a much deeper mark on the surface of 
Wales than his Roman predecessor, but, unfortunately for us, 
not in his Chronicle nor in his charters. In the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle we find nothing in the shape of a Welsh place-name 
before the Conquest, save Buttington, Montgomery, in 893, 
Brecknock in 916, and Rhuddlan in 1063. We have now 
mentioned all our available documentary evidence up to 
Domesday; because the dates of the present text of Skene's 
Four Ancient Books of Wales are far too uncertain to found 
almost anything upon. To refer to Domesday now may be 
to anticipate; but we may finish this survey of our meagre 
data before 1100 by saying that a handful of place-names in 
Flint and Denbigh are mentioned in the Conqueror's survey 
of Cheshire, 1086-87 — Hawarden, e.g., also Bersham, Brough- 
ton, Halkin, and Rhuddlan, here Roelent; but probably not 
Bagillt, though so careful an antiquary as Mr. A. Palmer 
of Wrexham confidently identifies it with Domesday's Bachelie. 
This seems as phonetically impossible as Mr. Morgan's Welsh 
derivation, hu- geillt. The first syllable has always been Ba-, 
and seems to represent W. hack, G. heag, ' little ' ; the second 
means ' hiUs ' or ' cliffs.' 

Salop's Domesday contains, perhaps, no Welsh name except 
Montgomery just on its border. But several names around 

* But also c/. Cardeol ( = ca^r Lleol), spelling of Caklisle by Ordericus 
Vitalis, c. 1145; and for an instance in 1246, see Cefn Llts. 


Monmouth are in the Domesday of Hereford. From 600 
onwards the Welsh march or frontier was a very unfixed 
quantity — has always been so, we may say, up to the present 
hour. Monmouthshire, nominally in England, is still Welsh 
in nearly everything but name ; whilst Hereford and Monmouth 
were once called West Wales. The fluctuating frontier is well 
illustrated by the fact, often referred to in recent disestablish- 
ment controversies, that, at points, the jurisdiction of the 
Bishops of St. Asaph and Llandaff runs right into England, 
whilst something like four parishes of the See of Hereford are 
in Wales. West of the River Wye Hereford names are largely 
Welsh, whilst east of it they are purely Enghsh; and in that 
West-of-Wye region, Welsh was largely spoken not more 
than sixty years ago. On the other hand, the Saxons were 
always pushing their spears into Wales, especially the redoubt- 
able OSa who, before 800, finally hunted the Welsh out of 
Pengwern (henceforward known as Shrewsbury), and built 
the famous dyke all the way along from the mouth of the Dee 
to the Wye, so making this quite an English region, even, e.g., 
a good piece of what is now Denbigh. 

Thus it is only as one might expect, that English place- 
names are to be found in considerable numbers over about 
two-thirds of St. David's PrincipaUty, historic and ancient 
place-names too. The most purely Welsh of the twelve 
counties are Cardigan, Merioneth, and Caernarvon, all in the 
west, where, curious to relate, in all three, perhaps the only 
Old English name is the highest mountain in the land, Snowdon, 
' the snow-capped hill, ' a name found as early as the Norman 
chronicler, Ordericus Vitalis, who, at Lisieux, c. 1140, wrote 
of Mons Snaudunus. Doubtless the name goes back to Saxon 
days. The natives have their own name, Y Wyddfa,. 'the 
Tomb,' or 'Tumulus.' 

Almost as early in Wales as the Saxons were the Norsemen. 
The hardy Norseman was always prowling about the Irish 
Sea and St. George's Channel, from the beginning of the ninth 
century to the end of the thirteenth; and for long there were 
Norse or Danish Kings in Dublin and the Isle of Man. It 
was impossible, therefore, that Wales should escape their 
usually unwelcome attentions ; though, it must be added, when 
once they settled down, very peaceful and industrious settlers 


they did make. So far as place-names go, they have left little 
mark in Wales, save among the bays and islands of Pembroke, 
which are so like their own much islanded, much indented, 
rocky shores. In Pembroke we have Norse footprints in abund- 
ance — Caldy I., Colby, Dale, Pish-guard ( = garth or yard), 
Flathokn, Gellyswick, Hakin, Haverford, Milford Haven, 
Skokholm, Stack Rocks, and Tenby, with quite a number 
more, which all testify to Viking visitors, though it is impossible 
in almost any case to give to these a precise date. 

The French-speaking, domineering Norman was in great 
force along both north and south coasts, and along the border, 
from the Conquest, or a year or two later, right on to the days 
of Edward I., whose little son, the first Prince of Wales, was 
born at Caernarvon in 1284. Both William the Conqueror 
and his son Rufus personally led expeditions into Wales, the 
latter no less than three, on one occasion marching as far as 
Snowdon. Indeed, only the rugged north-west was left un- 
touched. South, in Glamorgan, we can still decipher not a 
few of the heavy footmarks of the great Sir Robert Fitzhamon, 
one of the Conqueror's chief knights, who, with his leading 
retainers, coined many new names for the hamlets in the Vale 
of Glamorgan, because their Norman tongues could not pro- 
nounce the Welsh ones. Altogether, these landlords from France 
have left behind a very interesting and somewhat important 
little group of place-names — e.g., the Welshman's Mon has 
now an EngUsh name, Anglesea, with a French name for its 
capital, Beaumaris — or Beumarish, as it is earlier spelt. The 
natives called it Rhosfair, ' moor of Mary.' However, in 1293 
Edward I. came hither, built a castle on the low-lying land by 
the shore of the Menai Straits, that so the castle might com- 
municate with the sea ; and, because of the suitability of the 
site, called the place Beau marais, or 'fine, beautiful marsh !' 
Mold, in Flint, is another remarkable Norman name, well 
disguised. The Kelts termed it Gwyddgrug, ' conspicuous 
mount, ' from the great heap still to be seen near the chief road. 
The Normans translated this into Mont halt (mod. Fr. haut), 
'high mount '; and we find Roger de Monalto here in 1244. 
Mont hault, with a transition stage in Moalt, has now been 
squeezed down into Mold, just as Mowbray was originally 


As interesting is the name Montgomery. A border castle 
was built at this place just after the Conquest, by one Baldwin; 
hence its present Welsh name Trefaldwyn, ' Baldwin's house.' 
The castle was soon captured by Roger de Montgomery, who 
had been made Earl of Shrewsbury in 1071; and ever since the 
spot has borne his name. We find it in a Latin form in 
Orderic, c. 1145, Mons Gomerici, ' hill of Gomeric,' which must 
have been the name of somebody in Normandy, now lost in 
oblivion. Already in Domesday, its first mention, the name 
is spelt not only Montgomeri, but also Muntgumeri, which, 
shows how early o was slurred into u.^ Of pure French is 
Beau Pre 2 or ' Fine Meadow ' House, in Glamorgan, on the site 
of another Norman castle, whilst Fleur de Lys is just across 
the border in Monmouth. Beaufort, Brecon, seems to be 
modern; but Hay near by is true Norman (Fr. haie, ' a hedge '). 
We have already heard (p. 65) that names in Capel must be 
Norman too ; and there are at least ten chapel sites in Wales 
with this name, Capel Curig, Capel Saron, etc. 

When we come to examine the true Welsh names as a whole, 
as we now have them, we find, as we should expect, that the 
river-names are all Keltic, or else pre-Keltic. Many of the 
former, as well as of the latter, are difficult to interpret, how- 
ever early we get their forms. The subject still requires much 
investigation, and as yet clearly pre-Keltic names seem few. 
Some river names are easy enough, like Use, which goes so 
readily with Axe and Exe. Indeed, a good many are names 
common to both England and Wales, and have already been 
treated — Dee, e.g., and Wye, and Avon (Glam.), where also 
we find the parallel form Aman, just as we have in Gaelic both 
abhuinn and amhuinn, the latter seen in such a Scottish name 
as Cramond, originally Caer Amond. The River Amman, 
Caermarthen, though spelt with two m's, is more likely to be 
the same word than to come from ami ; whilst the River 
Co]srwAY goes with Wye, being W. con gwy {con, ' together '), 
i.e., 'chief stream.' Cynon may be similar, q.v. Before we 
go farther, it ought to be noted that the Severn, biggest and 

* In Norman Frencli o regularly becomes u, especially before a nasal. 

2 It may be added here that the Beaurepair, ' lovely haunt,' and 
Belper of England reappear in Keltic Cornwall as Barrepper, Borripper 
or Brepper. 



earliest recorded river of all, is probably now insoluble. The 
native Welsh name is Hafren, which the Romans turned into 
Sabrina and the Saxons into Saefren — quite according to rule ; 
as, in like manner, the Greek e^ and eTrrd are the Latin sex 
and septem, our six and seven. 

We have also in Wales, as in England, a good many Keltic 
names, as well as Avon, which mean simply ' water ' or ' river ' 
— e.g., Dovey, W. dwfr, seen again in the Derbyshire Dove; 
whilst a common river ending is -on, which also means nothing 
but ' stream, ' as in Aeron, Cynon, and Avon itself ; also in 
Scottish rivers Uke the Carron, and French ones like the 
Gar-onne; L. Garumna, where the -imina is clearly the 
G. amhuinn and L. amnis — or, rather, a root akin thereto. 
The old Keltic deities were largely local or identified with 
places. Thus we are not surprised to note that a good many 
Welsh rivers, in the view of scholars like Sir Edward Anwyl, 
show in their names survivals of river- worship — e.g., Dwy ffor 
and Dwy £fach, which, says Anwyl, mean ' great ' and ' little 
goddess, ' whilst the Merioneth Dyfi probably means ' goddess ' 
alone. The goddess of war may be commemorated in the 
Aeron, and the god of the metal-workers or smiths in Gavenny 
(where -j = gwy, 'river'). Yet another god seems to be 
buried, or should we not rather say drowned, in the River 

The River Tawe is probably the same root as the Enghsh 
Thame and Thames, only aspirated, all meaning ' smooth, 
quiet.' Tawy may be the same; but the Towey must be 
another root, implying ' to spread out ' ; and the Cardigan 
Tivy may have the same notion hid within it. The derivations 
of many of the Welsh streams given by Mr. Morgan are pure 
guess-work. Everything here needs careful sifting by a good 
Keltic philologist. 

The Welsh mountain names are aU Keltic too, with the one 
notable exception of Snowdon. Some of these mountain names 
hide quite a story, if only we could draw it out — Cader Idris, 
e.g., 'the chair ' of 'seat of Idris,' who is said to have been 
a Welsh hero and a great astronomer. Unfortunately, for 
early forms or spellings of these mountain names, our best 
and earliest authorities almost entirely fail us ; we mean Liber 
Landaviae or the Book of Llandaff, c. 1130, and the bulky 


works of Giraldus Cambrensis, the famous Pembrokeshire 
Norman, c. 1180-1200. 

But when we turn to counties and coastline we find a quite 
different state of matters. It is somewhat remarkable that 
five out of the twelve Welsh counties now bear non-Welsh 
names. First there is Anglesea, usually interpreted as 
Old English for 'the Isle of the Angles,' a name which goes 
back to the Norman Conquest. But Mr. W. H. Stevenson 
prefers to derive from O.N. Ongulsey, ' island of the fjord ' 
(the Menai Straits); the Welsh always call it Ynys Fon — i.e., 
their Isle of Man. Then comes Denbigh, a name over which 
much nonsense has been talked, largely because, from its 
earliest mention (? c. 1 350), the name is always found in its 
Welsh spelling, Dinbych, Dynbiegh, or the like, with a final 
guttural. Dinbych would literally mean ' hiU of the wretched 
being '; while Mr. Morgan holds out for din bach, ' little hiU,' 
which it certainly is. But Din bach it is never called; and 
there can hardly be any doubt that the English pronunciation 
gives the true name. Den-by, 'Danes' dwelling.' The ending 
-by is one of the commonest in Great Britain, whilst Dane has 
become Den- just as in Den-mark, The name is thus identical 
with Tenby at the opposite corner of Wales ; d and t continually 
interchange in Welsh names. Next is Flint, also debated; 
but it must be the English flint, and be called from some rocky 
peculiarity about the town or county, even though what we 
technically term ' flint ' does not seem at aU common here. 

The fourth is Montgomery, already dwelt upon; as a 

county name unique in either Wales or England, being called 

after a Norman. Lastly, there is Radnor, as plainly English 

as Flint, though few people seem clear about it. Mr. Morgan 

' teUs us, the shire's name was given to it in the reign of 

Henry VIII., and that it means 'red district.' The fact is, 

the name, though not the shire, is as old as Domesday, and is 

the Old English Radan ora, probably meaning, ' at the edge 

of the road,' presumably the Roman road which ran from 

Wroxeter south to Abergavenny and Caerleon. The native 

Welsh name is Maesyf ed or -hyf ed, probably for maes hyfaidd, 

' field of the dauntless one.' 

As to the seven other counties with pure Welsh names, it is 
notable that no less than five commemorate a national hero — 


Brechyn, Ceredig, Merlin, Merion, Morgan. This is greatly 
different from the practice of the Scottish Kelt, who rarely 
puts either himseK or any other human being into his place- 
names. The two exceptions among the seven are Pembroke, 
which is corrupt Welsh for ' head of the sea-land ' ; as Giraldus 
has it, ' Pembrochia caput maritimae sonat ' ; and then 
CAEENARVOisr, ' f ort opposite Mon ' or Anglesea. There is 
another Carnarvon in Cumberland, with the same meaning. 
Only in this case the Mon (aspirated Fon, pron.. Von) is our 
Isle of Man. 

The Welsh have been allowed even less say in naming their 
own coastline than in naming their counties. A study of the 
map shows that, except round Cardigan Bay, it is the Norse- 
man or the Saxon who has named all the headlands of impor- 
tance. Beginning at the north-east corner and going round, 
we find — e.g., Point of Ayre, Great Orme's Head, Strumble 
Head, St. David's Head, Hook Point, St. Gowan's Head, Scar 
Point, Nash Point, Oldcastle Head, the Nose and Worm's Head 
{Worm being another form of Orme, ' the Snake '). The 
common or map names of the islands are almost all Teutonic, 
too, though, of course, the Welsh have names of their own — 
Anglesea, Holy Island, Skerries, South Stack, Puffin Island, 
Bardsey, Ramsey, Skomer, Skokholm, Grassholm, Caldy, etc.; 
where, of course, the endings -y, -ey, and -hohn are aU Norse 
for 'island,' in its English form -ea. The bays, too, are very 
largely English Even in very Welsh Anglesea we have a 
Church Bay and a Redwharf Bay, whilst farther south we 
have Fishguard Bay, Milford (' sandy fjord ') Haven, Oxwich, 
and Swansea Bays. 

Examination of Welsh town and hamlet names reveals 
several curious and interesting things. The Kelt has always 
been a devout man, and it is only what one would look for to 
find that the Church has had a large say in Welsh nomen- 
clature. Of churches called after the Virgin Mary alone 
(Llanfair, etc.) we have about 150. Of course, by far the 
commonest prefix here is llan, ' a church, ' originally ' an 
enclosed bit of land,' found once in Scotland in Lhanbryde, 
'church of St. Bride.' The Postal Guide registers less than 
half the total, and of its 221 Uans, four are in Hereford. Crock- 
ford's Clerical Directory enumerates about 465 in all, to which 


must be added Lampeter, ' St. Peter's church,' and Lamphey, 
formerly Llandyf ei, and so, not as commonly thought, ' church 
of faith,' but 'church of St. Tyfai.' Crockford also gives ten 
places named Capel and sixteen named Bettws, to which we 
shall return. But meantime we feel compelled to decline 
discussing the patron saints of Welsh churches. It would be 
an endless task, a very perplexing one too. There are so many 
saints of the same name, whilst about so many exceedingly 
little is known. It only remains to add, that the student 
who wishes to know more of British hagiology, and to assure 
himself who is the saint referred to in Bettws Cedewen, 
Bettws Garmon, etc., or in any of the 460 Hans, will do 
weU to consult Smith's well-known Dictionary of Christian 
Biography, where he will find practically all that is really 
known, set forth in compact form. Only, of course, the 
student always needs to be on the outlook for spurious saints 
like St. Ishmael's, or saints in disguise, like Tyfai, who lies 
buried in the afore-mentioned name Lamphey. 

We cannot but note, however, that modern Nonconformity 
has had a share in the naming of villages, which makes a fair 
second to that of the ancient Catholic Church. In the most 
Welsh of shires we find a number of hamlets now styled 
Bethesda or Beulah, Hebron, Nazareth, or Pisgah, after some 
popular Baptist or Methodist chapel in their midst. It is 
rather humiliating to add that the public-house comes close 
on the heels of the Nonconformist chapel in its effect on Welsh 
place-names, and, little as one would expect it, has had more 
say in Wales than in any other part of Britain. Tavern Spite 
marks the site of an inn reared on the ruins of a hospice for 
pilgrims to the shrine of St. David's. Spite, W. ysbytty, is 
a compound of the L. hospis, -itis, 'a guest,' and W. ty, 'a 
house.' This is unobjectionable; but names like the Three 
Cocks, Brecon ; Stay Little, Montgomery ; and Tumble, from a 
TumbledownDick, in Caermarthen, do not sound very dignified. 

But, as we prom'sed, we are not yet done with the Church. 
In addition to all the Llans, there are at least two or three 
Capels, or Chapels, in almost every shire — Capel Garmon, from 
the much commemorated St. Germanus, and the like. We 
need not again comment further on this Norman prefix. But 
to many a reader it will be a surprise that the familiar W. 


bettws is a purely English word with a Welsh frock on. ' We 
come now to Bettws — that is, a warm, comfortable place.' 
So the word means in Welsh, or else simply ' a house, a place 
of shelter.' But though Mr. Morgan mentions ten different 
suggested derivations, there can be little doubt that bettws is 
nothing other than the EngHsh bead-house, O.E. bedhus, ' a 
prayer-house.'^ Phonetically this exactly suits the case. In 
English a ' bead-house ' came to mean an almshouse, whose 
inmates prayed for the repose of the soul of its founder. But 
in Welsh a bettws seems to have been a prayer-house erected 
on one of the great pilgrim highways for the use of devout and 
weary pilgrims. It is scarcely questioned that Bettws y Coed, 
and all places of like name, date from after — indeed, probably 
a good deal after — the Norman Conquest. Dyserth in Flint, 
like Dysart in Fife, is the L. desertum, 'a desert,' then 'a hermit's 
cell,' and then, like Bettws, 'a pilgrim house.' 

As with the headlands and islands, so also the chief sea towns 
have been named by Norse or English lips (except Cardiff) 
— Swansea, e.g., and Newport, Milford, Fishguard, and Holy- 
head. Because of its present pronunciation, some have thought 
that this last must be Holly head ; but it is found as ' Le holy 
hede ' before 1490. The Welsh call it Caergybi, in honour of 
Gybi or Cybi, a British saint who, after visiting Gaul and 
opposing Arianism, returned c. 380, to found a monastery on 
this remote isle. Even a number of the favourite watering- 
places are non- Welsh in name: Tenby, e.g., and Oystermouth 
or Mumbles, and the Cardigan New Quay, which, like its Cornish 
namesake, and like Port Madoc, is quite a modem affair. We 
must add Barmouth, reaUy a corruption of Aber Mawddach, 
' at the mouth of the Mawddy,' or ' the broad, expanding river. 
But by the sailors it was deliberately changed to its English 
form in 1786, that they might have an English name to mark 
upon their vessels. Aber-, by the way, is a very common 
prefix in Wales. It was much used by the Brythons and also 
by the Scottish Picts. But its Goidelic equivalent Inver-, so 
common all over Scotland, and not rare in Ireland, is never 
found in Wales. The Postal Guide mentions forty-four Abers- 
in Wales and Monmouth. 

* Possibly Corn, botus, ' a parish,' may be the same word; see Botus- 



There are, as we have noted, perhaps no original Roman 
names left, but there are two Welsh abbeys still with names 
in medieval Latin — VaUe Crucis, ' the Valley of the Cross,' and 
Strata Florida, 'the Flowery Way,' in Cardigan, called the 
Westminster Abbey of medieval Wales. The county for non- 
Welsh names is Pembroke, where the town and village names 
run about half and half. A rough calculation of the names 
of any consequence gives about seventy Welsh and seventy non- 
Welsh. Many of these last are known to be due to the batch 
of Flemings whom Henry I. imported from the Netherlands 
in 1111, and whom he settled here to help to cow the native 
Welsh, who could ill brook the iron-handed Norman in their 
midst. Johnston, Reynoldstown and Rogeston, are cases in 
point. William Rufus had planted a like colony in Gower in 
1099 ; but Freeman thought these must have been Wessex men 
brought over from Somerset. All place-name study is full of 
pitfalls and snares, and Wales is no exception. The student 
therefore must always be on his guard against names which 
are not what they seem. There are many real English names 
on Welsh ground, but not a few masqueraders too, like Valley 
in Anglesea, which is reaUy the Welsh maelle, ' place of trade,' 
with the often aspirated m; whilst Watford, Glamorgan, seems 
to be a corruption of the Welsh Y Bodffordd, ' the house by 
the road.' 

Of aU the real Old English names in Wales not yet descanted 
upon, perhaps the most important — anyhow, the most per- 
plexing — is Wrexham, now in Denbigh, but in Saxon days 
a frontier town of the kingdom of Mercia. We have seen 
nowhere an accurate account of this name ; and we have found 
that even prominent and highly educated dweUers in Wrexham 
believe its name to be Welsh, because it has a so-caUed Welsh 
name, Gwrecsam, for which some extraordinary explanations 
have been given. But Gwrecsam is an obvious corruption of 
the English name, which, in its early spellings, is a little puzzling. 
It occurs first in the Pipe Roll for 1160-61 as Wristlesham. 
The St at once betrays the pen of a Norman scribe. These 
men, as we already know (see p. 26), detested gutturals, and 
practically never wrote them down. When we hunt in Searle's 
monumental Onomasticon Anglo- Saxonicum for a name likely 
to be represented by Wristles-ham, we find only one, Wrytsleof , 


' dux,' at Crediton in 1026. Wryt- will be for Wryht-, and in 
aU probability the original name is ' Wryhtsleof's home.' The 
next recorded spelling is in 1222, in the charter of Madoc ap 
Griiffydd — Wrecheosam; in 1236 it is Wreccesham or Wrette- 
sham; whilst in 1316-17 is given as Wrightlesham, by far 
the nearest approximation to the original form. Beaumont 
and Fletcher, as is well known, clipped it down to Rixum. 



a tends to become se, or reversely — Abba, ^Ebba; Alfred, 
iElfred, etc. The -an of the masculine O.E. genitive often 
becomes -ing — ^Ebbandune, now Abingdon; Aldantmi, 
now Aldington, etc. We see a reverse process in ^Ifre- 
dinctmi now Alfreton. Medial eo in classic O.E. regularly 
becomes a in Mod.E. — Haekstead, ' place of Heorc,' etc. 

h may become its fellow labial p ; but rarely — Abetone is now 
Apeton, Ebbasham is now Epsom. It also intrudes itself 
like p, but much more rarely — Gamesf ord is now Cambles- 
f orth, Gamelesbi is Gamblesby, Ghemeling is GembUng, etc. 

c in Danish regions generally remains hard, but elsewhere 
tends to soften into ch; cf. -caster, -cester, -Chester. Some- 
times, though rarely, c softens into s; cf. Braceborough, 
and Shad well, thought to be ' Chad's well,' whilst already 
in 1236 we have Ceffton for Sefton. 

d interchanges sometimes with its fellow dental t — BeUord is, 
c. 1175, Belifort. It even sHdes on into -th; many of the 
northern -fords are now -forths. It is one of the letters 
which frequently insert themselves, as in Bewdley for 
Beaulieu, Brindle for Brinhill, Windrush for Wenrisc, etc. 

e in M.E. may appear almost anywhere. It is often a worn- 
down a as in Essebi for Ashby, or represents some other 
almost lost inflexion; but very often, as an ending, it has 
no significance. 

/ in Welsh sounds v — Afon is Avon, etc. ; ff sounds /, though 
often the modern final -ff is no true /, as in Cardiff, 
Llandaff, etc. 

g in Welsh freely interchanges with c — Gaerwen for Caerwen, 
etc. Sometimes it does so in Teutonic names too — 
Gisburn is, 1197, Kiseburn, etc. Initial g tends to drop 



away, leaving I or Y, as in Ipswich, the old Gippeswic, 
Great Yarmouth, once Gememuth, etc. 

h is an elusive aspirate, which freely prefixes itself all over — 
Abbertune is now Habton, Yorks; Addingham was once 
also Hatyngham; whilst Aldermaston is found spelt 

i and j are rare initials in old names. These will generally be 
found under g. 

k. In O.E. we only have c, in O.N. only h. Dom. rarely has 
k except in Suffolk, and, more rarely, in Norfolk. 

I. This liquid is always disappearing; indeed, the liquids 
I, m, n, r, above aU other letters, need watching. Aid- 
worth by 1225 has become Audeworth, and Alnwick, by 
c. 1175, Audnewic (Norman speUing), whilst to-day it is 
pronounced Annick. I is also constantly appearing where 
it has no right to be, as in Islington, Scagglethorpe, 
Walney, etc., or as in Hartlepool for 'hart's pool.' We 
even get Harlington for an orignal Herdington. The I 
may not seldom be replaced by its sister r, as in Abberley 
for ' Eadbeald's' lea ' ; Barnacle for Bamhangre shows 
the reverse process ; whilst it is the liquid n instead of r 
in Ecchinswell for Eccleswell, and in Dromonby. 

II is a peculiarly Welsh combination. Its soft thl sound was 
reached soon after 1200. The first instance we have 
noted is in the Patent' Boll for 1246 — Keventhles, now 
Cefn Llys, Radnor. About fifty years later comes Bolls 
Parliament,!. 463, l,where we have Thlewelyn for Llewelyn. 
But up to at least Giraldus, c. 1200, there is no trace of 
this. In him we always get Ian, e.g., and no trace of llan. 
We find c. 1620 the interesting form Flanteclex for 
Llanteglos, with which compare Fletherhill. 

m and n, being closely kindred liquids, tend to interchange, 

as in several cases of Dmn- for Dun-. 
n is specially liquid, and tends to vanish. See Alnemouth, 
now Alemouth, Quarrington, etc. It may also interchange 
with any of the other liquids. See Allerdale for Allendale, 
Holsingoure, now Hunsingore; Hildrewelle, now Hinder- 
weU; and Baltersbergh, now Baltonsborough. As curious 
a case as any is the name now Rickmansworth, originally 
' Ricmser's worth.' 
p. As already said, p interchanges with b, but rarely. Per- 


hape in no sure case in aber-, though in old spellings in 
Scotland we do certainly find apor-. Cf. Dom. Ypestan 
now Ibstone. The letter 39 is a common intruder; see 
Bampton, Hampton, etc. 

qu as in old Scots is =wh, as Whaplode, old Quappelode; 
Wheldale, old Queldale; Whenby, old Quennebi; etc. 

r. See already under the other liquids I and n. Of course, it 
often disappears, as in ' fine English ' pronunciation to-day 
— Abbey Dore is really Aberdore, Heigham Potter should 
be H. Porter, and Mary-le-bone is properly Mary-le- 
bourne. It can intrude itself too, as in Bajbdon", Ulver- 
STONE, etc.; whilst Derrington, Staffs, was regularly 
Doddington, or the like, up to 1318. Note that re in 
old spellings is always sounded er. This often helps to 
unravel a knot. 

s. The O.E. scr, of course, becomes sh-, as in Shalcombe, 
Shalfleet, Shanklin, etc. More rarely sh- may be fr. O.N. 
sh-, as perhaps in Shap and Sheerness. This sk- usually 
remains hard. The plural 5 or es is often modern. Gj. 
Coates, Mumbles, Staithes, etc. 

th, as we know, is almost always (Z as a final in Dom. We 
find the same change in modern names too, as in Cottered, 
where -red stands for -rith, 'stream.' Initially th is 
sometimes a mere Norman superfluity, as in Thames, 
whilst the Th in Thanet is also quite late. Dom. usually 
writes initial Th as T. Th- also makes a singular and 
remarkable change into /, as in Fenglesham, Deal, which 
was in 831 Thenglesham, Felbridge, old Thelbrig, and, 
conversely, Dom. Freschefelt is now Threshfield, Yorks. 

«; is a genuine element in very few English names. 

y is usually for O.E. ge- or g, as in Yarmouth, Norfolk, for 
Gernemuth, Yardley for Gyrdleahe, Yarnfield for Gearn- 
feld, Yatesbury from a man Geat, etc. But Dom. often 
has nothing to show for the y sound, as in Yarlett, Dom. 
Erlid, and Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, Dom. Ermu. 

z is South- West English for 5. Zoy, e.g., is Soweie, ' sow 
island,' etc. In Dom. it often replaces 5 — Cranzvic for 
Cranswick, Branzbi for Brandsby, etc. In Ginge, Berks 
Dom. has Gainz, ' where z has the sound of ts or dz, and 
only approximately represents the English sound of a 
palatalised g (like modern English j).' — Skeat. 




a., ante, before. 

Alii. Itin., The Antonino 

B.C.S., Birch, Oartulari- 
um Saxonicum. 

c. , circa, about. 

cf., compare. 

chart., charter, usually in 
B.G.S,, which is ar- 
ranged chronologically. 

cny., century. 

corrup., corruption. 

dat., dative. 

dial., dialect. 

Dom., Domesday Book. 

Flor. W., Florence of 

fr., from. 

gen., genitive. 

Gir, Camb.y Giraldus Cam- 


G., Gaelic. 

ih., the same. 

K.G.D., Kenible, Codex 

L., Latin. 

loc, locative. 

mod., modern. 

N., Norse. 

Nor., Norman. 

O.E., Old English or 

O.N., Old Norse or Ice- 

O.W., Old Welsh. 

Onom., Searle's Oiwmasti- 
con Anglo -Saxoni- 

orig., originally. 

Oxf. Diet., A New English 
Dictionary, Oxford, 

edited by Sir J. A. H. 
Murray, etc. 

P.G., Postal Guide. 

perh., perhaps. 

Pipe, Rolls of the Great 

prob., probably. 

pron., pronunciation. 

quot., quotation. 

R, Rolls. 

K Glouc., Robert of Glou- 

Sc, Scottish, or, see Place- 
Names of Scotland. 

syll., syllable. 

v.r., various reading. 

var., variant. 

W., Welsh. 

W. and H., Wyld and 
Hirst, Place-Names of 

2-4, or such-like figui-es before an English word denote the centuries in which it is so 
spelt; e.g., 3-7 nelde means that needle is found so spelt from the thirteenth to 
seventeenth centuries. 

Abbeeley (Stourport). Dom. Edboldlege, c. 1200 Albo(l)de8leye, 
1275 Albedeleye. Gf. c. 1350 chart. Aberleye, prob. Linos. 
' Meadow of Eadbeald ' or ' Mdhold,'' a very common O.E. name. 
See how one liquid, I, glides into another, r! Cf. next and 
Abram, also Ablington, Bibury, c. 855 chart. Eadbaldingtune. 
See -ley. 

Abberton (Pershore and Colchester). Pe. A. 969 chart. Ead- 
brigtincgtune, Dom. Edbritone, 1275 Edbriston {si. Norman), 
1538 Abnrton. ' Dwelling of (the sons of) Eadbriht ' or ' Ead- 
heorht.^ Cf. Abberley, and Dom. Salop, Etbretone, and Ebring- 
ton (Glouc), Dom. Bristentune, c. 1300 Ebricton. But Co. A. is 
Dom. Eadburghetun, ' dwelling of (the woman) Eadburga.' 
Cf. Aberford. See -ing and -ton. 

Abbey Dore (Pontrilas). Corrup. of Aher Dore, ' place at the 
confluence of R. Dore ' and Monnow; W. aher, O.G. aher, abher, 
ahir, ' confluence.' The other places in Abbey denote a former 
abbey — e.g., Abbey Hulton (Burslem), or ' Hill town,' where a 
Cistercian abbey was built in 1223. 

Abbots Bromley (Rugeley). 1004 Bromleag, -lege, Dom. Brun- 
lege, c. 1400 Bromley Abbatis, Abbottes Bromley. It belonged 
to Burton Abbey. See Bromley. 



Abbotsbury (Dorset), Dom. Abbodesberie, 1155 Abbedesberi, 
c. 1180 Bened. Peterh. Abbotesbiria. ' Burgh, of the abbot,' 
O.E. abhod. Cf. 1167-68 Pipe Glostr., Abotestun. A Bene- 
dictine abbey was founded here in 1044 by the steward of K. 
Cnut. See -bury. 

Abbot's Kerswell (Newton Abbot). Dom. Carsewelle, -svelle, 
1158-59 Pipe Cari?ewell. 'Watercress well,' O.E. ccerse, cerse, 
now ' cress,' Sw. kaise. Cf. Cresswei.l and Keresley. For 
the Abbot see Newton Abbot; also cf. 940 chart., Abbodes 
wyll, Wilts. 

Abbots Langley (Herts). ' Abbot's long meadow,' O.E. lang 
leak. Close by is King's Langley. 

Abbotsley (Hunts). 1225 Alboldesley, c. 1256 Abboldesley, 1340 
Abbodesley. ' EaldbeaWs, ' or ' AlhoW^ meadow.' Fine lesson 
in caution, and in the liquidity of I. See -ley. 

Abbots Ripton (Hunts). 960 chart Riptone. Prob. not ' harvest 
village,' O.E. rip, 'harvest, reaping'; but, ' village of Bippa.' 
Cf. K.C.D. 1361, Rippanleah (now Ripley, Woking), andREPTON. 

Abbotts Ann (Andover). Dom. Anne. It is on the R. Anton, of 
which Ann seems to be a contraction ; though there is no early 
record of the form Anton ; and Anne may be a contraction of 
W. afon, ' river.' See Introd., p. 11, and Andover. 

Aber (N. Wales). In W. Aber -gwyngTegyn. W. aher, 'con- 
fluence,' or ' place at the mouth of ' (here) a beautiful glen. 
Nennius speaks of an Oper linn liuan where the Llivan, a tribu- 
tary, joins the Severn; and Irish Nennius speaks of an Operuisc, 
now Caerleon. Cf. Aber (Sc.) at mouth of R. Endrick. Aber in 
G. is often pron. obair ; in O.G. it is also apor, Gwyn gregyn 
is W. for ' of the white shells,' sing, cragen. 

Aberaman (Aberdare). ' Confluence of the R. Cynon with R. 
Aman,^ which is prob. an unaspirated var. of afon, ' river.' Cf. 
R. Almond (Sc.) and G. amhuinn, 'river.' There is also a R. 
Amman, Carmthn. 

Aberangell (Dinas Mawddy). W. angel, 'an angel'; and see 

Aberarth (Aberystwith). 'Confluence at the height'; W. and 

Corn. arth. 

Abebayron (Cardigan) . ' At the mouth of R . Ayron .' See Aeron . 

Aberbargoed (Rhymney). ' Confluence of the R. Rhymney with 
R. Bargoed.' This last, the P.G. spelling, should be W. bar 
coed, ' height with the wood ' ; but the more correct spelling 
seems to be Bargod, which means ' a march, a boundary.' 

Aberbeeg (Pontjrpool). ? ' Little confluence ' ; O.W. becc, W. bach, 
G. beag, ' little.' 


Abeebran (Brecon). On Bran see Brancaster, In W., Ir., and 
O.G. bran is ' a crow.' 

Abercanaid (Merthyr). 'At the mouth of the Canaid,' a rivulet 
here; W. cannaid, ' white, gleaming.* 

Abercarn (Newport, Mon,). ' Confluence at the cairn or mound '; 
W., O.Ir., and G., cam. 

Aberconway (N.Wales), c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Aberkonewe, -coneu; 
1295 Aberconewey. See Aber and Conway. 

Abercrave (Neath). ' Confluence of R. Tawy with the brook 
Craf ' ; fr. W. craf (f pron. v), ' claws, talons ' ; crafu, ' to scratch 
or tear up,' referring to the action of the stream. 

Aberdare. ' Confluence of the R. Cynon with R. Dar ' ; Cynon 
may mean * chief brook,' whilst Dar is prob. W. dar, ' an oak.' 

Aberdaron (Pwllheli). ' At the mouth of the R. Daron,' which 
is said to mean 'noisy river ' ; the ending -on may quite well 
stand for ' river,' as in Carron (Sc), Garonne, etc., and as in 
Cynon, see above. 

Aberdulais (Neath). 'Confluence of the dark, black stream'; 
W. du glais. Cf. Douglas and Dowlais. 

Aberedw (Builth). ' Confluence of the R. Edwy,'' of which the 
Ed- may be fr. W. eddu, ' to press on, to go,' whilst the -wy is = 
Wye or ' river.' 

Abererch (Pwllheli). 'Confluence of R. Erch'; W. erch, 'dun- 
coloured, dark.' 

Aberefan (Merthyr). ' Confluence of the brook Fan,,'' with R. 
Taff. Said to be fr. AV. Ian, ' high.' 

Aberferaw (W. of Anglesea). a. 1196 Gir. Garni). Aberfrau, 1232 
Close R. Abbefrau, c. 1350 Aber(i)frowo. Ffraw is thought by 
H. Bradley to represent an orig. Frama, later From (name of 
R. Frome in O.E. Chron. 998), which would develop on Brit, 
lips to Frauv, and later to Ffraw. The earliest recorded form 
of R. Frome actually is Fraau (O.E. Chron. 875). Meaning 
doubtful; some think it means ' agitated, active, swift ' river. 

Aberford (Leeds), a. 1200 Pipe ^Edburgforth, .^dburford 
Nothing to do with W. aber, ' confluence ' ; but * ford of ' (the 
lady) 'Eadburh,' gen. -burge, as in Abbbrton (Essex). See -ford. 

Abergavenny, c. 380 Anton. Itin. Goban(n)io, a. 1196 Gir, 
Camb. Abergavenni, -gevenni, c. 1200 Gervase Bergevene, 1281 

" and often later, Bergeveny, 1610 Holland Aber- Grevenny. Local 
pron. Aber-venny. In W. Abergefni or Y Fenni. ' Confluence 
of the Gavenny ' and Usk. Gobann is gen. of goibniu, ' a 
smith,' in Ir. a proper name= Smith and Govan (Sc.) and Gowan, 
In late W. legend Gofannon is patron god of metal-workers. 
The a- in aber- is rarely lost, as in many old forms here; but 
c/. Barmoxjth, Berriew, etc. 



Abergele (N. Wales). Pron. -gayly. Perh. c. 1350 chart. Aber- 
gelon. 'At the mouth of the R. Gele'; prob. W. gele, 'a 
leech ' ; leeches used to be common in the estuary here. 

Abeegwili (Carmarthen). Gwili is a river name. Here it is prob. 
the same root as R. Wiley. Some derive fr. W. gwyllt, 

Abeegwynfi (Bridgend, Glam.). ' Confluence of the brook 
Gwynfi'; Thos. Morgan says Gwynfai means 'blessed plain'; 
W. gwyn ffau would mean ' clear cave.' The writer cannot learn 
if there is one here. 

Abergwynolwyn (Towyn). 'Confluence of the white swaUow;' 
W. gwinnol qwyn. But the name seems better spelt Aber- 
gwernolwy(n). The river here is the Gwernol, W. for ' swampy, 

Abeekenpig (Bridgend, Glam.). ' Confluence at Kenfig Hill.' 

Abeellefni (Merioneth). The -llefni is very doubtful. W. 
llefnau means ' ruins ' ; some think of W. llech feini, ' slate 
stones.' Thos. Morgan inclines to the form Llwyfeni, as the 
name is spelt by I fan Tew ; this means ' elm-trees,' still found 
on the bank of the river. Cf. Leven (So.) and Aberllynfi, 1233 
Close R. Abberlewin, Abreleniiith. 

Abeelledstiog (Anglesea). c. 1205 Brut re ann. 1096, Aberlleiniawc. 
' Confluence of the Lleiniog,' a mere brook. The name seems 
connected with W. lleinio, ' to blade,' lleiniad, ' a putting forth 
of blades/ fr. llafn, ' a blade.' 

Aberpoeth (Cardigan). W. dber porth, ' confluence at the har- 
bour.' Cf. Langpoet. 

Abeesyghan (Pontypool). ' Confluence of the Sychan,'' which may 
mean, a brook that runs dry in summer; fr. W. sych, ' dry '; 
sychin, ' drought.' 

Abeeteivi (Cardigansh.) Sic a. 1196 Gif. Camb. ; he also has 
Aberteini, -theini (? mistakes, n for u) ; also Abertewi (? the 
same place). See Tivy. 

Abertillery (Pontypool). ' Confluence of the R. Tillery,^ perh. 
a pre-Keltic name. To derive fr. a reputed ty O^Leary, or 
' O'Leary's house,' seems ridiculous; nor is it likely to be fr. 
O.W. twyllawr, -Iwr, ' a cheat, a deceiver.' 

Aberystwith. c. 1196 Gir. Camb. Aberescud; 1461 Lib.Pluscard. 
Abirhust Wiche -a bad shot by an ignorant scribe. W. ystwyth 
is ' pliant, flexible,' a likely name for a river. But -escud sug- 
gests W. ysgwd, ' a thrusting forward,' or ysgod, ' a shadow,' or 
ysgoad, ' a starting aside.' 

Abengdon. Sic c. 1540; 699 chart. Abbendune; 1051 O.E. Chron. 
Abbandune, ^Ebbandune; c. 1180 Benedict Peterb. Abbendonia; 


c. 1377 Piers PI. Abyndoun. O.E. JElhan dun, * Ebba's hill ' 
or * fort.' Ahha or Mliha is a common Wessex name. In Yorks 
the Abbetune of Dom. has become Habton. See -don. 

Abinger Common and Hammer (Dorking). Pron. Abenjer, c/. 
BiEMiNGHAM. Old Abingworth, Abingerth. O.E. Ahban worth, 
' Abba's farm,' rather than ' Abba's yard ' or ' garth,' O.E. 
geafd. See Hammer. Dom. Surrey has only Abincebomo. 
See -bourne and -ing and -worth. 

Abington (Cambridge and ISTorthants). Cam. A. Dom. Abintone, 
1302 Abyntone. Nor. A. chart. Abintone. O.E. Abban tun, 
* village of Abba.' ABEisrGTOiir (Sc.) is 1459 Albintoune. 

Ab-Kettleby (Melton Mow.). Dom. Chetelbi, c. 1350 chart. 
Abbekettelby. The Dom. form is simple — ' dwelling of Cetel ' 
or ' Kettel,^ a common O.E. name. The Ab- is difficult; perh. 
the name intended is ASlfcytel, a fairly common one, of which a 
var. Mlbcytel occurs. There is also a name Aba, seen prob. in 
' Abegrave ' in Dom. of this same shire. Cf. ' Abblinton,' Lines, 
in Boll Rich. I., and Abload, Glouc, 1189 Pipe Abbelada; 
also Kettleburgh. See -by. 

Abram (Wigan). 1190-1322 Adburgham, 1212 Edburgham, 1372- 
1481 Abraham. .' Home of Eadburh ' or ' Eadburga,' a common 
O.E. woman's name. Of course the later forma have been 
modified through supposed connection with Abraham. ' Cf. 
Abberton, Babraham, and Wilbraham. 

Aby (Alford). Dom. Abi. 'Dwelling, village on the stream'; 
O.N. d-bi. Cf. Abridge, Romford, and 1166-67 Pipe, Hants, 
Abrigge, Hamonis; only in this last the A- will be O.E. ed, 
' river.' See -by. 

Acaster Malbis (York), and A. Selby. Both in Dom. Acastra, 
-stre, also 'Acastra, other Acastre'; 1166-67 Pipe Acastra. 
Prob. N. d-caster, ' camp, fort by the stream.' See -caster. 
The Malbysse family dwelt at A. Malbis for some centuries after 
the Conquest. It is on R. Ouse. 

AccRiNGTON. 1258 Akerynton, 1277 Acrinton, a. 1300 Alkerington, 
Akerington, c. 1350 Alcrynton; cf. Dom. Worcr. Alcrintun. 
This seems to be * town, village of Ealhhere ' ; also spelt 
Alcher and Ahhere, or, of his descendants. The name, is very 
common in O.E. See -ing and -ton. 

AcKLAM (York). Dom. Aclun, 1202 Aclum, 1528 Acclame, 1530 
Acclome. A little puzzling. Said by some to be an old loc. 
of O.E. dc, ' at the oaks.' Cf. Kilham. But how account for 
the I ? The first part must be the name of its owner, given in 
Dom. as Ulchel, or Ulkel, short for the common Ulfcytel ; the 
Onom. also gives a form or name Achil. The ending may be a loc ., 
' at Ulkel's,' afterwards assimilated to -ham, q.v. Cf. Ackling- 
ton, Morpeth, where old forms are needed, and Acomb. 


AcKLETON (Wolverhampton). Old forms needed. Prob. 'Aculfs 
or Acvmlfs town ' ; but c/. above, and Acle ; and see -ton. 

AcKLEY (Kent). [789 O.E. Chron. Acleah, and Sim. Dm. ann. 851 
Aclea, in Northumbria.] a. 1000 chart. Acleah, O.E.= ' oak- 
lea, oak-meadow.' Cf. Acle and Ockley. But Acksley 
(Dorset) is K.C.D. 706 Accesleah, ' meadow of Acca.' Ackholt, 
Kent — i.e., ' oak-wood ' — is 1232 Close R. Achalt, -holt. 

AcKWORTH (Pontefract). Dom. Acewrde, 1204 Acworth, which is 
O.E. for ' oak place.' See -worth. 

Acle (Norwich). Sic in Dom. A rare type of name, O.E. dc leak, 
' oak mead ' ; -ley is rarely slurred into -le. But cf. Oakle, Minster- 
worth, old Okkele, Ocle; also cf. Ack- and Ockley. 

AcoMB (Hexham and York). Hex. A. old Oakham, mod. pron. 
Yekhm. Yor. A. Dom. Acum, Acun. This seems to have 
nothing to do with -combe ' valley,"" but to be an old loc, 
O.E. dcun, ' at the oaks '; afterwards influenced by -ham. Cf. 
AcKLAM and Kilham. 

AcoNBUKY (Hereford). 1218 Patent R. and 1285 Close R. Acome- 
bury. ' Burgh of ' ? Acorn, used as a personal name, not in 
Onom. The sb. is O.E. cecem, 'fruit of the acre,' i.e., 'un- 
enclosed land.' Oxf. Diet, does not give the form acorn till 
1440. Very likely, however, Acorn- may be corrup. of Ecehearn 
or Ecgbeorn, a name found in Wore. c. 1055. 

Acrefaib (Ruabon). 'Acre' or 'field of Mary'; W. Fair (/ is 
aspirated m in W.). 

Acton (London, Suffolk, Nantwich, etc.). Lond. A. c. 1300 Acton; 
Suff. A. a. 1000 chart. Acantun; Nant. A. Dom. Actune. O.E, 
dc-tun, ' enclosure, village, with the oaks.' But Acan- must be 
the gen. of Aca or Acca, a common O.E, personal name. In 
S. Yorks the Actone of Dom. is now Ackton, whilst in E, Riding 
Dom.'s Actun has become Atjghton. 

Acton Buenell (Shrewsbury). Dom. Achetone, 1271 Actone 
Bumel. The ch in Dom. is the habitual softening of the Nor. 
scribes. See Acton, Sir Robt, Bumel, tutor to K. Edward I,, 
and made by him Ld. Chancellor and Bp, of Bath and Wells, 
was given the manor here c. 1270, Brunei is the same name, 

Acton Trtjssell (Penkridge). 1004 Actun, Dom. Actone; and 
Acton Turville (Chippenham). See Acton. A Tourvile or 
Turville came over with Wm. the Conqueror, and is found on 
the roll of Battle Abbey. One is found at Normanton-Turvile, 
CO. Leicester, temp. Hen. II. The Trussells were also a Nor. 

Adb ASTON (Eccleshall), Dom. Edbaldestone; later Adbaldestone, 
Alboldestun, Albaldiston, ' Town, village of Eadbeald,' a 
common name. Cf. Abberley and Adbolton (Notts) Dom, 


Adder or Adur R. (Wilts), a. 420 Nofitia Portus Adumi— ;.c., 
Aldrington on this river. Nothing to do with adders; but Kelt., 
Corn, dour, W. dyior, 'water.' The A- is doubtful. The So. R. 
Adder is prob. aspirated[fr. G.fad ddhhar or dur, ' long stream.' 
There is a R. Adur both in Sussex and Cornwall. 

Addebbury (Banbury), a. 1000 K.C.D. 1290 Eadburgebyrig, 
Dom. Edburgberie, 1229 Close R. Eadburebir', 1230 ib. 
Eburbir', 1270 Abberbury, 1288 Adburbur', 1428 Addurbury. 
' Burgh, town of the lady Eadburh,^ gen. -hurge. To-day it is 
the d, not the 6, which has survived, as in Abberton and Abber- 
pord. But we stUl have the d in St. Adborough's Ditch, 
Cotswolds. See -bury. 

Adderley (Mket. Drayton). Dom. Eldredelei, 1284 Close R. 
Addredeleye; 'Meadow of the woman Aldreda,'' in O.E. Mthel- 
ihryth, a common name. See -ley. 

Addestgham (Leeds), c. WZ^Sim.Dur. Addingeham, v.r. Hatyng- 
ham, ' Home of the descendants of Adda,'' a common O.E. name. 
See -ing and -ham, and cf. next. 

Addington (Bucks, Croydon, Maidstone, Northampton.). Croy. A. 
Dom. Edintone, Nor. A. chart. Adyngton(a), Dom. Edintone, 
whilst Dom. Kent is Eddintone. ' Village of Adda or Edda,^ or 
his descendants. Cf. above, and -ing. 

Addiscombe (Croydon). Old Adscomb, Adgcomb; not in Dom. 
'Adda's vale,' O.E. cumb[e). Cf. above. But Addiscott, S. 
Tawton, is 1228 Close R. Eilrichescot, ' cottage of Elric,' var. 
of the common Mlfric. 

Addle or Adel (Leeds). Dom. Adele, Ecton's Liber Regis Adhill. 
' Hill of Ada,' 2 in the Onom. Possibly the -ele represents 
-hale or -hall, q.v. 

Addlethorp(e) (W. Riding and Burgh, Lines). Dom. Yorks, 
Ardulfestorp, Lines, Arduluetorp. 'Ardulfs village.' Cf. Addle- 
stone (Chertsey), and see -thorpe. 

Adisham (Canterbury). 616 Grant Adesham, v.r. Edesham. 
* Ada's ' or ' Edda's ' home. Cf. Addingham, and see -ham. 

Adlestrop (Stow-on-Wold). Dom. Tedestrop, Thatlestrope, 1198 
Tadelesthorp, Feud. Avd^ Tatlestrop. This must be orig. 
' Toedald'a' or ' Tcedweald's village'; one such in Onom. The 
name is very interesting for (1) the rare dropping of initial T, 
and (2) the preserving of the true O.E. form t{h)orp, very rare in 
Eng. names, except in this shire. Cf. Westrip, old Wcstrop, and 
Wolstrop, old Wulvesthrop. See -thorpe. 

Adlingpleet (Goole). [Perh. O.E. Chron. 763 ^Iflet ee; ee= O.E. 
ige, 'isle.'] Dom. Adelingesfluet, c. 1080 Athlingfleet, 1304 
Athelingflete. ' Stream of Atheling,' the O.E. ce^el-ing, * descen- 
dant of a noble family,' spelt 1387 Trevisa ' adelyngus.' Cf. 


Ger. add. The -fleet is O.N. jljot, ' stream, river,' cognate with 
flj6t-r, ' fleet, quick.' The Adelingestorp of Dom. is now 
EUinthorpe, S. Yorks. 

Adlington (Chorley and Macclesfd.). Chor, A. 1184-90 Edeluinton, 
Adel-, Aldeventon, Adelinton, Athelington, 1294 Adelingtone, 
1286 Edlington. Mace. A. c. 1250 Adelvinton. The name is 
the very common O.E. Mihelvnne, in its L. form, Adelwinus ; but 
some of the spellings were evidently influenced by the O.E. 
(Biding. See above, and -ton. 

Admaston (Rugely and Wellington, Salop). Rug. A. a. 1200 
Edmundeston, Admerdeston, a. 1300 Admundestan, Edmunde- 
stone. Wei. A. a. 1300 Ademon(e)ston. ' Town, village of 
Eadmund^ (or ' Eadmcer^), The forms show how both the 
liquids n and r can vanish. 

Adstock (Winslow). Dom. Edestocha. 'Place of Ada, jEdda, 
or j^ddi ' ; -stock is= Stoke. Cf. Ad wick, and Adsett (Glouc), 
1221 Addesete, ' Adda's settlement.' 

Adub R-. See Adder. 

Advent (Lanteglos, Cornwall). May be fr. Advent Sunday, day of 
the consecration of the Church here; or fr. St. Adwen, daughter 
of a W. saint and king, 4th cny. 

Adwalton (Bradford). 1202 Athelwaldon; 'Town, village of 
Mihdweald,'' or its equally common var., ' Eadweald.'' 

Ad WICK - LE - Street (Doncaster) and Ad wick - on - Dearne (S. 
Yorks). Both Dom. Adewic, 'Dwelling of J[(Za.' (7/. Adstock, 
and see -wick. For Dearne see Wath-on -Dearne. 

Adwyrclawdd (Wrexham). W. adwy r' dawdd, ' gap, breach in 
the dyke ' — i.e., Off a's Dyke, close by. 

Aeron or Ayron R. (Cardigansh.). Possibly fr. Agriona; Kelt, 
goddess of war, W. aer, ' battle.' W. air is ' bright, clear,' 
whilst -on is contraction of afon, ' river.' Cf. Carron (Sc). 

Affpiddle (Dorchester). Dom. Affapidele. Prob. ' puddle ' or 
' puddly stream of Affa ' ; 2 called Affa and 2 Afa in Onom. 
See Piddle. 

Afon" Ax aw (Anglesea). W.= ' river of water lUies.' Afon in W. 
is, of course, pron. Avon. 

Afonwen (Holywell). W. afon gwen, * very clear, bright river.' 

Aigburth (Liverpool). 1190-1256 Aykeberh, 1329 Aikebergh. 
O.N. eik-herg, ' oak-clad hill ' or ' rock ' ; the endings have been 
influenced by the forms of what is now Barrow sb^ Oxf. Diet., 
O.E. heorg, 3 herhg, 4t hergh, hurgh. Cf. Eakring. 

Ainderby (Northallerton). Dom. Aiendrebi, Andrebi, 1208 Ender- 
by. ' Dwelling of Andar ' or ' Mnder' though the only forms in 
Onom. are Andhere and Andahari. Cf. Anderby, and see -by. 


AmsDALB (Southport). Dom. Einuluesdel, 1199 Annovesdala, 
1190-1206 Aynuluisdale, 1201-02 Ainolvesdale, 1206 Einonesdal. 
' Valley of Einumlf,' one in Onom. Cf. Abmthorpe and 

AiNSWORTH (Bolton). 1190-1216 Haineswrthe, 1244 Ainesworth, 
c. 1514 Aynsworth. Doubtful. It may be ' farm of Eginulf ' 
or ' Einulf,' as in Ainsdalb, It prob. is 'farm of Hagena' 
(now Haines) ; or perh. ' of Egon' as in Eynsham. Ainstablb, 
Armathwaite, Cumbld., is 1210 Einstapeleth, which may be 
'^inwulfs market/ cf. Barnstaple. See -worth. 

Aentreb (Liverpool). 1244-92 Eyntre, 1296 Ayntre. Perh. 
* jEne'fi tree.' Cf. the ' Aynburg ' in Sim. Dur., Braintrbe, etc. 
But Wyld says, O.E. an treow, ' one tree,' one in N. dial, being 
ane, 5-6 ayne, ain. 

Aire R. (Yorks). 959 chart. Yr., 1314 Hayr. Prob. O.N. eyri, 
'tongue of land, gravelly bank.' Of. Ayr R. (Sc), which 
prob. has the same origin. 

AiRMYN or Armyn (Goole). (? Dom. Amuine.) 1314 charl. 
HajTTminne, 1317 Ajrremynn, a. 1400 Ayermynne. Aire -munn 
is 'confluence of the R. Aire' and the Ouse; fr. O.N. minni, N. 
munn-r, ' mouth.' Arminni is common in the Sagas for ' a 
confluence.' Cf. Stalmtne. 

AiRTON (W. Riding). Dom. Airtone. * Town on R. Aire.' 

AiSHOLT (Bridgewater). Not in Dom., but it has in Somst. Aisseoote 
and -forde. O.E. cesc-JioU, ' ash-wood.' Ash is found a. 1300 as 
asse, c. 1450 aish. Cf. Great Aish, South Brent. But Ais- 
THORPE, Lines, is 1233 Close R. Austorp, prob. ' east village.' 


AiSLABY (Sleights, Yorks). Dom. Aslachesbi. ' Dwelling of AslacJ* 
Cf. AsLACKBY, and see -by. 

Akeld (Wooler). O.N. eik-kelda, 'oak-tree spring'; cf. Little 
Salkeld. Possibly the name is purely O.E. Cf. O.E. dc 
('an oak'), and Bapohild. 

Alberbury (Shrewsbury). Dom. Alberberie. Prob. ' Ealdheorht^s 
burgh ' or ' fort.' Several men of that name known in Mercia. 
Cf. Albur-, Alber-wyk in a charter of Edw. TIL, and Elberton 
(Glouc.;, 1230 Albricton. There is in 1160-61 Pipe N'hants, 
an Albodeston, or ' Ealdheald's town,' which may be the same 
name as Albaston, Tavistock; old forms needed. At any rate 
we have 1166-67 Pipe, Glouc, Abbdeston, Abbedeston, also 
found as Albedeston. Ealdbeald is more commonly Eadbeald, 
v.r. uEdbold. 

Albourne (Sussex). C^. Dom. Aldingeborne.) Cf. 931 in B.C.S. 
II. 358 q.v. Mt aleburnan pet J^am lytlan egilande [near 
Clare, Hants]. The Al- is doubtful. Cf. Alburgh; and see 


Albeighton (Shrewsbury and Wolverhampton). Dom. Salop, 
Albricstone. [823 chart. ' Aldberhtingtun in occidente Stur,' 
near Canterbury.] ' Town ' or ' village of Ealdheorht.' Cf. 
Elburton, Plymouth: on the -st in Dom. Cf. p. 26, 

Albtjbgh (Harleston) and Albuby (Guildford and Bps. Stortford). 
Guil. A. o. 900 chart. Aldeburi, whilst Bps. S. A. is still spelt 
Aldboro'. O.E. eald (M.E. aid), hurh, ' old burgh, fortified 
place.' Cf. negro ole for old, Aldborotjgh and Aldeby; also 
see -burgh. 

Alcester (Redditch). 1166-67 Pipe Alecestr', 1178 ih. Alen- 
cestra, 1217 Patent E. Alencestre, 1538 Leland Aulcester. 
* Camp on R. Alne.' It certainly was a Rom. camp. Close by 
is Great Alne. See -cester. 

Alconbury (Hunts). 1232 E. Alcmundebir', a. 1300 
Alkemundebyri. ' Burgh of Alchmund. But Aconbury, 
Hereford, is 1218 Patent E. Acornebury, seemingly fr, a 
man called Acorn, O.E, cecem, ' acorn.' See -bury. 

Aldborotjgh (S.W. Essex, Norwich, and W. Riding). No. A. Dom. 
Aldebga, York A. 1203 Vetus Burgum, L. for O.E. eald, Mercian 
aid hurh, ' old burgh,' or ' fortified place,' A. in Yorks is, 
e.g. Roman (L, Isurium), Cf. next and Albttrgh. For 
AiiDBOROUGH HatcA (Ilford) see Hatch. 

Aldb R. and Aldeborough (Suffolk). Sic 1298, but Dom. Alde- 
bure. This, unlike the above, is ' town on R. Aide,' W. allt, 
' side of a hill, wooded crag,' cognate with G. allt, which in Sc. 
names is often Auld. In Scotland it usually means a stream, 
or the high banks through which a stream flows; thus = L. altus. 
Cf. Alt. 

Aldeby (Beccles). Not in Dom. North.O.E. eald by, ' old 
house ' or ' hamlet.' Cf. Albury, and -by. This cannot be 
a Norse name, as Norse used only gamel for ' old,' positive 

Aldenham (Bushey). Sic 969, but 785 chart. ^Eldenham, a. 
1000 Ealdenham. Dom. Aldeham, 'Home of Ealda'; several 
so called in Onom. 

Alderbury (Salisbury). Not in Dom. Prob. O.E. aler-hurh, 
' town of the alder-tree,' O.E. alor, aler, as early as Chaucer. 
alder. Cf. Alderford (Norwich) and Axderholt (Salisbury), 
O.E. holt, * a forest, a wood ' ; and see next. 

Alderley (Crewe, Manchester, Leek, etc.). Cr. A. Dom. Al- 
dredehe. Le. A. 1129 Aldredeslega. ' Aldred's lea ' or ' meadow,' 
O.E. leah. There are many Ealdreds in Mercia in Onom, 
But in. some cases it may be simply ' alder-meadow ' ; cf. above. 
With Alderley Edge, Manchester, cf. Dom. Suffk, Ethereg, now 
the name Etheridge 


Aldeemaston (Reading). Sic c. 1540. Dom. Eldremanestune 
and Heloremanestune (scribe's error), 1166-67 Pipe Alder- 
mannestun, 1316 Aldermanston; also Aldremanneston. 'Village 
of the alderman,' O.E. ealdormann. The n has been lost 
through its liquidity. 

Aldeeminster (Stratford-on-Avon). 1275 Aldremoneston, -mes- 
ton. Not in Dom. Corrup. of ' alderman's town,' as in above, 
influenced by -minster. 

Alderney (Channel Islds.). a. 380 Ant. liin. E-iduna. Er. 
Aurigny, 1218 Aurennye, 1219 Aureneye, 1224 Alnere. As 
it stands the name is ' alder- tree isle/ O.E. celren-ige. Aldern 
is an adj. already found, 1001, as celren. Riduna might repre- 
sent a Keltic rid dun, ' reddish hill.' Cf. W. rhydd, rhudd, ' red.' 

Aldeeshot. Shot is a broad way or glade in a wood, through 
which game can dart or shoot. Cf. Shotover and Cockshutt. 
Similarly, Aldershaw (Lichfield), c. 1300 Alreshawe, is ' alder 
wood,' O.E. sceaga, M.E. schawe. 

Alderton (Beckford, Chippenham, Felixstowe). Ch. A. Dom. 
Aldritone. Fe. A. c. 1150 Alretun. ' Alder-tree village.' 
Cf. Allerton. 

Aldford (Chester). ' Old Ford,' O.E. eald, Mercian aid. 

Aldin Grai^ge (Durham). Prob. fr. the very common Aldhun or 
Ealdhun ; one was bp. at Chester-le-Street, Durham, c. 990. 
Cf. Grange. 

Aldington (Hythe and Worcester). Hy. A. a. 1124 Eadmer 
Ealdintune. Wor. A. 709 chart, and Dom. Aldintone. K.C.D. 
61 Aldantune, ' Town, village of Alda ' or ' Ealda,^ gen. -an. 
Cf. Aldingbourne, Chichester, and Aldingha' in Dom. N. Lanes. 

Aldridge (Walsall). Dom. Alrewic, a. 1200 Alrewich, Allerwych. 
O.E. air wic, ' dwelling, village among the alders.' Cf. Alder- 
bury and Penkridge. 

Aldringham (Saxmundham). Not in Dom. Perh. ' Home of the 
elders or parents/ M.E., c. 1300, eldryng. But old forms might 
reveal that it comes fr. some personal name. See -ing and 

Aldrington (on R. Adur, Wilts), a. 1300 Aldrinton. Prob. now 
' Village of the elders.' Cf. above. But orig. it came fr. the 
river on which it stands, q.v. 

Aldwark (Easingwold). 'Old fort' or 'bulwark'; O.E. wore, 
an ' outwork,' a fortification. Cf. Wark. 

Aldwinole (Northampton). 1137 O.E. Chron. Aldwingel; 1166- 
67 Pipe Aldewincle, 1298 Audewyncle. Nothing like -wingel in 
O.E. So this will be ' Ealdwine-geil' The former is a common 
O.E. name, cf. B.C.S. 1280 Aldwines barwe; the latter is O.N. 


geil, gil, ' a deep glen or ravine, a gill ' ; not found in Eng. till 
1400 ' gille.' Of. Winskill, Langwathby; and see -gill. 

AldwortA (Reading), c. 1225 Audeworth, 1316 Aldeworth. 
'Old -farm'; O.E. eald, Merc. aid. But Aldsworth, North- 
leach, Dom. Aldeswrde, is ' farm of Eald ' (the old man). See 

Alford (Lines and Somst,). Lin. A. Dom. Alforde, Som, A. 
perh. Dom. Aldedeford. These names are uncertain; perh, 
O.E. eald ford, ' old ford.' But Alford, Hants, is K.G.D. 
1035 .Elwelford— t.e., ' Mfweald, Alfwold, or Mhelweald's 
ford.' All these names are common in Onom. 

Alfreton (Chesterfield). 1002 chart. ^Ifredincgtun. ' Hamlet 
of Alfred's descendants.' See -ing. 

Alfriston (Polegate), Dom. Alvricestone, 1288 Close E. Alver- 
icheston. ' Village of JElfric ' or ' Alfricus' both in Onom. 
Of. Alfrio (Wore), said to be for Alfredeswic, and 1167-68 
Pife, Devon, Ailricheston. 

Algarkirk (Boston). 810 chart. Algare. 'Church of .Mlfgar, 
V.V. Alger,' a very common name. It may be fr. Earl Algar, 
9th cny., a brave opponent of the Danes. 

Alkborough (Doncaster). a. 1100 (in Grant of 664) Alkebarue, 
1359 Alkebarowe. ' Burial mound of Alca,' one in Onom. This 
is O.E. ehh, M.E. alee, L. alces, ' an elk.' Of. next and Bar- 
row; also Alkham, Dover. 

Allan R. (Bodmin and St. David's), and Allen R. (S. Northbld. 
and Dorset). Keltic aluin, ' fair, lovely.' See Aln, and cf. 
Allerdale. The Alwyn, trib. of Coquet, is, of course, the same 

All Cannings (Devizes) and All Stretton (Church Stretton). 
Prob, the all is for hall, O.E. heall ; cf. Halton. See Can- 
NiNGTON. Stretton is ' street town,' ' village on the (Roman) 

Aller (Somerset). 878 O.E. Ohron. Alor; perh. Dom. Aba. O.E. 
alor, ' the alder-tree.' Cf. Coulter Allers (Sc), also 808 
chart. Alercumb, Somst. 

Allerdale (Cumberland), c. 1080 AJnerdall. ' Valley of the 
alder-trees ' ; see above and Alderney. Only, through it flows 
the R. Alne or Ellen, near whose mouth is Alneburg or Ellen- 
borough, for which see Allan. The liquids r and n easily inter- 
change. See -dale. Allerden (Nthbld.), is 1099 Elredene, 
' alder dean '; see -dean. 

Allerthorpe (York). Dom. Alwarestorp. ' Ealdweard's village.' 
Cf. Alverthorpe and Ellerby, and see -thorpe. 

Allerton (Axbridge and 3 in Yorks.). Dom. Yorks, Alretonj 
-tun, mcluding Northallerton twice; Chesh., Salop, and Wore. 


Alreton(e). Perh. = Alderton, ' village in the alder-trees.' 
But Axb. A. may be a. 1199 Roll Rich. I. Alurinton (in 
Somst.), where the first part may represent a man's name, 
it is micertain what. And Allerston, Pickeriiag, is Dom. 
Alurestan, Alvrestain, Alvestun, ' town ' or ' stone of Alfere,' 
late form of the common .^Elfhere, fr. which also comes North- 
allerton. Cf. Ellerton. 

Allesley (Coventry). Sic a. 1300, and Allestree (Derby). 
Prob. ' lea, meadow,' and ' tree of ^lla' a common name. 
But Alleston, Pembk., is old Ayllewarston, or ' Mthdweard'B ' 
or jElfweard's town." 

Allington (Grantham). Dom. EUingetone. 0/. Dom. Chesh. Alen- 
tune. Prob. ' town of the sons of Mlla.' See -ing. 

AllitSwaite (Grange). ' Place of Alii.' a man found in Onom. ; 
and Alia was K. of Northumbria in 560. See -thwaite. 

Allonby (Maryport). c. 1350 Alaynby. 'Dwelling of Alayn, 
Alio, or Allon.' There was an Alio, gen. Allonis, dux c. 800; 
and Allon is still a surname. Of course, the name may be, 
' dwelling near the R. Alne or Ellen ' ; but this would not be in 
accordance with analogy in names ending in -by, q.v. 

Alltwen (Swansea). W. allt gwen, ' bright, clear hill-side or 
wooded crag.' Cf. Alde. 

Almeley (Eardisley). c. 1200 Gervase Almelege. O.E. elm-ledh, 
' elm-meadow.' O.E. elm, O.N. alm-r. Sw. and Dan. aim, 
' elm.' No man Aim or the like in Onom. 

Almington. See Amtngton. 

Almondbury (Huddersfield) and Almondsbury (Bristol). Hud. 
A. Dom. Almaneberie, 1202 Aumundebir. Br. A. Dom. 
Almodesberie, 1233 Alemundebere. Nothing to do with almond 
or Sc. Almond ; but ' burgh, town of Almund, Alemundus, or 
Ealhmund,' a very common name. See -bury. 

Aln R. (Northumbld.), Alne R. (Warwk.), Alne or Ellen R. 
(Maryport), and Alne (York). Nor. A. prob. c. 150 Ptolemy 
Alaunos, with Alauna, ? Alnwick, c. 730 Bede Aln, Alna; War. 
A. B.C.8. 1227 re the year 723, iElwinnae, 1178 Alen; Yor. 
Alne., sic in Dom. All these names are apt to run into Allan, 
Allen, and, like those in Scotland and Ireland, are all Kelt.; 
though not always with the same meaning, for the Sc. and Ir. 
Allans are often fr. ailean, ' a green plain.' But the Eng. 
names are prob.= Sc. R. Ale, c. 1116 Alne, W. alain, alwyn, 
alwen, G. aluinn, ailne, ' exceeding fair, lovely, bright.' Cf. 
Algester and Alnemouth. 

Alnemouth (Northumbld.). Often locally pron. Alemouth. See 


Alney (R. Severn). Prob. 1016 O.E. Chron. Olanige; a. 1200 Wm. 
Newbury Alnewich, ' Olio's isle ' ; see -ey. Cf. Olney and Alne. 

Alnwick, pron. Annick. c. 1175 Fantosme Audnewic ; c. 1180 
Bened. Peterh. Alnewic ; c. 1463 Annewyke. ' Dwelling on the 
R. Alne.' See -wick. 

Alphengton (Exeter). Dom. Alfintone. Prob. ' town, dwelling of 
^Ifin '; one was bp. at Athelney in 1009. 

Alresfobd (Colchester and Hants). Col. A. Dom. Alreforda, a. 
1200 chart, ^lesforda, Hants A. c. 830 cJiart. Alresforda, 1286 
Alresford. Form a. 1200 may be a scribal error; but cf. Ayles- 
FORD. Prob. * ford of the alder-tree/ O.E. aler, air, olr, M.E. 
aller. Of. Alleeston. 

Alrewas (Lichfield). Sic 942 and Dom. 1284 Allerwas. Pron. 
Allr-wass. O.E. air, alor wdse, O.N. olr veisa, ' alder fen ' or 
* marsh.' Cf. Alderbuby, Broad was, Rotherwas, Herefd., 
and Oxf. Diet. s.v. ooze sb^ 1280 Close R. has ' Alrewasheles,' 
? in Northbld. 

Alsager (Stoke-on-Trent). Pron. Al-sae'jer. Old forms needed. 
Cf. ' Alsiswich,' Herts, a. 1199 Boll Rich. I., Alsi is a contraction 
for JElfsige or ^Ifswith, both very common O.E. names. This 
latter part is doubtful. 

Alston (Stafford and Carlisle), and Alstonpield (Ashbourne). 
St. A. Dom. Alverdestone — i.e., ' Mlfweard^s town.' But another 
Alston (Staffs), is a. 1200 Aluredstone, where Alured is var. 
of Alfred; whilst Alstonfield is Dom. ^Enestanfelt — i.e.,* field 
of uEne's stone.' Note, too, that Austonley (S. Yorks) is Dom. 
Alstanesleie. How needful and important early forms are ! Cf. 
Beer Alston and Athelstaneford (Sc). 

Alt R. (S. Lancashire) =Aldb. On it is Altcar, fr, carr sb^ in 
Oxf. Diet., ' a bog, a fen '; it is Norse; Norw. Jcjcer, Tcjerr, 'pool, 
marsh, wet copse.' 

Altarnun (Launceston). Pron. altar-nun, as if Eng. 1294 
Ecclesia de Altar Nun, 1536 Alternone, Corn, altar Nan, 
' altar of St. Non,' sister of Gwen of the three breasts, and mother 
of St. David, a. 550. 

Althorne (Maldon). Not in Dom. Prob. ' old (O.E. eald) thorn.' 
Cf. Albury. Only Altham (Lanes), is old Alvetham,'Elvetham 
— i.e., ' home of Mlfgeat.^ 

Althorpe (Doncaster). Not in Dom. a. 1100 chart. Alethorpe. 
Perh. 'Ale place,' 'ale-house'; O.E. alu, ealu, in 2 ale; but 
prob. ' village of a man JEla ' or 'Ala,' both forms in Onom. 
Cf. Alatorp, Dom. Norfk., and Altofts, Normanton, (see -toft), 
in Dom. it is simply Toftes. 

Alton (Dorset, Hants, etc.). Hants A. c. 880 chart. ^Eweltun, 
Aweltuu, 1166 Pipe Aultona, which looks like O.E. awel-tun, 


' village shaped like an awl,' O.E. eel, eal, awel, awul. M'Clure 
says =' Ea- well ' — i.e., ' spring- ton ' or 'river-source.' Dom. 
Surrey has Aultone. Some of the others may be ' old town '; 
c/. Albury and Norton. But Alton or Alveton (Uttoxeter), 
is Dom. Elvetone, c. 1300 Alneton [n for v), which is prob. 
'town, village of ^If^ or ' Mlfa,^ one each in Onom. The 
' Alton ' in Dom. Yorks is now Halton. 

Alteencham (Manchester). Pron. Al'tringham. Named fr. some 
man; there are Aldran and Aldrannus in Onom. ; or perh. ' home 
of the elders,' O.E. eldran, comp. of eald, ' old,' c. 1440 either. 
There is a personal name, Eltringham; also see -ing. 

Alvanley (Warrington). Not in Wyld and Hirst. It may be 
' meadow of Alfa,' or ' of JElfheah ' ; cf. 1294 Alvedene, also in 
Lanes, and Alvingham. See -ley. 

Alvechuech (Birmingham). 780 iElfgythe cyrce, Dom. Alvieve- 
cherche, 1108 iElfithe cyrce, a. 1200 Alviethechurch. Now 
pron. AUchurch. ' Church of Mlfgiih ' ; but Dom.'s form is in- 
fluenced by Alveva or Mlvive, late forms of Mlfgifu, a very 
common woman's name in Onom. Cf. Alvecote {sic a. 1300), 
Tarn worth. 

Alveley (Bridgnorth). 1160 Pi'pe Aluielea 1231 Alwithel'. See 
above and -ley. 

Alvermere (Worcester). K.G.D. 120 ^Iferamtere, ' Mf here's 
lake.' But Alverthorpe (Wakefield), not in Dom. is prob. = 

Alverstoke (Gosport). i)om.. Alwarestoch, ' ^Zti;ardl's place.' Cf, 
next, and Dom. Essex, Alueraina; and see -stoke. 

Alverstone (Sandown). Dom. Alvrestone, and Alverton (Notts 
and Penzance). ' Town of Alfer,' late form of the common 
JElfhere. The two ' Alvretone ' or ' Alvretune ' in Dom. Yorks, 
have now become Allerton Mauleverer and North Allerton. 
But Notts A. is Dom.. Aloretim, but c. 1190 Alvrington, 
Auvrington, which seems to be a patronymic. Cf., too, Ailvertune, 
Dom. Norfk. See -ing and -ton. 

Alvescot (Bampton). Dom. Elfegescote, 1216 Elephescote, 1274- 
79 Alfays-, Alfescote, 1276 Aluescot. 'Cottage, cot of Mf- 
heah.' Cf. Exon. Dom. Ailesvescota. 

Alveston (Thornbury). c. 955 chart. ^Ifes-, ^Elvestun, Dom. 
and c. 1097 Flor. W. Alvestan, 1158-59 Pi'pe Alvestan 1229 
Alewestan. ' Dwelliag of ^Ife ' (the eK) ; Cf. Sim. Dur. ann. 
1093 Alwestan, Elston and Olveston. See -ton, which often 
interchanges with -stone. But A. (Stratford-on-A.) is 985 
chart. Eanulfestune, 988 ih., Dom. Alvestone, 'town of 
Eanwulf.' For Alweston, Sherborne, old forms are needed; 
perh. it is 1166-67 Pipe Alfwieteston, which may be, 'town of 
Mlfswith' a common female name. 


Alvingham (Louth), old forms needed, and Alvington (Lydnoy 
and I. of W.). Ly. A. 1221 Alwintone, 1223 Elvetun, later 
Elvynton. I, of W. A. Dom. Alwinestun. Prob. all. ' home ' 
and ' town of Mlfwynn ' ; but, in last case perh., ' of Ealhwine ' 
or ' Alioinus,'' names in Onom. It should also be at least noted 
here, that O.E. mlf, elf, 3 alve is ' an elf,' and O.E. celfen, dfen, 
' a female elf.' See -ing, -ham, and -ton. 

Alwalton (Peterboro'). Said to be 955 chart, ^thelwoldingtune — 
i.e., 'dwelling town of Ethelwold's descendants.' But a. 1100 
chart, and 1230 Close B. Alewalton, which may be ' old, walled 
town.' Cf. Albury and Walton. 

Alwen R, (N. Wales). W. al-{g)wen, ' very white, very bright '; 
same as Elvan Sc, c. 1170 Elwan, Alewyn. Of. Alwin. 

Alwtn R. (Rothbury) =Alwen. On it is Alwinton. 

Alwoodley (Leeds). 1288 Close E. Athewaleley ' MthelweaWs 
meadow.' See -ley. 

Ambergate. Not in Dom. Prob. 'pitcher-road'; fr. O.E. 
amber, amber, ' a pitcher, a bucket,' and geat, ' gate, way,' de- 
noting the road to a well. There are many names in Amber- ; 
Dom. Bucks Ambretone suggests a man, ? Ambet ; so even 
more does Dom. Ambresdone, now Ambkosden; only it is prob. 
fr. Ambrosius. Amber Hill, Boston, will be fr. O.E, amber, 
fr. its shape. 

Amberley (Stroud, Harden, Herefd., and Arundel). St. A. 1166 
Umberleia, later Umberley. Ma. A. Dom. Amburlege, Ar. A. 
Dom. Ambrelie. ' Meadow of the pitcher,' see above; cf. 
Ombersley. Some derive fr. a man ^?n6er or ^maZfteorA^. See -ley. 

Amble (Acklington). Old forms needed. Perh. W. am <pwl, 
' round about the pool.' But cf. Ampleforts, Amblecote. 
Stourbridge, is Dom. Elmelecote, a. 1300 Amelecote, ' cottage 
of Hemele,' a common O.E. name, still found as Hamil. Cf. 

Amblerthorn (Halifax). Old forms wanted. Not in Dom. 
Perh. fr. a man Amalbeorht, a name in Onom. 

Ambleside. Perh. ' Hemele' s seat'; cf. Amblecote and next: 
-side is corrup. of Icel. soeti, set, which means ' a seat ' in either 
modem use. 

Amblestone (Pembroke), In W. Tre amlod, of which Amblestone 
is a translation, ' house ' or ' town of Hamill,' said to be one of 
the vikings who founded the Norse colony here. Hamil is still 
an Eng. surname; cf. Hamilton Sc, also Dom. Surrey ' Amele- 
brige,' and above. 

Ambrosden (Bicester). Dom. Ambresdone. Prob. ' den, haunt 
of Ambrosius ' Aurelianus, Damnonian chief, leader of the 
Britons against Hengist, c. 450 a.d. Cf. Amesbury, and 


Ambresbury Bank, Epping. In c. 800 Nennius we read of 

* Ambros, British Embres guletic,' which last, W. gwledig, means 

* a leader, a general.' The Eppiag place is or was also called 
Amesbury and Ambers' Banks, and is reputed the site of Q. 
Boadicea's final defeat. 

Amersham (Rickmansworth). 1218 Patent R. Aumodesham, 1231 
Agmodesham, 1280 C^ose 72. Agmundesham, 1291 Amundesham. 
An interesting corrup., ' Agmund-r^s home ' ; cf. Amotherby. 

Ameeton (Stafford), c. 1300 Embricton, later Ambric-, Am- 
brighton. ' Town of Eanhriht ' or ' Eanheorht.' 

Amesbury (Salisbury). 995 O.E. Chron. Ambresb3Ti(g) ; Dom. 
Ambresberie; c. 1160 Gest. Steph'. Abbesbiriensis (prob. scribe's 
error); c. 1180 Bened. Peterh. Ambres-, Ambesbiria, 1280 Aum- 
bresbir'. ' Fort, town, of Ambrose.^ See Ambrosden and -bury. 

A(l)mington (Tamworth). 889 chart. Alchmundingtuun, later 
Alhmundiagtun. ' Abode of the descendants of Alchmund.' 
But Almington, Mket. Drayton, is Dom. Almontone, a. 1300 
Alkementon, which is simply, ' town, village of Alchmund ' or 
' Ealhmund.' See -ing and -ton. 

Amlwch (Anglesea). c. 1451 Amlogh. W.. meaning ' a circular 
inlet of water ' ; the Iwch is cognate with G. loch. 

Ammanford (Caermarthen). ' Ford on the R. Am{m)an.'* See 
Aberaman. - 

Amotherby (Malton). Dom. Edmundrebi, Aimundrebi; c. 1350 
Aymonderbi, * dwelling of Agmund-r.' Cf. Osmotherley and 
next. Dom. says Edmund-, because Agmund-r was an un- 
familiar name to the Nor. scribe. But cf. next and see -by. 

Amouistderness (Preston). Dom. Agemundrenesse, Sim. Dur. 
ann. 1123, Agmunderness ; later, Ackmoundemess. 'Cape, 
promontory of Agmund-r.' Cf. above. But in ch^rt. dated 
705 it is Hasmunderness, fr. Asmund or Osmund, well-known 
N. names. Cf. Osmotherley. See Ness. 

Ampleforth (York). Sic c. 1505, but i)om. Ampre-, Ambreforde, 
1166 A'pleford, 1202 Ampleford, 1298 Ambelforde. 'Ford of 
the pitcher.' See Ambergate and -forth. The name is a 
lesson in phonetics. 

Ampney Crucis (Cirencester). The Ampney is a river, Dom. 
Omenie, -nel, later Omenai, Ameneye, -anell. This name is 
a tautology, the p, as often being a late intrusion, cf. Hampton. 
Amen or Omen is simply O.Kelt, for 'river ' (see p. 11), whilst 
the -ie or -ey is O.E. ea, ' stream.' Here stands the Early Eng. 
church Santae Crucis, ' of the Holy Cross." 

Ampthill (Bedford). Sic 1454, and c. 1350 AmpthuU, but Dom. 
Ammetelle. ' Ant-hill,' O.E. cemete, cemyte, 3-4 amte, 4-6 ampte, 
' an ant or emmet.' 


Ameath, -both (Pembroke), c, 1130 Lib. Landav. Amrath, 1603 
Owen Amrothe. Prob, W. am Ehath, ' on the Rath,' the river 
Lib. Land, calls the Radh. Cf. Cilrath and Penrath near by, 
and llan am ddyfti =LLAJsrDOVEEY. W. rhath is ' a mound, a 
hill,' as prob. in Roath, Cai'diff. 

Amwell (Ware). Dom. Emmewelle, 1281 Amewell, later Emwell. 
There is in B.C.S. 801 an Ammanuuelle, but not this one. 
' WeU of Amma.' Cf. B.C.S. 1110 Amman broc. 

Ancastee. (Grantham), c. 1190 Gir. Camh. Anecastrum. This 
must be ' Anna's camp.' Anna is an O.E. man's name. See 
next and -caster; and cf. Anwick, Sleaford. 

AiifCROFT (Beal). a. 1128 Anacroft, later Anecroft. This must 
be 'Anna's croft' or 'field.' Anna is a fairly common O.E. 
name, and croft a real O.E. word. Cf. Ancaster. We have 
croft also in Dom. Cornw. Croftededor. 

Andeeby (Alford) and Andeeton (Northwich), ' Town of Andar' 
or ' Andhere,' names in Onom. Cf. Aindeeby and ' Andrelav,* 
Dom. Salop and ' Andrebi,' Dom. Holdemess ; and see -by and 
-ton. But Andeesfield, Somerset, is 1233 Close B. Eldredesfeld, 
fr. the common Ealdred. 

Andovee (Hants). 994 O.E. Chron. To Andeferan, -faran, 
-efron; Dom. Andovere, c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Andovre, 1155 
Pipe Andieura. Andover is now on R. Anton, but no early 
forms of this name seem on record; and the earlier forms seem 
to have been Ande or Anne (see Abbotts Ann). The O.E. 
form has been interpreted as ' fare ' {cf. thoroughfare) or ' pas- 
sage, ferry, over the Ande.' But the O.E. word is foer, faru, 
inflected fare, not fara ; the root being faran, ' to go, fare, make 
one's way ' ; so this is' doubtful. More likely is it Ande-ofer, 
' on the bank of the Ande,' -over, q.v., being a very common 
ending. The similar-looking names Wendovee (Bucks), and 
Cen- or Candover (Hants), tempt to a derivation fr. the old 
British Dovee, W. dwfr, ' a stream.' In that case An- 
might be the Kelt, an ' the.' In any case the river-name 
Anton, Ande, or Anne, is doubtful. It may have some con- 
nection with Ann' mother of the gods among the Kelts — e.g., 
in ' The Two Paps of Ana,' Kerry. But the R. Ant, S. Nor- 
folk, must be the same root ; then what of the t ox d? And- 
ovee(s)-eoed (Cheltenham) is 759 chart. Onnanford, c. 800 ib. 
Annanford, c. 1270 Anneford, which Baddeley derives fr. the 
O.E. man's name Anna. It is also 1266 Andevere, c. 1270 
Andovere, where he makes the latter part=Dover, and the 
former he leaves doubtful. In W. on, pi. onn is ' an ash-tree.' 
Cf. Ampney. 

Aneeley (Norwood). Not in Dom. ' Meadow of 4w^r,' Of, 
B.C. 8. 910 Aneres broc. See -ley. 


Angareaok (Gwinnear Road). Corn, an carrack, ' the rock,' G. 

Angerton (Morpeth). ' Town of Anger.' M.E. angard, ongart, 
' boastful, arrogant.' There is one Angerus in Onom. Of. the 
mod. name Ainger, 

Angle or Nangle (Pembroke), c. 1190 Oir. Camb. Angulus, 
1594 Nangle. The -feng. sb. angle is fr. Fr. There "seems no 
W. equivalent name. It lies in an angle; but W. H. Stevenson 
thinks it may be O.N. ongull, ' a fjord,' fr. ang-r, O.E. e»gr, 
' narrow.' Cf. Anqlesea. Nangle is for an angle. 

Anglesauk (Lanes). ' Shieling, hut of the Angle ' ; argh, ark, or 
ergh, is a N. corrup. of G. airigh, airidh, ' shepherd's hut.' Cf. 
Aeklid, Golcar, Grimsargh, etc. Final -gh in G. is now 
usually mute. The fuller form is seen in Airyholme, N. Riding, 
which was Ergun in Dom., whilst Eryholme, also in Yorks, was 
Argun in Dom. The -un is sign of the loc. plur. 

Anglesea. 1098 O.E. Chron. Angles ege — I.e., * isle of the Angle,' 
or Englishman. But in W. ynys Fdn, ' Mona's Isle,' cf. Man, 
and see -ey. The same name is found in Cambs, 1270 Angle- 
seye. However, W. H. Stevenson thinks the orig. name was 
O.N. Ongalsey, ' isle of the fjord ' (see Angle). It is so named 
c. 1225 in Orkney. Saga. 

ANGMERmo (Worthing), c. 885 Alfred's Will, also in 2 charters, 
Angemseringtun, Dom. Angemare. ' Place of the descendants 
of Angemcer.' See -ing. 

Anker R. (Nuneaton). O.E. ancra, 3-6 ancre, 4-7 anker, * an 
anchorite, an anchoress, a nun.' Evidently so called from the 
Benedictine nunnery on its banks — almost a unique river name 
in its way. Cf. Ankerwyke, Staines, where a Benedictine 
nunnery was founded, in 12th cny. ; also Ankerdine Hill, Brom- 
yard, 1275 Oncredham, c. 1300 Ancredam, and -ham; prob. also 
fr. ancre ; for its ending see -den; the O.E. would be ancran denu. 

Anlaby (Hull). Dom. Umlouebi, Unl-, Umloveby. ' Dwelling of 
Unlaf or ' Anlaf.' Cf. Anlafestun B.C. 8. 1128. One Anlaf 
was K. of Northumbria, 941-52. See -by. 

Annaitsford (Newcastle). Anait is Kelt, for ' a parent church.' 
Cf. Ann AT, Sc. Possibly Annait- is corrup. of a man's name. 
There is nothing in Onom. nearer than one Enefcet. It may be 
Annette, dimin. of Anne. 

Annear or Ennor (Cornwall). Corn. ='<^e earth,' an being the 
article, and nor, ' earth.' 

Annesley (Nottingham). Dom. Aneslei. ' Lea, meadow of Anna ' 
or ' Ana.' Several of this name in Onom. ' One was K. of East 
Anglia, 636-54. Cf. Ainley and N. and S. Anston, Yorks, which 
in Dom. are Anele and Anestan, also Anc aster, etc. 



An Ors (rock, Lizard). Corn. =' the bear,' L. ursa, Fr. ours. 

Ansley (Atherstone). Dom. Hanslei, a. 1500 Ansteley, -lay. 
Doubtful, but prob. ' meadow with the narrow pathway.' See 
next and -ley. However, Anslow (Burton-on-T.) is 1004 
Ansythlege, Eansythlege, Ansideleye, c. 1300 Ansedesleye. 
' Meadow of Eanswyth,' possibly a female saint. Ajstsdell 
(Lytham) is not in Dom.. and doubtful too. 

Anstey (Alton, Buntingford. Leicester, Tamworth), and Anstye 
Cross (Hayward's Heath). Alt. A. 1157 Pipe Anestiga. Tarn, 
A. Dom. Anestie, a. 1300 Anesty, Anestleye; O.E. anstiga, -ge, 
' a narrow path, a pass,' lit. ' one footway.' Li Dom. Yorks, 
we have Ainesti, Annesti Wapentac, 1179-80 Ainsti, now Ainsty 

Antrobus (Nantwich). Dom. Entrebus. Prob. Fr. entre huis, 
'among of the box-trees.' Fr. autre, 'a cave/ is not recorded 
till 1564. Nor. names are very rare so early in this locality. 
Cf. Wahboys and 1215 Close M. Grambus = Fr. grand hois. 

Apethorpe (Stamford) and Apeton (Stafford). Dom. Abetone, 
a. 1300 Abbe-, Abe-, Apeton. ' Place ' and ' village of MhU; 
a common name, found also as jEbha, Ebha, and Eafpa. Of. 
next, Epsom and ' Apetun,' chart. Hants. The ape is foimd in 
O.E. as afa, ape, but is hardly likely here. Cf. Apes Dale, 
Bromsgrove, 1552 Apedale. See -thorpe. 

Apperley (Leeds). 1201 Appeltreleg — i.e., ' apple-tree meadow.' 
A. (Tewkesbury) is 1221 Happeley, 1413 Appurley, prob. also 
fr. O.E. oeppel, ' apple-tree.' But the common Eadheorht has 
once Eappa as var, so this may be ' Eadbeorhfs meadow,' as in 
Abberton. See -ley. 

Appleby (Westmorland andDoncaster). We. A. 1131 Aplebi, 1174 
Pipe Appelbi, 'Apple-town,' O.E. oeppel, oepl, O.N. epli, O.Sw. 
CBpU, ' an apple ' ; and see -by. Also Appleby Magna (Ather- 
stone), ' great Appleby '; cf. Ashby Magna, etc. The ' Aplebi ' 
of Dom. Yorks is now Eppleby in the N. Riding. The Don. A. is 
not found there. However, the local pron. of this Westmorland 
name is Ysepplby, which favours a derivation fr. Hidlp, a name 
known in the Sagas ; and certainly in a Danish region ' Hialp's 
dwelling ' would be more in accord with analogy. 

Appledore (3 in Devon, and S. Kent). Crediton A. 739 chart. 
Apuldre, and -dran; whilst S. Appledore, ib. Suran 
Apuldran, Exon. Dom. Surapla. ' sour apple-tree.' Bideford 
A. Dom. Appledore. Kent A. 893 O.E. Chron. Apulder, Dom. 
Apeldres, c. 1200 Gervase Apeldre, 1439 Will Apuldr. Some of 
these (esp. at Bideford) prob. were orig. O.W. apul dur (or 
dwT/f), ' at the confluence of the streams '; apul being for apur 
or abe,' {q.v.); the liquids I and r easily interchange; cf. Apple- 
cross (Sc), c. 1080 Aporcrosan. But very early Apuldre was 
thought to be simply ' apple-tree.' Cf. Mapledtjrham and 


Apperley. There is an * Appel doueham ' 1217 in Patent R.; 

and there ia still an Appledram or Apuldram near Chichester; 

c/„ too, 940 chart. Appildore (Wilts). 
Appleford (Abingdon). 892 chirt. iEppelford, Dom. Apleford. 

' Ford at the apple-tree.' Bvit c/. Appledorb. 
Appleshaw (Andover). ' Apple- wood,' O.E. scaga, 'a wood.' 

Dom. Hants has only Aplestede. 
Appleton (7 in P.O.), also Appleton Wiske (Northallerton, Dom. 

Apletune). 1179-80 Appelton, 1202 Apelton (both in Yorks). 

'Town of the apples'; O.E. ce'p{'p)el, 2-7 a'p'pel. Wiske, not in 

Dom., is now the name of a little R. here, 1212 Wise, which is 

prob. 0. Keltic uisg, G. uisge, ' water,, stream,' hence whisky; 

cf. L. I sea, UsK, and I^jrby Wiske. But it may be E. Frisian 

wiske, ' a small meadow,' Ger. wiese, ' a meadow," in Eng. usage 

seemingly one moist and low-lying. Cf. Whistley, in O.E. 

chart. Wiscelea, Wisclea. 
Appletree (Derby). 1298 Writ ' Henrico de Apletrefelde.' This 

tree was the meeting-place of the hundred (or shire-division). 

Cf. Gartree, Greytree, Plumtree (Notts), and Apperley. 

Appley Bridge (Wigan). Not in W. and H. Prob. O.E. cs'pl-ledh, 

' apple-tree meadow.' 
Apps Court (Surrey), a. 1000 cAari. ^pse; also Abbs. O.^.cespe, 

ceps, ' the asp or aspen tree.' Cf. M.E. and dial, claps for clasp. 

Apsley (Bedford). Dom. Aspeleia, but 969 chart. iEpslea, which 
is O.E. for ' aspen-tree meadow ' ; see above. Or else, ' meadow 
of Mppa or Eppa ' ; cf. Epsom and Ipsley, also a. 810 Nennius 
' Episford,' in our tongue ' Set thir gabaU,' where gabail must 
surely be the same as G. gabhal, or gohhal, ' a forJk.' Apsley, 
Tanworth, is better Aspley; but a. 1300 Apsele. 

Aqtjilatb (W. Staffd.). 1129 Pipe ' Matilda de AquOa,' a. 1300 
Aquilade, a. 1400 Aquilot, a. 1600 Acquilat. Called after the 
Nor. family L'Aigle, L. aquila, Eng. eagle. The Matilda of 
1129 was widow of Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumber- 
land, and has also conferred her name on Winford Eagle, Dorset. 
The ending is quite doubtful. It may have been suggested by 
lade, 'channel,' O.E. geldd,see Cricklade; hardly by lot, O.E. 
hht, which is not applied to land till quite late; though lootmede 
or ' lot meadow ' is found as early as 1553. 

Aran Mowddwy (mtn., Merioneth). W.aran mwddi, 'peaked hill 
with the arch or vault.' This is (1590) Spenser, Faerie Queen^s 
' Under the foot of Rauran mossy hore ' ; Rauran being yr Aran, 
' the peak.' 

Arborfield Cross (Reading), c. 1540 Arburfeld. Dr. Skeat in- 
formed the writer that a charter has recently been found showing 
that this is orig. ' Eadhurh'a field,' Eadburh being a woman. 
Another warning against guessmg ! 


Aeohbnfield, Aechfield, or Irchenfield (Herefordsh.). c. 1130 
Lib. Landav. Erg5mg, and prob. c. 380 Ant. Itin. Areconium, 
c. 1147 Geoff. Mon. Erging. Very doubtful; perh. erging may 
suggest W. ergryn, ' terror, horror.' 

Arddleen (Oswestry). W. ardd llion, ' height on the streams,' 
lli<m pi. of Hi. Cf. Caerlbon. 

Arden and Ardens Grafton (Alcester, Warwk,). a. 1199 Arden. 
The first part is prob, a contraction of one of the numerous O.E. 
names in Eard-. The ' Forest of Arden ' is an invention of 
Shakespeare, in allusion to the Ardennes, Belgium; so Duignan. 

Ardengley (Hayward's Heath), not in Dom., and Ardington 
(Wantage and Surrey). Wa. A. Dom. Ardintone, 1316 Ardyn- 
ton. Sur. A. 1233 Eard-, Erdendon. Prob. ' meadow ' and 
' town of Eardmne,' 2 in Onom. Cf. the mod. surname Harding, 
and Erdington; and see -ley and -ton. 

Ardleigh (Colchester); also Ardley (Bicester). Dom. Ardulveslie, 
1149 Ardusley, 1229 Ardolvesl,' 1259 Erdulfley, 1316 Ardele. 
' Meadow of Eardimlf,' or ' Aidulf.^ The Colch. name may not 
be the same; old forms needed. Cf. 1297 Writ Arderne, Essex. 
See -ley. 

Ardsley (Barnsley. Wakefield, etc.). 1202 Ardislawe, 1208 Erdes- 
lawe. Prob. ' Eard's lea ' or ' meadow,' Eard being short for 
Eardvmlf, a very common O.E. name. But -lawe is, of course, 
not ' meadow,' but ' hill' ; see -low. 

Ardwick (Manchester). 1282 Atheriswyke, 1502 Ardewyk. A 
case of dissimilation; at least, as Wyld suggests, Ather- prob. 
represents some O.E. name in ^fSel-; there are many. Cf. 
Atherstone and Atserton. ' Arduuic ' Dom. S. Yorks is 
now Hardwiok. 

Arenig (Bala). ? dimin. of W. aren., ' a kidney.' 

Argoed (Tredegar). W. ar coed, * ploughed land by the wood.' 


Arkendale (Knaresboro'). Dom. Archedene, Arghendene; and 
Abkengarthdale (Richmond, Yorks). Doubtful. Prob. the 
Arken- is a contraction fr. some of the many names in Earcan- 
or Eorcon- in Onom. Possibly it might be ' valley of the arks ' 
or ' chests,' O.E. earc, arc. Cf. Dom. Herefd. Archenfeld, and 
Arkiaholm, old name of Langholm (Sc). The O.E. dene, see 
-dean, has been changed by N. iufluence to -dale. The -garth 
is O.N. gar'd-r, O.E. geard, a. 1300 garth, ' enclosure, field, yard.' 

Arkesdon (Newport, Essex). Dom. Archesdana. This Ark- or 
Arch- here may be contraction fr. the common Arcytel or Arkil ; 
there is no recorded Arc. Or the name may be: ' (wooded) 
valley of the chest ' ; O.E. earc, arc. Cf. Arkleby and Arksey; 
and see -den. 


Arkholme (K. Lonsdale). Dom. Ergun. ' Hut on the meadow. 
Norse G. argh. See Anglesark and -holm. In Dom. -un 
represents -am or -ham rather than -holm — indeed, is a loc, 
generally made afterwards into -(h)am; so Ergun will be 'at 
the huts.' 

Arksey (Doncaster). Dom. Archeseia. Prob. as in Arkesdon, 
' isle of the chest,' or ' of Arc' See -ey. 

Arkleby (Aspatria). [Cf. c. 1215 Arkilleshow, S. Lancashire.] 
' Dwelling of Earcil, Arcytel, or Earcytel,' a common O.E. name. 
See -by. 

Arklid (Cumberld.). Gaelic-N. argh, G. airigh, airidh, ' a shieling, 
a hut ' ; and N. hM. ' a slope.' Cf. Anglesark and Pavey 
Ark; also Golcar, Goosnargh, etc. 

Arlbcdon (Cumberld.). Old forms needed. Perh. hybrid = 
Harlech and O.E. dun, ' a hill, a fort.' 

Arlesey (Hitchin). Dom. Alriceseie. ' Isle of Mric or Mfiic' 
But Arlescote (Wwk.) is 1080 Orlavescoth, Dom. Orlavescote, 
1123 Ordlavescot: ' Ordlafs cot.' Arleston, Salop, is 1284 
Close R. Ardolfeston, 'town of Eardumlf,' a common name. 
Three places in Aries-, and all different ! See -ey. 

Arley (Bewdley and Northwich). Bew. A. 994 Eamleie, Dom. 
Ernlege, a. 1300 Erlei, Arnlegh. ' Meadow of the eagle,' O.E. 
earn ; though Duignan prefers to think of a contraction fr. one 
of the numerous names in Earn-, Eambald, -grim, etc. Cf. 
1179-80 Fife Erlega (Cumbld.) and c. 1537 ' Erleghecote 
haythe' (Furness) which seem to come fr. earl. See above; 
also Arncllfee and Early; and Arle (Cheltenham), old Alra 
— i.e., O.E. aler, ' alder-tree.' 

Arley Regis or A. Kings (Bewdley). Dom. Ernlege, c. 1275 
Ernleie. See above. Regis is L. for ' of the King.' It be- 
longed to the Crown in the Mid. Ages, having twice escheated. 

Arltngham (Stonehouse). Dom. Erlingeha. ' Home of Arling ' or 
' Erling '—i.e., ' the descendant of the earl.' But Arlington 
(Bibury and Barnstaple) is Bi. A. Dom. Aluredintune, 1221 
Alwintone; Ba. A. prob. not in Dom. ' Town, dwelling of the 
sons of Alured.' Searle does not equate this with Alfred. See 
-ing, -ham, and -ton. 

Armathwaite (Cumberld.). A Httle doubtful. It may be ' place 
of ' some man, with a name in Eorm-, Eormenburh, -frith, etc., 
and here contracted. But it may be b.N, arm-r, ' an arm/ and 
then, 'the spur of a valley.' Cf. Armley, Armthorpe, and 
Armadale (Sc); and see -thwaite. 

Armitage (Rugeley). a. 1300 Hermitage; in Eng. 1290 ermi- 
tage, 5 armitage ; O.Fr. hermitage. There was one here in the 
13th cny. 


Armley (Leeds). Dom. Ermelai. Prob. ' Eorm's meadow.' See 
Armathwaite, and -ley. 

Aemthorpe (Doncaster). Dom. Ernulfestorp, 1202 Arunthorp, 1212 
Ernetorp. 'Village of Eamwulf ; the latter unaccented syl- 
lable often drops away. See -thorpe. Armscott (Shipston-on- 
Stour) is actually 1275 Edmundescote ! 

Arnclipfe (Skipton). Dom. Arneclif, and Gerneclif . Perh. ' Cliff 
of the erne or eagle,' O.E. earn. But possibly Arn- represents 
a man's name; cf. above and Armley. Cf. Arncot (Oxon), 
which is K.C.D. 1279 Earnigcote, Dom,. Ernicote — i.e., ' cot of 
Earnwig ' or * Arnwi.^ 

Arnesby (Leicester). 1160 Pipe Emesbi. 'Dwelling of Ami'- 
— i.e., 'the eagle.' Cf. above, and Arnisort (Sc); and see -by. 

Arnold (Nottingham). Dom. Ernehale. 1157 Pipe Erneshala, 
1316 Arnall, 'Nook of Earne' or, 'of the eagle"; see above and 
-hall. The present, quite late form has been influenced by the 
common name Arnold. On the excrescent d see p. 81. Cf. 
Dom. Arnodestorp, now Arnoldstoft, N. Riding. See -toft. 

Arnsedb (Camforth). ' Eagle-slope,' cf. above. Side, O.E. side, 
here has the sense of ' the slope of a hill or mountain.' Cf. 

Arrad Foot (XJlverston). Prob. W. aradiad, 'tillage,' fr. aradr, 
* a plough '; L. aratrum. 

Arram (Beverley). Dom. Argun. The Arg- is Norse G. argh, ' hut, 
shieling ' ; see Anglesark. The -un is a loc. ; see Arkholme. 

Arreton (I. of Wight). Sic 1285. Not in Dom. Hants, but in Sffk. 
Are-, Aratona; 'town, hamlet of Ara,"" or 'Are,'' names in Onom. 

Arrlngton (Royston, Camb.). Dom. Erningetone, chart, ^rninge- 
tune, 1270 Aiington, 1307 Arnington. ' Village of the sons of 
Erne or Mm,^ O.E. earn, cern, ' an eagle.' Armiagford, also in 
Cambs, has the same origin. Skeat thinks the change to Arring- 
ton arose through association with Barrington near by. 

Arrow R. (Warwksh.), Arrow Brook (Wirral, Chesh.). A. River 
a. 800 chart. Aro. Prob. same root as W. aru, ' to plough.' 
The river seems nowhere like ' an arrow,' O.E. arewe. 

Arthtngton (Otley). Not in Dow. 1204 Arthigton. Further old 
forms needed. May be ' village of Earthegn or Ertein.'' The 
name is in Onom. Cf. Hartiagton, Buxton. 

Arthog (Barmouth). Dimin. of W. arth, ' a height '; ' little hill.' 

Arthuret (Carlisle). Wh. Stokes thought this the same as Ver- 
teris in c. 400 Notit. Dign., which is prob. of same root as W. 
gwerthyr, ' fortification.' But K. Arthur was a real Keltic King 
none the less, and his name prob. influenced the form of this. 
The name is first found in Juvenal Sat. 3, 29, Artorius. This, 
says Rhys, is early Brythonic Artor, gen. Artoros. 


Artjn R. (Sussex). Perh. named fr. a neighbouring hil], W. aran, 
' a peaked hill.' 

Aetjndel (Sussex). Dom. Harundel; 1097 O.E. Chron. Arundel; 
c. 1175 Arandel. ' DeU, dale (O.E. dcel) of the ARim.' Very 
early the Arundel family had on their arms the swallow or 
hironddle. a Fr. word found in Eng. c. 1600 as ' arrondell.' Of 
course, this is only heraldic etymology. 

AsooT (Berks), a. 1300 Escot, also Ascote; AscoT-under-Wychwood 
(Oxford; see Wychwood), Ascote (Southam) a. 1300 Astanes- 
cote. AscoTT (Shipston-on-Stour), no old forms. Ascot or 
Escot may be east cot — cf. A'stley; but is prob. = Ashcott, Bridge- 
water, ' cot, cottage made of ashwood,' O.E. cbsc — cf. Asheobd, 
Dom. Asford. Ascote is ' cot of Mfstan,' a ' faithful man ' re- 
ferred to in a grant by Oswald, Bp. of Worcester, in 991> Dow- 
Bucks has an ' Achecote.' 

AsFORDBY (Melton Mowbray). Not in Dom. ' Dwelling of Asford,' 
bailifE at Croyland. See Onom., and -by. 

ASGARBY (Lincolnsh.). 1154-66 charts. Asgerbi, Ansgesbia; a. 1200 
Asgerebi. 'Dwelling of Asgar or Asgaer'; so in Onom. Cf. 
Askerswell, and see -by. 

Ash R. (Wilts). 712 chart, ^sce, which is O.E. for ' ash-tree.' But 
almost all our river names are Keltic, and so this is prob =Ax 
or ' water.' 

Ash (Aldershot, Sevenoaks, Sandwich), Prob. O.E. ^sce, 'ash- 
tree.' The c has remained hard in Aske, Yorks; Dom. Hasse. 

Ashbourne (Uttoxeter and Derbysh.). Der. A. Dom. Esseburne, 
1162-65 chart. Essebuma; ' ash-tree stream,' bourne =Sc. hum ; 
O.E. buma, Icel. hrunn-r, 'a brook, a stream.' Ash, the tree, 
is given as 3 asse and 5 esche. 

AsHBRiTTLE (Wellington, Som.). Not in Dom'., and old forms 
needed. The origin of the Eng. brittle is doubtful; see Oxf. Diet. 
But prob. this has nothing to do with brittle ; prob. it is ' j^sc- 
beorht's hill.' Cf. B.C.S. 624 iEscbyrhtes geat, and Astle, 
a. 1300 Asthulle. 

ASHBURNHAM (Battle). K.C.D. 930 Ashbornham, 'home at the 
Ashbourne.' There is also an ' Esburneha ' in Dom. Bucks. 

AsHBURTON (S. Devon). Prob. Dom. Essebretone. ' Burton, 
fortified hamlet, by the ash-tree ' ; or, ' of ' a man ' Msc ' or ' Mse '; 
the names are in Onom. Cf. next and Ashdown. 

AsHBURY (Berks and Okehampton). Ber. A. c. 931 chart. ^Escses- 
byrie, 953 chart, ^scesburh, 960 ^scesburuh. O.E. for ' burgh, 
fort of Msc' perh. he who was the son of Hengist. j^sc rueans 
' an ash,' and Ash(e) is still a common surname. There is an 
' Asseberga ' in Dom. Wore, which is prob. ' burgh of Asa,^ 
a name common in Onom. Cf. Ashdown. 


AsHBY (Doncaster) and Ashby de la Zouoh. Don. A. 1179-80 
Essebi, Do la Z. A, c. 1300 Eccleston Esseby (the E. Anglian 
pron.; cf. Ashwell). * Dwelling of ^sc ' or ' Asa,' see above; 
and afterwards of the Nor. family La Zouch. See -by. 

Ashby Pueborum (Homcastle). [Prob. 1292 Parva Askeby.] 
' Ashby of the boya ' ; L. puer, ' a boy.' 

Ashby St. Ledgers (Rugby). See above. St. Ledger, in Fr. St. 
LSger, is Leodegarius, a famous Fr. saint and martyr, Bp. of 
Autun in France; d, 678. Cf. the Doncaster St. Leger, which 
already, in 1567, had reached itB popular corrup. ' SeUinger ' or 

* Selenger.' 

ASHDOWN (Berksh.). 673 chart. 'In Escesdune LV in loco qui 
vocatur Earmundeslea.' O.E. Chron. ann. 661 -.Escesdune, ann. 
871, .^scesdun; also sic in a. 910 Asser, who (or an interpolator) 
explains the name as mons fraxini. ' hill,' or ' hill-fort of the ash- 
tree.' But, on the analogy of i^scses byries Sudgeate or 

* South gate of Ashbury ' (c. 931 chart.), this may be ' hill ' or 
' fort of ^sc' There are 3 called JEsc and one jEsca in Onom. 
Cf. Ashbtjby. 

AsHELDHAM (Southminster). Not in Dom. Prob. ' Home of 
Ashild,' a Norse female name. But Ashelworth (Glouc), 
Dom. Esceleuuorde, 1260 Asselworth, is either * farm of Mscelf,^ 
one in Onom.; or else fr. the common Aschil, Ascil, or Ascytel. 
See -ham and -worth. 

AsHEY Down (Ryde). The only adj. in Oxf. Diet. fr. ash, 
the tree is ashen ; yet this Ashey is prob. fr. it also. See 

AsHEORD (Kent, Laleham, etc.) and Ashford Carbonel (Ludlow). 
Lai. A. Dom. Exeforde; also old Echeleford, Eckleford, fr. the 
little R. Exe or Echel here.. As. Carb. Dom. Asford. Prob. they 
all mean * ford on the river.' See Ash R., and cf. Ashbourne. 
A Sir John Carbonell is mentioned in Norfolk, 1422, in Paston 

Ashtngton (Morpeth and Pulboro'). Pul. A. Dom. Essingetune 
{cf. 1298 * Johannes de Asshendene '). Prob. ' town, village of 
the Askings ' ; on this family or dynasty see Bede, ii. 5. See, too, 


Ashley (many). E.g., in Dom. Ascelie (Chesh.), Esselie (Cambs 
and Staffs), Achelei (Bucks). ' Ash-tree meadow.' Some may 
come fr. a man JSsca, as we have Ashley (Staffs), a. 1300 Assinge- 
legh. Cf. Dom. Wore, Escelie. See -ing and -ley. 

Ashmansworth (Hunts), a. 1200 chart, ^scmeres weorth, which 
is ' farm beside the mere or lake of the ash-tree ' ; a curious cor- 
ruption. But there is both an Asman and an .Mscm^nn in Onom. 
Cf. Rickmans WORTH, and see -worth. 


ASHMORE (Salisbury and Lichfield). Li. A. c. 1300 Estmeresbrok, 
Asschmorebroke, Ashmeresbroke. Prob. ' brook of ^scmcer.' 
Cf. B.C.8. 1227 on iEscmseres hammas. Sal. A. may be ' ash- 
tree moor.' 

AsHORNE (WarWick). 1196 Hasshorne, 1370 Asshorne. Perh. 
* ash-tree nook.' O.E. oesc, M.E. asse, esse, ' an ash,' and O.E. 
hyrne, hern, ' nook, comer.' But -horn in Whithorn (Sc), etc., 
represents O.E. erne, ' house.' 

AsHOVER (Chesterfield). Dom. Essovre. ' Ash-tree bank,' fr. O.E. 
ohr, ofr, M.E. overe, ' border, bank of a river.' Cf. Bolsover, 
etc., also Asher. 

AsHow (KENrLWORTH). Dom. Asceshot (-shot prob. error, but cf. 
Aldershot), a. 1300 Ascesho, Ashyho, Asshisho. 'Hoe, out- 
stretching point of land, with the ash-tree.' See above, and 


Ash Parva (Whitchurch). ' Little Ash,' L. parvus, ' little.' Of. 
AsHBY Magna, etc. 

ASHREIGNEY (Chulmleigh). Not in Dom. E-eigney seems to be the 
S.W. dialect reen, reene, rhine, ' a ditch, an open drain.' prob. 
fr. O.E. ryne. 

AsHRiDGE (Bucks). Prob. 1376 Assherugge. Ridge in the N. usually 
takes the form rigg., O.E. hrycg, Icel. hrygg-r. Cf. Askrtgg. 

AsHTON (Northampton, etc.). c. 955 chart. iEsctune, Bristol. 963 
O.E. Ohron. ^sctiin, ? which. ' Ash-tree village.' Ashton in 
Dom. is sometimes Estun as well as Essetone, but that will here 
mean the same. 

AsHTJRST (Southampton). {Dom. has Eisseburne.) ' Ash-tree 
grove,' O.E. hyrst, Sw. hurst, ' a wood.' Cf. Chiseuhtrst, etc. 

AsHWELL (Herts), a. 1300 Eccleston Assewelle (for this spelling cf. 
AsHBY DE LA Zoughe). ' Well by the ash-tree.' 

AsKAM (Camforth). O.E. cesc-hdm, ' dwelling, village by the ash- 
tree,' the hard c being retained in North. Eng. Of Asksam. 
The ^sc may well be a man's name here. Cf. Ashbury. 

AsKERN (Doncaster). Not in Dom. O.E. cesc-erne, ' house built 

of ash-wood.' Cf. Whithorn (Sc). 
AsKERSWELL (Bridport). Not in Dom. * Well of Asgar '; several 

named Asgar, Asgcer, Esgar, in Onom. Of. Asgarby. 

AsKHAM (Penrith and Yorks). Yorks, more than one, Dom. Ascam, 
Ascha'. =AsKAM. 

AsKRiGG (Bedale). North, form of Ashridge. 

Askwith (Westmld. and Yorks). Dom. Yorks, Ascuid, -vid; 1201 
Ascwith. O.N. ask-r vi'6-r (Dan. ved). ' Ash wood or forest.' 
Of. Ask AM and Beckwith. This is, of course, the same name as 


AsLACKBY (Folkinghani) and Aslacton (Long Stratton). Dom. 
Aslachesbi. ' Dwelling of Aslac '; several in Onom. Cf. next 
and Aislaby; and see -by. 

AsLACOE (Lincoln). Dom. Aslacheshou. ' Hoe or how or moct- 
hill of Aslac ' ; see above. Hoe, as in Morte Hoe, also means 
' an island,' as this may once have been. 

ASLOCKTON (Nottingham). Dom. Aslachetone. ' Aslac'^ village.' 
See above. 

AsPATBiA (W. Cumberland). Local pron, Spatry. 1224 Patent R. 
Estpateric, Said to be fr. As- or Gos- patrick, first lord of 
Allendale, or fr. As or St. Patrick, predecessor of Kentigern, 
and patron St. of the church here. In time of K. John we find 
a ford near here called Wath-Patrick -weth. Ass in O.N. means 
a sort of demi-god, one under the patronage of a god, usually 
Thor. But possibly the iirst syll. is the obs. Eng. este, O.E. 
est, O.N. dst, ' delight, good pleasure, favour ' ; so the name 
would mean 'The delight of St. Patrick,' which is more in ac- 
cord with analogy than to caU a place after a man alone. 

AsPENDEN (Buntingford). c. 1280 Apsedene, Feud. Aids Aspedene, 
O.E. oespe denu, ' aspen-tree vale.' See -den. 

AsPLEY (Huddersfield, and 2 in Staffs; Dom. Haspeleifi, 1227 
Aspeleg, Eccleshall; and 2 in Warwk., both 1272 Aspeley; 
but one a. 1300 Apsele), and Aspley Guise (Woburn), 1232 
Aspel'. ' Lea, meadow (O.E. leak) of the asps or aspens,' O.E. 
cespe. Of. Apsley, and Asps, 1196 Aspes (Warwk). Guise 
may or may not show connection with the well-known ducal 
family of Lorraine; at any rate Guises held property here. 

AspULii Moor (Wigan). Prob. =' asp-hill ' or 'aspen-tree hill,' 
O.E. (Bspe, ' an aspen '; hill is found spelt 2-5 hull. Gf. Aspen- 
den and Solihull. 

Asselby (Yorks). Dom. Aschilebi. ' Dwelling, village of Aschil 
or Ascytel,' a common O.E. name. Gf. HAiSTriORPE ; and see -by. 

AssiNGDON or AssiNGTON (Colchester). 1016 O.E. Chron. Assan- 
dun; c. 1115 Henry Hunt. Esesdun. This place-name is cor- 
rectly translated by Flor. Wore. c. 1097, ' mons asini/ ' hill of 
the ass,' O.E. assa, gen. assan, ' a male ass.' 

AsTBUEY (Congleton). Not in Dom. Prob. ' burgh, town of Ast,* 
given as ' 956 regulus Wore' in Onom. However, O.E. ast is 
' an oast or kiln.' Cf. next. 

AsTLE Hall (Macclesfield), a. 1300 Asthulle. ' Ast-hill,' O.E. ast, 
' an oast or kiln ' : hill is spelt 2-5 hull. Gf. Aspull and 

AsTLEY ^5 in P.G.). Nimeaton A. Dom. Estleia, a. 1300 Est(e)ley. 
1327 Astleye. Stourport A. Dom. Eslei, a. 1200 ^stlege, 
a. 1300 Estley, Astle, Estele. The Oxf. Diet, gives no spelluig 


of East as ast, yet old forms show that many names m Ast- 
must come fr. East. See below. So this name is, ' East lea ' 
or ' meadow.' See -ley. 
Aston (Herts, Bucks, Stafis, Warwk., Yorks, and Nantwich). All 
Dom. Eston or Eastun(e) — i.e., 'east-town.' It may at times 
be ' ash-tree-town.' Of. Ashford, in Dom. Asford. Duignan says 
one Aston was in O.E. jEsctun, but does not say which. 

Aston Magna (E. Worcestersh,). Prob. K.C.D. 616 Eastune, 

1275 Estone. ' Magna ' is ' great.' 
Aston Tibbold (Wallingford). Dom. Estone — i.e., ' East-town.' 

Cf. Aston. Tirrold ? fr. Walter Tirel or Tirrold, who shot 

Wm. Rufus in New Forest. Tirweald was a common O.E. 

name; it is the same as the mod. Eng. name Thorold. 
AswARBY (Folkuigham). Dom. Asuuardebi. 'Dwelling of As- 

ward.'' Owom. has only one^sweri. See -by. 

Atcham (Shrewsbury). Dom. Atingeham; later Attingham. 
' Home of the sons of Atd' 2 in Onom. For the present form 
cf. Whittingham, now pron. Whittinjem. 

Athelney (Taunton). 871 O.E. Chron. .ESelinga eg or eigg— i.e., 
' island of the Athelings,' or princes or noble-born men, fr. ceSeZ, 
' noble ' and -ing, ' belonging to.' M'Clure thinks the name 
purely personal, and meaning ' descendants of some man called 
iEthelbeorht, -^Ethelrsed,' or the like. See -ey. 

Atherstone (Nuneaton, on-Stour, and Somerset). Nun. A. Dom. 
Aderestone, 1246 Edrideston; also Aldredestone. Stour A. Dom. 
Edricestone, 1248 Athericstone, 1249 Athereston. The former 
is either ' Eadred's ' or perh. ' Ealdred's town ' ; it may be 
' stone," see -ton. The latter is fr. a man Mthelric or Ethric. 

Atherton (Manchester). Sic 1258-59; but 1265 Aser-, Adserton, 
1320 Athyrton. This must have been orig. 'town of Asser'; 
• or, in its O.N. form, ' Atser.' Cf. Azerley. 

Attenborough (Trent). Not in Dom. c. 1200 Adigburc, c. 1240 
Hadinbur, 1291 Addingburg, c. 1500 Addyngborough. 'Burgh, 
town of the sons of Ead[d)a.' See -ing and -borough. 

Atterclute (Sheffield). Dom. Ateclive. 'Cliff of Ata.' The 
letter r tends to insert itself, as in Kidderminster, etc. Here 
it has been influenced by otter, which is found m M.E. as atter. 

Attleborough (Norfolk and Nuneaton). Nun. A. 1155 Attele- 
berge, a. 1400 Atleborowe, Attilburgh. Nor. A. Dom. Atlebure, 
c. 1456 Attylburgh. Perh. ' Burgh, town of Athulf or Mthelwulf' ; 
several in Onom. of that name. But there is a known AttiU in 

Attlebridge (Norwich). Dom. Ate-, Attebruge, c. 1465 Attyl- 
brigge. 'Bridge of Athulf ; see above. O.E hrycg, North, 
and Sc. hrig, ' a bridge.' 


Atwick (Hull). Not in Dom. Seems to be ' at the dwelling-house,' 
O.E. wic. Of. Atcombe, Atlow (Derby), 1285 Attelawe, ' at 
the law ' or ' hill,' Atworth, Melksham, not in Dom. and Atte- 
well, now only a surname, but 1281 Close B. Ettewell, Notts. 
Dom. often has Adewic, but always for Ad wick. 

AuBOUBNE (Liucohi). Dom. Aburne, 1208 Audeburn. Prob. ' old 
burn or brook ' as in Audlem ; presumably an old channel super- 
seded by a newer one. There is also an Auburn or Awburn 
near Bridlington ; Dom. Eleburn, ' brook of Ealla ' ; a liquid 
sound like al easily slurs into aw. Cf. next. 

Auckland. See Bishop Auckland. 

AucKLEY (Doncaster). Dom. Alcheslei, Alceslei, Alchelie. 
' Meadow of Aha.' Cf. Awkley, Notts, 1278 Alkelaye. See 
Alkborough, and -ley. 

AuDENSHAW (Manchester). 1190-1212 Aldenshade, Aldensawe, 
1240-59 Aldensagh, later Aldwynschawe, 1523 Aldewynshaw, 
' Wood of Alda ' or ' Ealdxi ' ; O.E. sc{e)aga, ' a wood.' Shaw 
is still common in North, dial, and Sc. 

Audlem (Nantwich). Dom. Aldelime. Prob. O.E, aid elm, ' old 
elm -tree '; elm is found in dial, as elem, ellum ; whilst old is 4-6 
aulde, awld, dial, awd, aud, aad. Cf. next, and Thorp Audlin, 
W. Riding, not in Dom. except as Torp. 

AuDLEY (Newcastle, Stajffs, and Saffron Walden). New. A. Dom. 
Aldidelege, 1217 Aldidelee, 1218 Aldithelee. 1223 Alvithelegh, 
1280 Aldithel'. ' Meadow of Aldgith ' or ' Ealdgyth.' See -ley. 

AuGHTON (Ormskirk and Rotherham). Orm. A. Dom. Acketun, 
1285 Aghton. Roth. A. Dom. Actun. O.E. dc-tun. 'Oaks' 
town.' Cf. Acton. 

AusT (Tockington). 691-2 chart, set Austin, 794 ib. set Austan, 
Dom. Austreclive (' cM '), c. 1100 Augusta, 1285 Awste, Hawste, 
1368 Augst. Not ' East,' as often thought, but the Roman 
Augusta, name also given to Caerleon by Bav. Geogr. Cf. 
Aosta, Piedmont and Eastburn. 

AusTERFLELD (Bawtry). 702-05 Ouestrefelda, Eostrefeld. 'East 
field,' O.E. easier feld ; easter being compar. of eastan, ' East.' 
Cf. 1156 Pipe Austurcarii, and 1166 ib. Austerbi, both Linos. 
But the AusTRELLS, Aldridge, is a. 1300 Asterhull, ' hill of the 
hearth ' (forge or furnace), M.E. astre, O.Fr. astre, aistre, mod. 
Fr. dtre. Cf. Aisthorpe, 1233 Austorp. 

AuSTERSON (Nantwich). Old Alstanton — i.e., ' Athelstan's town,' 
a curious study in liquids. Cf. Athelstaneford (Sc). 

AusTREY (Atherstone). 958 chart. Alduluestreow, later chart. Aldul- 
festreo — i.e., O.E. for ' Ealdwulf's tree ' ; Ealdwulf is a common 
name m Onom., also found as Aldwulf, Aldulf ; and cf. Oswestry. 
A name like this shows how hopeless it often is to guess, with- 
out old forms to guide. As late as 1327 it is Aldulvestre. 


AuSTWiCK (Settle). Dom. Oustewic, 1202 Austwic. ' Eastern 
dwelling,' O.E. eastan (O.N. aust-r) mc. Cf. Austeefield. 

AuTHORPE (Louth). Dom. Avetorp. Prob. ' village of Eawa,' 2 in 
Onom. Cf. 1155 Pipe Auton, Hants; and see -thorpe. 

AvEBTjRY (Calne). Peril. Dom. Avereberie, 1740 (and ? still) 
Abury. If orig. Avereberie it may be ' burgh of JSlfhere,' a 
very common O.E. name, found once as Mlfuere. More old 
forms needed; it may be 'burgh of . JS/^a ' or '-^^e,' also a 
common name. Cf. Aveton. See -bury. 

AvELEY (Purfleet). Dom. Auileia, 1285 Alvetheley. ' Meadow of 
Mlfgyth,'' a common woman's name. One was abbess of Bark- 
ing in 11th cny. See -ley. 

AvENAGE (Bisley, Glouc). 1337 Abbenesse. Prob. ' Ahla'^ ash- 
tree.' AvENHAM (Preston), not in W. and H., may be fr. the 
same man, or else fr. JS^e, -en. To-day Avenage is called 
Avon Edge. Cf. next and Ashton. 

AvENiNG (Stroud). 896 cMrt. to -Meningum (dat. pi.). Dom. 
Aveninge, 1221 Evening. On R. Avon, with -ing or -inge here 
as a river-ending. Cf. Twyning, etc. 

AvETON GiFFOED (Klingsbridge). Dom. Afetone. ' Town, village 
of Afa ' or ' J5^e.' Cf. Affpiddle, Avebury, etc. 

AviNGTON (Alresford). 961 chart. Afintune; 1316 Aventon. Prob. 
' Town of Afa,'' 2 in Onom. 

Avon R. (7, 3 tribs. of R. Severn, also Aeon Wrangon, S. 
Wales). Sev. A. Tacitus Avona, 704-9 chart. Afen; 793-6 Al3en, 
a. 1196 Gir. Camb. Avenina, Avenna; Wilts A. c. 380 Ant. 
Itin. Abone; c. 650 Bav. Geogr. Abona; a. 910 Asser Abon; 
O.E. Chron. ann. 653 Afene, Afne; also charts. Afene, Auena, 
Eafen, Hafene. W. afon, G. ahhuinn, 'river.' The name is 
found in Sc. both as Avon and Almond. Cf. Ravenglass or 
yr afon glas. 

AvoNMOUTH (Bristol). 918 O.E. Chron. Aftena muSa, 1067 ib. 
into Afenan mu6an. 

AwLiscoMBB (Honiton). Dom,. Avlescome, 1282 Haulescumbe. 
Prob. ' Valley of Eawulf ' or ' Mthelvmlf,'' a very common name. 
Cf. Alton, c. 880 ^weltun. See -combe. 

AwRE (Newnham). Dom. and 1223 Aure, 1160-61 Fife Aura. 
Dom. Devon has Avra. W. awr means ' golden ' ; but this 
scarcely seems to satisfy. Oxf. Diet, gives awre as var. of 
OWHERE, ' anywhere.' But the Old English never made jokes 
with their names ! 

AwswoRTH (Nottingham). Dom. Eldesvorde, 1316 Aldesworthe; 
' farm of Ealda.' The change is quite according to rule, so far 
as phonetics go. See -worth. 


Axe R. and Axmouth (Somerset), c. 708 Orant Axa; O.E. Chron. 
755 Asca; 944 chart. Exa, 1049 O.E. Chron. Axamntha. Keltic 
for 'water, river' =Ex, UsK, etc. Cf. Ashford. We prob. 
have the same name in the Fr. R. Aisne, L. Ax -ona, the-ona 
being the common Kelt, ending for ' stream.' 

AxHOLM (N. Lincoln), c. 1180 Bened. Peterh. Axiholm. For Ax- 
see above; this was a very marshy region. A holm is properly 
' an island in or near a river ' ; see -holm. Possibly it is ' holm of 
Mcci,'' a known name. 

AxMEsrsTER. O.E. Chron. 755 Axan-, Ascanmynster, Dom. Axe- 
minstre, * Monastery on the R. Axe ' ; O.E. mynster, ' a monas- 
tery,' then ' a (cathedral) church,' fr. L. monasterium. 

Aycleffe (Darlington), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Heaclif — i.e., O.E. 
hedh clif, ' high cliff.' But School Aycliffe is 1183 Boldon Bk. 
Sculacle, -ley, and 1130 Acheleia, 1211 Aclai — i.e., O.E. dc leah, 
' oak meadow ' ; this looks as if there had been a transition 
form, aik lee, and the meaning of aik being forgotten, it was 
' improved ' into Aycliffe. But the existence of the double old 
form is puzzling. 

Ayubhrton (Lydney). 1224 Aylbricton, 1288 Close R. Albrith- 
ton. Prob. 'Albert's town' or 'village'; O.E. Ealdbeorht or 
Alberht, of whom there are many in Onom. Cf. Elberton 
(Thornbury), Dom. Eldbertone, 1175 Pijte Alberton, 1346 Ayl- 

Aylesbeare (Exeter). Dom. Eilesberge. ' jEgiVs wood,' O.E. 
team. See Aylesbtjby, and cf. Beer, Larkbeare, and next. 
The -berge ( = Barrow) of Dom. is prob. an error for -here. 

Aylesbury. O.E. Chron. ann. 571 iEgelesburh, ^Eglesbyrig; 
1154-61 chart. AeOesbiria. ' .^Egil's burgh ' or ' fortified place.' 
Mgil is the sun-archer of Teutonic mythology. See -bury, and 
cf. Aylesbeare and Ailsbury (Warwk.) 1272 Ayllesbury. 

Aylesford (on R. Medway). O.E. Chron. 455 ^gelesford, also 
iEgelsthrep ; c. 1120 ^glesforda, jEUesforda; Sim. Dur. ann. 
1016, Eagelesford, 1160 Fife Ailesfort, ' MgiVs ford.' See 

Ayleston (Stratford, Wwk.) and Aylestone (Leicester). Str. 
A. Dom. Alnodeston, 1095 Elmundestone, a. 1200 Alvodestone. 
Either ' JElfnoth's,' later ' Alnod's town,' or ' Ealhmund's town.* 
For Leic. A. old forms needed. Cf. Aylesbtjry; and on -stone, 
see -ton. Aylworth, Glouc, Dom. Eleurde, Baddeley would 
derive fr. the name Mthel. 

Aylmerton (Norwich). Dom. Almartune. 'Town, village of 
Aylmer.'' There are several called Mlfmcer or Elmer in Onom. 

Aylsham (N. Norfolk). 1157 Ailesham, 1443 Aylesham. ' Home, 
of Mgil '; see Aylesbury, and -ham. 


Aylston (Hereford), c. 1030 chart. iEgilnothes stane— ^■.e., ' stone 
of jEgilnoih or jEgil.'' See Aylesbury. 

Aymestrey (N. Herefordsh.). Dom. Eiminstre. Prob. 'island- 
minster ' or ' church.' See -ay and -minster. Cf. Mbnstrie 
(So.) fr. G. mainistreach, ' belonging to a monastery,' in 1263 
Mestreth. Aydon, Corbridge, is 1285 Close B. Eyden. 

Aykho (Banbury). Dom. Aienho. 'Hoe or hill of Egon' or 
' ^ga ' ; cf. B.G.S. 226 ^ganstan; there is also a Bp. ^ine in 
Onom. Cf. AsLACOE and Eynsham. 

Ayot St. Laurence and St. Peter (Welwyii, Hatfield). Ayot, ait, 
eyot is ' a small island,' prob. a dimin. of O.E. ig, ' island.' See 

Oxf. Diet. S.V. AIT. 

Ayr, Point of (Wirral). O.N. eyri, ' tongue of land, gravelly 
bank ' =Aire. 

Aysgarth (Bedale). Dom. Echescard, 1202 Aikeskerth. ' Garth, 
enclosure, court, yard of JEcce or ^cci.^ names in Onom. 

Aythorpe Roding (Dunmow). Not in Dom. Old forms needed. 
The Ay- may mean ' high ' as in Aycliffe, or it may mean ' egg- 
place, egg farm,' fr. O.E. CB3, M.E. ay ' an egg.' See -thorpe, 
and Roding. 

Ayton (Cleveland, Pickering, etc.). CI. A. 1202 Haitone. Pi. A. 
1208 Aton. There are several Aytons in Yorks; in Dom. all 
are Aton, Atun, or Atune. This is prob. ' river-town,' O.E. 
ea, M.E. cb, ' river,' ruim.uig stream. But cf. Eyton. 

Azerley (Ripon). Dom. Aserla, Asserle, 1281 Close R. Atherley, 
Azarlay. 'Meadow of Atser' (O.N.) or ' Asser^ (O.E.), as in 
Atherton. Onom. has the forms Adser, Azer, Azor, all as var. 
of the common Atser. See -ley. 

Babe A- Babbicombe (Torquay). ' Valley of Babha ' or ' Behha, ' 
several in Onom. Cf. Bablake, Coventry, 1344 Babbelak, and 
Bablocklithe, Oxon, which mean ' Babha' s pool ' (O.E. lac, see 
Oxf. Diet, lake s&* 2), and ' the landing stage ' or ' Hythe ' 
beside it. See Babwell and -combe. 

Babcary (Somerton). Exon. Dom. Babakari, Babba cari, Dom. 
Babecari. Prob. ' Babbd's forts,' W. caer, pi. -rau (pron. 
-ray), ' a fort, a castle.' See Babbacombe, and cf. Castle- 
cary (Sc). 

Babraham (Cambridge), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. and 1166 Pi'pe 
Badburgeham, Dom. and 1286 Badburgham, 1450 Baburgham. 
This must be fr. a woman Badburh, gen. -wge, not in Onom. 
See -ham. 

Babwell (Bury St. Edmunds). Dom. has only Babenberga. 
1289 Contin. of Gervase. Balbewelle. ' Well of Babba: There 
are 5 Babbas and one Baba in Onom. In form 1289 lb h ai 


common scribe's error or ' trick ' for hh. Cf., too, Babthorp 
(Yorks); Dom. Babetorp, 

Backs AREOW (Ulverston). Barrow is O.E. heorg, 2 beoruh, 6 harow, 
' a mount, a hill,' then, ' a grave mound, a tumulus.' The 
Back-, as in Backford, is doubtful; it may be Icel. haJcki, Dan. 
hakke, Sw. backe, ' a hill-ridge,' and so the name will signify 
' long, ridged hill.' 

Backtord (Chester). The meaning of back- here is uncertain. 
It may just be ' back ' ; less likely =' hill-ridge,' as prob. above; 
very possibly =hach or heck as in Sandbach, Dom. Sanbec, and 
so, ' ford over the beck or stream.' Cf. Bacton and Backworth, 
(Newcastle-on-T . ) . 

Baconsthorpe (Holt, Nfk,). Dom. Baconstorp, 1346 Baconthorpe. 
' Place, village of Bacon,'' a name which seems not otherwise 
recorded in England till 1200. It is an O.Fr. accus. of a Ger- 
manic Bacco. See -thorpe. 

Bacton (N. Walsham and Stowmarket). N. Wal. B. Dom. and c. 
1150 Baketun(e), a. 1310 Baketon. St. B. Dom. Baohetuna. 
Prob. ' village, town of Bacca or Becca.' Cf. Dom. Essex, 
Bacsteda, and Baxby, Yorks, Dom. Backesbi. But also cf. 

Bacup (Lanes). Local pron. Baykop. c. 1200 chart. Ffulebachope, 
c. 1470 Bacop, 1507 Bacope, 1579 Baccop. c. 1200 clearly is 
' foul bach hope,' or ' enclosed valley of the foul, dirty brook ' ; 
see -hope. Bacup stands at the centre of four valleys or 
' hopes.' Bach or bache (see Oxf. Diet, s.v.), is a rare var. of 
beck, O.E. hcece, bece, O.N. bekk-r, ' brook, rivulet,' which also 
becomes batch, as in Comberbatch. Sandbach (Cheshire), is 
Dom. Sanbec. Cf. Eccup and Fulbeck; 'foul' is O.E. /tiZ, 
2-5 fule. 

Badbury (Berks), chart. Baddanbyrig, and Badby (Daventry) 
Dom. Badebi. ' Burgh ' and ' dwelling of Bada ' or ' Badda," 
a name common in Onom. See -bury and -by. 

Badcox (Erome). Not in Dom. Perh. W. bedd cock, ' red grave ' 
or ' grave mound,' with Eng. plur. s {cs =x). 

Baddesley Clinton and Ensor (Atherstone). Dom. Bedeslei, 
1327 Baddesleye Endeshover. ' Badda's meadow.' Cf. Badby 
and Badenhall, Eccleshall, Dom. Badenhale. See -ley. Ensor 
is contraction of Edensor. The ' Ednesovre ' family owned 
the Warwk. manor a. 1300. Clinton is fr. the De Clintons of 

Badgeworth (Cheltenham). S12chart. Began wurtha, Dom. Beiwrde, 
c. 1150 Begeword, and Badgeworthy (Lynmouth) local pron. 
Badgery. Dom. .Bicheordin, 1167-68 Pipe Badewurth. The 
man's name is a little uncertain, but prob. both mean ' Boecga's 
farm.' Bicca is also a fairly common 0.^ nan^e; and the 


phonetic change fr. Biche- to Badge- is exactly illustrated in 
BuRBAGE, also found as Burbidge, now a personal name. The 
endings are in root all the same, O.E. worth, with its extended 
forms worthig and worthign, ' farm ' ; see -worth and -wardine. 
Cf. Bageridge, Wolverhampton, 1286 Baggerugge. 

Badingham (Framlingham). Dom. Badincha. [Cf. 902 O.E. 
' Chron. ' Baddanbyrig,' near Wimborne, and a. 1100 chart. 
' Badingtun ' near Melton,] ' Home, dwelling of the sons of 
Badda.' Of. Baddesley ; and see -ing. 

Badlesmere (Faversham). Sic 1363, but Dom. and 1283Badeles- 
mere. ' Mere, lake of Badela.' Cf. K.C.D. 714 Badelan broc. 

Badminton (Gloucester). 972 chart. Badimjnacgtun, Dom. Mad- 
mintune [M an error) ; ' town, village of Beadumund or Bade - 
mund,^ names in Onom. It may be a patronymic; Baddeley 
thinks it is fr. Beaduhelm, a very rare name. See -ing. 

Badsey (Evesham). 709 chart. Baddeseia, 714 ib. Baddesege, Dom. 
Badesei; and Badsworth (Pontefract). Dom. Badesworde. 
' Isle ' and ' farm of Badda.' Cf. Baddesley; and see -ey and 

Bad WELL Ash (Bury St. Edmunds). (709 chart. Badeswelle, 
? Wore). Not in Dom. Prob. ' Badda's well.' Cf. above; not 
likely fr. had adj. Cf. Barkston Ash. 

Bagborough (Somerset). 935 chart. Bacgingberghe, ' burgh, 
fortified place of Bacga.' Cf. Bagley and Bagendon, Ciren- 
cester, Dom. Benwedene, a. 1300 Bagindon. See -burgh and -don. 

Bagby (Thirsk). Dom. Bagebi. ' Hamlet, town of Bacga ' ; cf. 
above and B.C.S. 924, ' Bsegan wyrth ' ; See -by. But, 
Baggaby Bottom, Pocklington, not in Dom., is 1202 Bagothebi, 
where Bagoth seems a corrupt form of Beagnoth, a common 
name in Onom. ; or else it is fr. Bagot, a surname prob. fr. O.Fr. 
Bottom, O.E. botm, is found with the meaning of ' valley, dell 
low-lying land,' from c. 1325. 

Bagden (Reigate). Not in Dom. Prob. ' Bacga' s den,' or else 
' dean ' — i.e., (wooded) valley. Certainly nothing to do with 
badger, as some imagine. Cf. Bagborough and Bagley. 

Bagillt (Holywell). A difficult name; evidently a W. corrup. of 
some Eng. name. The oldest sure form is Bagilde. By some 
it is identified with the Cheshire Dom. Bachelie, later Bakley. 
But it is not certain that this is the same place, and the identi- 
fication is phonetically difficult. Bachelie would prob. repre- 
sent * Bacga's lea,' as in next. Quite possibly the name is W., 
bach gallt (pi. gelltydd), ' little cliff.' 

Bagley (Berks), a. 1100 chart. Bacganleah, O.E. for ' Bacga' s 
meadow.' Cf. Bagden and Bagworth. There is also a 
Baqnor (Donnington). ' Bacga's bank or edge ' ; O.E. ora. 



Bagnall (Stoke on T:). a. 1200 Baggenhall, a 1300 Bagenholt 
Baghinholt, a 1400 Baknold. There has been a mingling here 
of ' Bacgd's hall ' and ' B.'s holt,' O.E. holt, ' a wood ' See above 
and -hall. 

Bagshot (Camber] ey), Prob. ' Bacga's shot ' or ' glade through a 
wood ' See Bagden and Aldershot. The old forms are 
numerous — Baggeshott, Bagshat, etc ; but also Bagshet, Bake- 
shet, Bakset, Baggeshete, which Skeat says must be, O.E. hcBC 
sceat, ' back nook or comer.' A wood near Winkfield is called 
Bac-sceat in Chron. Abingdon, temp. Wm. I. 

Baguley (Stockport), c. 1320 Baggulegh. ' Bago'B lea ' or 
' meadow.' There is a Bago in Onom. See -ley. 

Bagworth (Leicester). O.E. chart. Baeganwyrth, 1442 Bagge- 
worth. ' Bcega's or Bacga's farm.' Of. Baglby and Bayworth, 
also 1155 Pipe Bagewurda, 1160-1 Beggewurda, Somerset, and 
1158-9 ih. Beggewurda, Wilts; and see -worth. 

Baildon (Shipley). Dom. Beldone. Prob. O.E. heel dun, ' hill of 
the fire or funeral pile.' In later Eng. it is 4-&aZe, 4 haile, 
5 belle, 6 bde; see Oxf. Diet. s.v. baIjE s6.^ and bale-fire. 

Bailey Gate (Wimbome). Bailey is found in Eng. a. 1300 as 
hailly. It is O.Fr. bail, ' wall of the outer court of a feudal 
castle.' Cf. the Old Bailey. 

Bainbridgb (Bedale). Not in Dom. Perh. ' Straight bridge,' 
O.N. beinn, ' straight, direct,' M.E. bayn (though not in this 
sense). North, dial, bane, Whitby Gloss. ' That way's the 
banest ' — i.e., the shortest. But perh. fr. a man Baga, as in 

Baxnton (Driffield and Stamford). Dr. B. Dom. Bagentone. 
' Town of Baga, Bacga, or Becga,' gen. -an. Cf. Baynhurst, 
Cookham, and 1157 Pipe Lines, Baenburc. 

Bakewell (Derbysh.). 924 O.E. Ghron. Badecanwylla, v.r. Bade- 
can wiellon; 1280 Close R. Bathekewell, 1287 ib. Bauquell, 1297 
Baukwelle. ' Beadecd's well,' O.E. willa, wylla, ' a fountain, a 
well.' There is one Beadeca in Onom. Birch says 949 chart. 
Badecanwell is Bucknall cum Bagnall, Staffd. Cf. Baginton, 
Coventry, Dom. Badechitone. 

Bala. W. hala, ' a shooting-out,' bala llyn,' ' the outlet of a lake.' 

Balby (Doncaster). Dom. BaUesbi. Prob. ' village, hamlet of 
Bald, Beald, or Bealda ' ; here already seen in its more mod. 
form. Ball. Cf Bald on, and Balcombe, Hay ward's Heath. 

Baldersby (Thirsk) and Balderton (Newark). Dom. Baldrebi. 
The original Balder was son of Odin, and hero of one of the 
most beautiful myths in the Norse Edda. See -by and -ton. 

Baldogk (Herts), a. 1200 Baudac, -oc, 1287 Baldak, Baudak. 
An amazing name, given as a fancy name by the Knights 


Templars, its founders — Ital. Baldacco, the Eng. Baghdad ! 
Cf. Eng. baldachin, older haudekin, a fine embroidered stuff also 
named fr. Baghdad. 

Baldon (Oxford). 1054 chart. Bealdan hama. ' Bealda's home.' 
Note the contraction, and cf. Balby and Beedon. 

Bale (Holt, Norfolk), Not in Dom. O.E. heel, O.N. bdl, ' a funeral 
pyre, a bale-fire.' Cf. Baildon. 

Balking (UflSngton, Berks). 948 chart. Bedalacing; 963 ib., 
Badalacing, Bathalacing; later Bethelking. The Onom. has only 
the names Badeca and Badela. But this seems to be a patro- 
nymic, denoting the ' place of the descendants of some man 
Bedalac,' or the like. See -ing. 

Ballestgdon (Sudbury). Not in Dom., but cf. 704-709 chart. 
Balgan dun, Shottery. This last is ' hill ' or ' hill-fort of Balga.' 
But the name as it stands means ' hill of the sons of Ball,^ a 
known Eng. name; in O.E. Beald or Bealda, the 'bold,' not 
'bald,' man. (7/. Balby and Ball's Cross, Petworth. See -don. 

Balmeb (Sussex). Dom. Burgemere; later, Bormer. A curious 
example of the easy interchange of liquids, and the result of 
' Cockney ' pronunciations. The orig. name would mean ' mere 
or lake beside the burgh,' or fortified place. 

Balne (Doncaster). Not in Dom. Possibly a loc. of O.E. bM, or 
O.N. bdl. ' at the funeral pyres or bale fires.' Of. Hoxne, 
formerly Hoxon, and Baildon. 

Balsall Heath (Birmingham) and Balscott (Banbury). 1226 
Belessale, 1327 Balesale, Dugdale Balshall ; prob. ' Ball's nook ' 
and ' cottage.' Of. Bram(h)all, Cheshire, Dom. Bramale, and 
Balby, and see -hall. 

Balsham (Cambridge). 974 chart. Bellesham, Dom. Belesham, 
c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Balesham. ' Home of (prob.) Ball.' See 
Balltngdon, and -ham. 

Balterley (Newcastle, Staffs). 1004 Balterytheleage, Dom. 
Baltredelege, a. 1300 Balterdeleye, Baldridele, -trydelegh. 
' Meadow of Bealdthryth ' ; she of this lea is the only one in 

Baltonsborough (Glastonbury). 744 chart. Baltersberghe, Dom. 
Baltunesberge, 1610 Balsboro'. Another case of the inter- 
changeableness of the liquids r and n. The orig. name was 
' burgh, fortified place of Baiter,' a name found in Onom. as 
Baltherus or Baldred or Baldhere. They are .all the same name. 
See -borough. 

B amber Bridge (Preston). Omitted by Wyld and Hirst. Old 
forms needed. Cf. Baumber, Horncastle, not in Dom., and 
next. Bamber is also found as a surname. The -ber may be for 


-burgh or -bury q.v., O.E. hurg, hurh, and herig, dat. herie, ' a 
fort, castle, or fortified town ' ; as it is in Dom. Caldeber.. now 
Caldbergh, N. Yorks. 

Bamborough (Belford). Founded O.E. Ghron. ann. 547; 709 Eddi 
Bebbanburg; 1119 Bawmburgh. a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Babban- 
burch; c. 1175 Fantosme Banesburc; 1197 Banburc; 1213 Baen- 
burc; 1221 Bamburg; 1281 Baumburgh. Bede, iii. 16, says the 
place was called ' ex Bebbae quondam reginae vocabulo.' 
Bebbanburh is O.E. for * Bebba's burgh or castle ' ; and Behba 
was perh. wife of K. Ida, its founder. 

Bamford (Rochdale and Sheffield). Roch. B. sic 1228, 1282 
Baumford. Bam- will either be O.E. hean, ' bean,' or beam, ' a 
tree.' Cf. Bampton, and next. The Sheff . B. is not in Dom. 

Bamfurlong (Wigan). 1205-23 Bonghefurlong, Bonke-, Banc- 
furlong, 1200-20 Benfurlong, 1200-68 Benefurlong. The latter 
forms are ' bean-furlong,' lit. furrow-long, properly the name of 
an unenclosed field of indefinite size. But the earUer forms 
seem to be fr. hank,, M.E. banke, Icel. bakki, ' a ridge, eminence, 
or bank of a river,' first in Eng. in Ormin, c. 1200 ; in 4 bonke, bone. 
Cf. Ashfurlong, Sutton Colfield, 1242 Hasfurlong. 

Bampton (Oxford, etc.). O.E. Chron., ann. 614, Beandun; 1155 
Pipe Bentune; 1298 Bamptone. Bean-dun is O.E. for ' bean 
hUl.' For change of n to mp, cf. Sampton, 833 ' Sandtun.' 
See -don and -ton. 

Banbury. Dom. Banesberie; 1155-62 chart. Bannebiria; 1298 
Bannebury. ' Burgh, fortified town of Bana.' Cf. B.C.S. 1219 
Banan wyl. See -bury. 

Bandon (Croydon). Not in Dom. Prob., like BaMpton, O.E. 
bean-dun, ' bean hill.' Cf. Banstead and Banham, Attle- 

Bangor. Sic 1250 Layam., but c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Banchor, Sim. 
Dur., ann. 1102, Bancorensis, a. 1196 Gir. Camb. Bangorensis 
ecclesia; also see next. There are several in Wales, two in 
Brittany, and more than one in Ireland. Ir. benn-chor, ' a row 
of points or peaks,' either a circlet of rocks or a row of hills, as 
Joyce has shown. W. bangor now means * an upper row of 
rods,' then ' a coping, a battlement ' ; W. bann, ' high ' ; Bret. 
ban, ' an eminence.' It so happens that several Bangors are 
lofty sites of churches or monasteries, but this is accidental ; and 
the common derivation, ' high choir,' is now abandoned. Cf. 
Banchory (Sc), the same name. 

Bangor Isycoed (Wrexham). Bede Bancornburg. See above. 
W. iscoed means ' under the wood.' 

Bankyfelin (Caermarthen). Might be W. banc y Ffelin, 'table of 
Felin or Velyn.' Cf. Stirling (Sc), orig. Ystrevelyn, and Hel- 


VELLYN. But simpler is the derivation ' bank, slope of the mill/ 
melin, aspirated /elm. 

BAimnsTGHAM (Aylsham). ' Home of the Bannings.' ' Banningas 
nomen populi,' in Onom. See -ing. 

Banstead (Epsom). 727 cJiart. Benstede; Dom. Benestede; 1280 
Banstede. O.E. hean-stede, ' bean place or store.' ' Bean ' is 
O.E. Man, 3-6 ben, 4-6 bene. Cf. Bampton and Bandon. 

Banwell (Somerset). Chart. Banawell, Banuwille, Dom. Ban- 
welle. Prob. O.E. bdna-wcel, ' pool of the bones.' M'Clure 
thinks hena-wille, ' prayer- well.' 

Banwbn (three in Glamorgan). J. B. Bury thinks one of these 
represents Bannauenta or Vicus Banna vem, the home of St. 
Patrick. See his Confessions, c. 450 a.d. This is very doubtful. 
W. ban gwen is ' fair, clear hill.' 

Bapchild (Sittingboume). Not in Dom. Said to be a. 716 chart. 
K. Wihtred Baccancelde, which is ' Bacca's spring ' ; O.N. kelda, 
' a spring, a well.' See keld in Oxf. Diet. There is no likely 
name with a p in Onom., and that letter remains unexplained. 
But celde here must be genuine O.E., and not Norse, as M'Clure 
thinks. Cf. Dom. Bucks, Celdestane, ' stone at the well.' 

Barbon and B. Fells (Kirby Lonsdale). Dom. Berebrune. Prob. 
O.N. barr or ben brunn-r, ' bare-looking bum or stream.' Liquid 
r is easily lost. Or the Bar- may be O.N. barr, O.E. bere, 
' barley,' Cf. Barbridge and Barford. The ' Barebones' 
Parliament,' 1653, was called after ' Praise God Barbon,' a 
Fleet Street leather-seller, reputed to have sprung from this 

Barbridge (Nantwich). Most of the names in Bar- are doubtful. 
The sb. ' bar,' O.Fr. barre (origin unknown), occurs in Eng. as 
early as c. 1175, but it may not enter into any of them. Some- 
times Bar- may represent a man's name, a corrup- of O.E. 
Boerht or Beorn or Beam, as in Barthorpe Bottoms, Yorks, 1208 
Barkesthorp; sometimes, especially where Norse influence is 
likely, as in Barby, it will be O.E. beer, O.N. berr, Dan. bar, 
' bare.' Then sometimes it may be for O.N. bar-r, O.E. bere, 
' bear or barley,' as in Barford; sometimes, too, for O.E. beor, 
bear, ' beer,' as in Barham. Old forms are always needed to 
ensure certainty. 

Barbury Hill (Ringwood, Hants). Prob. O.E. Chron., ann. 556, 
Beranbyrg; also Byranbyrig, Berin Byrig. ' Burgh, fort, af 
Berin,' perh. Berinus, in Bede, a foreign bishop who came to 
Wessex a.d. 635. But see also Burbury Hill ; and -burgh. 

Barby (Rugby). Dom. Berchebi Is^Barkby. But Bard en, 
Yorks, is Dom. Bernedan, ' valley of Bjom,' or ' the Bear.' See 


Bardney (Lincoln). Bede Beardeneu; O.E. Chron., ann, 642, 
Bardanige, Bart5anig; 1230 Bardenay. ' Bardd's or Bardi's isle,' 
O.E. ig, ige, M.E. ey, ay, 'island.' Cf. Barnstaple, also a 
' Bardunig ' or ' Bart5anig,' in chart, c. 680, and B ardsley, 

Bard ON (Leicester, Haltwhistle). Leic. Dom. has only Bar tone, 
see Barton. Perh. O.E. hcer dun, ' bare hill.' ' Bare ' is 
3 har, 4-5 haar. But Duignan says Bardon Hill, Stratford, 
Wwk., is 704 chart. Baddan dun, ' Badda's hill.' For intrusion 
of r, cf. Kidderminster. 

Bardsea, -sey (Leeds, Ulverston). Le. B. Dom. Berdesei, ' Isle of 
Bardi.' See Bardney. Cf. 1387 Trevisa Higden I. 'At 
Nemyn in North Wales a litel ilond . . . hatte Bardeseie,' which 
may be 'isle of the bard,' not found in Eng. till 1449. But 
M. B. is Dom. Berretseige, ' isle of Berred, Beorred, or Burgred,' 
names in Onom. See -ea, -ey. For B ardsley (Glouc), see 

Bare and Bare Lane (Morecambe). Dom. Bare, (1) 1094 and 
a. 1200 Bar. Prob. W. lar, 'top'; Corn, har, hor, 'summit'; 
G. barr, ' a height.' It can hardly be O.E. bee?, ber, ' a bier.' 

Baregain (farm, Cornwall, etc.). This may simply indicate a 
small holding. For other conjectures, see M'Clure, p. 272. 

Barford (Warwick, on Tees, etc.). War. B. Dom. Bereford; Tees 
B. 1183 Bereford. 'The barley ford.' See Barbridge. 

Barqoed (Cardiff). See Aberbargoed. 

Barham (Canterbury and Linton, Cambs). Cant. B. is 805 churt. 
Beorahame, 809 Bereham, Dom. Berham; O.E. beor-hdm, ' beer- 
house ' or 'brewery'; O.E. beor, bear, 3-4 ber, 'beer.' It is 
urged that Barham or Berham Court belonged to the Fitzurses, 
or ' sons of the bear,' O.E. bera, 2-7 bere. But, of course, 
they come in far too late here. Camb. B. is c. 1080 Inquis. 
Camb. Bereham, Dom. Bercheham, 1210 Berkham, 1302 Berg- 
ham, 1346 Berugham, O.E. beorh-hdm, ' home on the hill or 
Barrow.' Earmoor, co. Durham, is iii chart. Beyrmor, (1) ' bare 

Barkby (Leicester). Dom. Barchebi, ' dwelling of Beorc or BercJ* 
See next, and cf. Barkham, Wokingham, 952 chart. Beorcham, 
Dom. Bercheham. which could mean ' home by the birch-tree ' : 
but Birch, like Ash, Beech, etc., is certainly also a personal 

Barking (Essex). 693 chart. To Bercingon, Bede Bercingas, 
Bercingas, Dom. Berchmges, a. 1100 Wm. Poitiers Bercingis. 
Patronymic, ' place of the descendants of Berc' the modem 
name Birch. In Onom. the only forms found are Bercta, Beorga, 
Beorht. Cf. Birkin, and see -ing. 


Barkston (Nottingham), Barkstone (Grantham), and Barkston 
Ash (Yorks). Yo. B. Dom. Barcheston, ' town, village of 
Beorc.'' See Baekeng. 

Barkway (Royston), Not m Dom. 1450 Berkewey. Prob. 
'road laid with larh' found in Eng. a. 1300, O.N. hork-r, Dan. 

Barlaston (Stoke-on-Trent). 1004 Beorelfestun, Dom. Bemulve- 
stone, c. 1200 Berlaston, Berlewston. ' Town, village of Beom- 
wulf or Bemulf ('brave wolf). Barlestone, Nuneaton, is 
the same name, Dom. Berulvestone. 

Barlboro' (Chesterfield). 1287 Barleburgh, and Barley (Selbjr). 
Dom. Bardulbi. ' Burgh, fort,' and ' dwelling of Bardolf,' "in 
O.E. Bardvmlf. See -borough and -by. 

Barling (Shoeburyness) and Barlings (Lincoln). B. Line. 1233 
Barling. Patronymics, ' place of the descendants of 1 ' See 
above and -ing. 

Barlow (Selby, Manchester, etc.). Man. B. 1259-60 Berlawe, 1325 
Barlawe, Dom. Bucks, Berlaue, 1183 BoldonBk., Berleia, Durham. 
Man. B. seems here-lawe, ' barley-covered hill.' Cf. Barton. 
But all the names may not be the same. See -low. 

Barmbgroitgh (or Barn-, Doncaster) and Barmby Moor and on 
the Marsh (Yorks). Don. B. Dom. Bameburg, Berneborc. 
Marsh and Moor B. Dom. Barnebi (this name is eleven times in 
Dom. Yorks). ' Burgh, fortified town,' and ' dwelling of Beam, 
Beorn, or Beorm.^ Cf. Barney and BirminghIam; and see 
-borough and -by. 

B arming (Maidstone) and Barmingham (on Tees). 1214 Bermige- 
ham. Patronymics, ' place of Bearm^s or Beorm's descendants.' 
Cf. above and BrRMiNGHAM, also Bermintona in Dom. Devon; 
and see -ing and -ham. 

Barmouth. In W. Abermaw. Eng. corrup. (adopted in 1768) of 
Abermawddach, ' mouth of the R. Maw.' For loss of the initial 
a, cf. old forms of Abergavenny, also Berriew. Mawddach is 
fr. W. mawdd, ' that which fills or spreads out.' Colloquially 
the name at times gets clipped down to Bermo.' 

Barnack (Stamford), a. 1100 Grant of 664 Bernake. O.E. heme- 
dc, ' barn oak.' ' Barn ' is O.E. her-ern, a. 1000 heme, ' barley- 
house.' Barnacle, Nuneaton, is Dom. Bernanger, ' barn in the 
hanging wood,' O.E. hangre. See Clayhanger, etc. 

Barnard Castle. 1200 de Castello Bernardi; 1305 Villa de Castro 
Bernardi. Built, 1112-32, by Bernard Baliol, ancestor of John 
Baliol, King of Scotland . Bernard in .E . is Beornheard . There 
is a  Biornheardes lond ' in 808 chart (Kent). 

Barney (Beccles, etc.). Newark B. Dom. Barnebi =Barmby. 


Barnes (London). Dom. Berne; also old Bernes. 'Bams,' O.E. 
heme, ' a bam.' Cf. Babnace. 

Baenet (N. of London). [1199 chart. Bergnet is spurious] c, 1200 
chart. Barnette, 1278 La Bemette, 1428 Barnette. This is Nor. 
Fr., and a dimin. of bez-ne or herme, ' a narrow space, a ledge, 
a berm,' prob. cognate with O.N. harm-r, ' brim, edge.' A very 
rare name for England. 

Babnetby (Lines). Dom. Berned-, Bernetebi. Prob. ' dwelling of 
Beornheard ' or ' Bernard.'' See -by. 

BabnSam (Bognor, etc.). Bo. B. Dom. Bemeham. * Home of 
Beam or Beom,^ though possibly ' house with the bam.' O/. 
Babnack and Babnwell. 

Babnoldswiok (Colne), Dom. Bemulfeswic. ' Dwelling, village of 
Beomwulf or Bamulf,^ a common O.E. name. See -wick. 

Babnsbuby (N. London). It is said to be Bemersbury, fr. Juliana 
Berners, prioress of Sopwell Nunnery, near St. Albans, c. 1400. 
This is for several reasons doubtful. Otherwise it might be 
* baron's burgh or fort,' fr. baron, a. 1200 barun, 6 barne. 

Babnsley (Yorks and Cirencester). Yor. B. Dom. Berneslai. 
' Meadow of Beorn '; eo regularly becomes a. But Ci. B., also 
spelt Babdsley, is c. 802 chart. Bearmodeslea, 855 ib. Beorondes- 
lea, Dom. Berneleis, a. 1300 Bardesle otherwise Barnsley, and 
must be fr. a man Beommod. See -ley; 

Babnstaple. 930 chart. Beardastapole, 1018 chart. Beardestaple, 
Dom. Barnestaple, c. 1160 Gest. Stefh. Bardestapula, 1167-68 
Fife Berdestapl', c. 1200 Gervase Bernestapele. As early as 1397 
contracted Barum (m and n commonly interchange). The orig. 
name was ' Barda^s market,' O.E. stapel, ' a prop, a post ' ; then 
' a fixed market.' Cf. Babdney. But in some abnormal way 
it was early changed into ' Beam's or Beam's market.' perh. 
because it is in the hundred of Branton (Beam -ton). Cf. Babm- 
BOBOTJGH. There is also a ' Berdestapla ' in Dom. Essex. 

Baenston (Birkenhead and Dunmow), Babnstone (Nottingham), 
and Babnton (Northwich). First three in Dom. Bemestone, -tuna. 
Perh. all mean ' Beam's or Beorri's town or village.' Cf. above. 
But Bamton, not in Dom., may come fr. barn. Cf. BabnUam. 

Babnt Gbeen (Birmingham). ' Burnt Green,' fr. burn, O.E. 
beornan, beaman, past t. 1 beam, bam, 3 bamde, bearnde, mod. 
burnt. Cf. Barnhurst, Wolverhampton, a. 1400 Bamthurst, 


Babnwell (Oundle and Cambridge). Oun. B. a. 1100 Grant of 664 
Bernewell, which might be ' well beside the barn,' O.E. berne, 
earlier ber-ern, ' bear or barley house.' But Camb. B. is 1060 
chart. Beornewell, c. 1250 Bernewell, ' well of Beorna or Beom,^ 
O.E. for ' warrior.' 


Barras (Kirby Stephen) and Barrasford (Wark). O.Fr. larras, 
M.E. c. 1375, barras, ' a barrier or outwork in front of a fortress ' ; 
then ' the lists for knightly tournaments ' ; fr. Er. harre, ' a bar.' 
Cf. Barrassie (Sc). 

Barr Beacon (Walsall), c. 1200 Barr(e). W. bar, bor, bur, ' top, 
summit '; G. barr, ' a height '; Beacon, O.E. beacn, is a common 
name for a commanding hill — Worcestershire Beacon, Dunkery 
Beacon, Exmoor, etc. — but Oxf. Dict.'s earliest quot. is 

Barrington (Cambridge), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Barentone, 1210 
Barntone, 1428 Baryngtone. ' Village of Bara, -an.' But B. 
(Glostrsh.) Dom. Bernin-, Bernitone, c. 1245 Bernington, is prob. 
* village of Beomwine.' There are two others. Cf. Berring- 
TON and the surname Baring. See -ing and -ton. 

Barripper (Camborne). Not in Dom. There are elsewhere in 
Cornwall also Bereppa, Brepper, and Borripper, which good 
authorities think all come fr. Fr. beau repaire, ' fine haunt or 
lair.' Cf. Bebepeir, HaresHeld, c. 1220 Bewper, a. 1470 Beau- 
repaire; and see p. 64. 

Barrow (nine Barrows in P.G.), also Barrowden (Stamford) and 
Barrowford (Nelson). Chesh. B. Dom. Bero. Wore. B. 1275 
Barew. O.E. biorg, beorh, ' a hill '; after 1576 harrow is often 
applied also to a grave-mound, a tumulus. It is a common 
name of hills in the S.W. — Bull Barrow, Dorset, etc. In the 
N. usually it is a long, low hill — e.g., Barrow near Derwent- 
water, Barrow Hill, Chesterfield, etc. Cf. Berrow and next, 
and Burrow. 

Barrowby (Kirkby Overblow, Yorks, and Grantham). Yor. B. 
Dom. Berghebi, ' dwelling by the hill,' or ' tumulus.' See above. 
' Berghebi ' in Dom. is often Borrowby. See -by. 

Barry (Cardiff). In W. Y Barri, ' the Barry.' The island be- 
longed to the family of Giraldus de Barry, lords of the island. 
The du Barry family is well known, or rather notorious, in later 
Fr. history. There is also a Barry, sic 1603, in Pembk. 

Barston (Birmingham). Dom. Bereestone, Bertanestone, a. 1300 
Berstonestun, 1327 Berstanston. * Town, village of Beorhtstan ' 
or ' Beorkt.' See -ton. 

Bartestree (Hereford). Dom. Bertoldestreu. ' Tree,' O.E. treow, 
' oi' Beorhtweald,' a very common O.E. name. Cf. Oswestry. 
Bartherton or Batherton, Nantwich, is 1283 Close R. Bercher- 
ton, prob. fr. a man Beorhtheard or Berehthart, names in Onom. 

Barthomley (Crewe). Dom. Bertemlea. ' Lea, meadow of Bert- 
ram or Beorhthelm,' a very common O.E. name. See -ley. 

Bartley (Southampton and Birmiagham). ' BeorJiVs meadow.' 
Cf. Bartestree. Duignan omits. See -ley. 


Bartlow (Cambridge). 1303 Berklawe, 1316 Berkelowe, 1428 
Berklowe, * Hill of Beorht, Beorh, or Beorc,^ all the same name. 
Cf., too, Barham (Cambs.) See -low. 

Barton (16 ia P.O.). Leicetser B. Dom. Bartone ; Dom." SfEk. 
Bertune. Barton-on-Hnmber is thought to be Bede, iv. iii. 
ad Barve, which Bede renders * at the wood.' Barton Regis 
is Dom. Bertune apud Bristou; and Barton - on - the - Heath 
(Warwk.) is Dom .Bertone. Barton-under-Needwood is the same. 
But Barton le Street (Yorks) is Dom. Bartun(e), and so is Barton 
le Willows. Barton is O.E. lere-tun, ' grange or enclosure for 
bear or barley or other com, farmyard.' Cf. Barwick. 

Barton Bendish (Norfolk), Barton-in-the-Clay (Ampthill), etc. 
There are forty-five such names compounded with Barton in 
P.O. Bendish is said to be for fen-ditch, but phonetically that 
is very unlikely. It is prob. a family name. 

Barwick-in-Elmet (Leeds). Dom. Berewich. O.E. here-ivic, 
' house for here or barley ' = Berwick and Barton. Elmet, sic 
Nennius, Bede and Dom. Elmete, a. 800 cTiart. Elmed ssetna 
(' dwellers in '), was a British kingdom, now the W. Riding of 
Yorks. Origin unknown. 

Baschttrch (Shrewsbury). Dom. Bascherche. * Church of Bassa.'' 
See Llywarch Hen's elegy. Bassa or Bassus, a valiant soldier 
of K. Edwin of Northumbria, is mentioned in Bede. {Cf., too, the 
mod. surname Bass, though it may be fr. Le bas.) Similar is 
Bascote, Southam, sic a. 1300, and the 2 Basfords, Dom. Notts, 

Basildon or -den (Wallingford). Dom. Bastedene; 1241-42 Bas- 
tilesden ; also Basteldene. Cf. B.C. 8. 565 Bestles ford. ' Dean, 
(wooded) valley of Bcestel or Beetle.^ Cf. Bisham. 

Basingstoke (Hants). 871 O.E. Chron. Basingas; Dom. Basinge 
8toch(es), 1238 Basyng. Patronymic, 'Place (O.E. stoc — lit. 
* stake '), 'of the Basings,' or 'descendants of Bass.' Cf. Bas- 
chttrch. But Old Glossary Basincge, melotae, ' in goat-skins.' 
Bessingby (Yorks), is Dom. Basingebi. 

Basingwerk (Flint), sic 1277, but a. 1196 Gir. Camb. Basingeworc — 
i.e., ' outwork, fort of the Basings.' See above, and Basohurch. 
There is a ' Basingewerc,' 1160, in Pi'pe Notts and Derby. 

Baslow (Chesterfield). 1156 Bassalawa. ' J5a55a's hill.' See Bas- 
CHURCH and -low. 

Bassalbg (Newport, Mon.). Thought to be c. 800 Nennius Campus 
Elleti {t common scribe's error for c), and so =the mod. W. 
name Maesaleg, ' plain ' (W. maes) ' of ^lloc ' or * Aloe,' names 
of men in Onom. Close by is maes Arthur, ' plain of Arthur.' 
But it is c. 1130 Lib. Landav. Ecclesia de Bassalec. Kuno Meyer 
derives this fr. L. basilica, Gk. (Saa-tXiK-j, ' royal residence, court- 


house,' in L., after 4th cny. a.d., ' cathedral, chiirch,' found 
in O.Ir, as haisleac. But there seems no sure evidence or 
analogy for this, and it contradicts the evidence given above. 
Moreover, the church here is dedicated to St. Basil, and the 
-lee or -leg might easily represent the common O.E. leak, Ikb^, 
see -ley, and so the name be ' Basil's meadow.' Only, Eng. 
names so early as 1130 in this region are very unlikely. The 
present W. pron. varies between Maesaleg, Mashalyg (' field of 
willows '), and Maeshalog (said to be ' salt-field '), showing that 
the natives are all at sea ; and the rest of us are not much better ! 

Bassenthwaite (Keswick). ' Place of Bassa ' (the -en is a gen.). 
See BASCflUKCH:, and -thwaite. 

Bassetlaw (a wapentake of Notts). Dom. Bernedeselawe, ' Hill 
of Beomheard ' or ' Bernard,' a common O.E. name. But 1155 
Pipe Desetlawa, 1189 ib. Bersetelaw. a. 1199 Basselaw {d or t 
prob. omitted in error). As Mutschmann says, the orig. name 
prob. was, O.E. bearu-scetena-hldw, 'mound of the forest- 
dwellers'; cf. DoESET, and see next. In 1155 D is an error 
for B. See -low, -law. 

Bassett (Southampton). Dom. Bessete. Difficult. Perh. ' heath 
of Besa, Bassa, Bass, or Ba^so,' all names in Onom. The ending 
-et is generally puzzling ; but for the suggested origin here cf. 
the forms of Hatfield, Herts, and Hodnet. The Bassetts 
were Nor. lords of Drayton Bassett, Tamworth, and elsewhere, 
for several generations. So possibly the name is O.Fr., though 
not probably. Fr. basset means ' of low stature,' and gave 
name to a Nor. family very early in Notts. 

BASSiNGBOiniN (Royston, Camb.), also Bassestgham (Newark). 
1202 Bassingbum; 1298 Bassingbum, -borne; a. 1300 Eccleston 
Bissingbume (Norfolk pron.). ' Bum or brook of Bass's de- 
scendants.' Cf. Baschtjech and Basingstoke. See -bourne 
and -ham. , 

Baston (Market Deeping). Sic in chart, of 806. 'Town, village 
of Bass.' See BASCHUncfl, etc. 

Bastwell (Blackburn). 1288 Baddestwyssel, 1329 Battistwyssel, 
1322 Batestwysel, 1594 Bastwell. A remarkable contraction — 
' the Twizel,' or ' confluence of Badda.' Cf. Haltwhistle and 
Dom. Norfolk, Bastwic. 

BATCHWOETBt Heath (Rickmansworth). 1007 cAari. Baecceswyrth. 
Prob. ' Place of Bacca or Becca,' both names in Onom. Cf. 
BetchIworth:, and Bletchley fr. Blecca. But possibly fr. 
batch, var. of bache, ' a river- vale.' See Oxf. Diet. It is the 
same root as beck, cf. Comberbach and Plilverbatch, Salop. 
Skeat inclines to the meaning, ' farm in the river- valley.' The 
sign of the gen. in the chart, is against that. See his own 
PL Names of Berks, p. 35. Cf. The Batche, Forest of Dean. 


Batcombe (Bath, etc.). a. 900 chart. Batancumb, 940 chart. Bate- 
combe. Gf. 1298 ' Thomas Botencombe.' ' Valley of Bata' a 
name m Onom. See -combe. 

Bath. c. 380 Ant. Itin. Aquse Solis. 781 ' at Beathum; 796 chart. 
' Celebri vico qui Saxonice vocatur set BaSum'; 1088 O.E. 
Chron. (Peterb.) Baf^on, 1130 ib. Bathe, c. 1160 Oest. Steph. 
Batthentona, also ' Batta quod Bahieum interpretatur.' O.E. 
&£bS, ' a bath.' 

Batsealton (Somerset). Dom. Badeheltone, Batheaston [ib.), 
(?) Dom. Estune, 'east town,' and Bathwick, 'dwelling near 
Bath.' See -wick. In all three cases, of course, the first part 
is Bath. The -ealton may be O.E. eald tun, ' old town.' Cf. 
Eltham. But it may be ' town of Ela, Eli,' or ' Ella,' all names 
in Onom. Cf. Elton. 

Batley (Dewsbury). Dom. Bateleia, Bathelie; 1202 Battelege; 
1298 Bateleie. ' Pasture lea or meadow,' fr. O.N. beit, ' pas- 
ture ' ; beita, ' food, bait ' ; or else ' Bata's lea.' Cf. Batcombe 
and Dom. Norfk. Bathele, Notts, Badeleie (now Bathley). 

Batley Caee. (Dewsbury). See above. Carr is North. O.E. carr 
(c. 950 in Lindisfarne Oosf.), ' a rock.' Cf. the Carr Rocks, 
Berwick, and Redcar. 

Battersby (N.E. Yorks). Dom. Badresbi. ' Dwelling of ' some 
Norseman, prob. Beaduheard or Badherd, common in Onom. 
Cf. Bttttermere, and see -by. 

Battersea (London). 693 chart. Batriceseye; Dom. Patricesy; 
1308 Badricheseye. ' St. Patrick's ' or ' St. Peter's isle ' ; Peter 
and Patrick are often interchanged. See -ey. It belonged to 
the Abbey of St. Peter of Westminster, Cf. Padstow. Change 
fr. P to jB is not common, and M'Clure suggests ' Beadurich's 
isle,' and compares Beadorices Uurthe, old name of St. Ed- 
mund's Bury in Ethelwerd's Chronicle. 

Battle Abbey (Hastings). Begun 1070, four years after the battle 
of Hastings. Dom. Ecclesia de labatailge (O.Fr. bataille, ' battle '). 
1297 R. Glouc. ' Ycleped in Engelond abbay of ])e batayle.' 

Battyeford (Normanton). Not in Dom, Prob. fr. some man. 
The surname Batty is well loiown, and there is Beata in Onom. 

Baughtjrst (Basingstoke). B.C.S. 624 Beaggan hyrst. ' Wood 
of Beagga.' See -hurst. 

Bawdeswell (Dereham). Dom. Baldereswella. ' Well, spring of 
Bealdhere,' 5 in Onom. The change to Bawde- is quite accord- 
ing to phonetic law. Cf. Bawdsey. 

Bawdlands (Clitheroe), not in W. and H., and Bawdsey (Felix- 
stowe). Old forms needed for the first; prob. fr. bawd sb.^, 
' a hare.' The second is Dom. Baldereseia, Baldeseia. ' Isle 
oi Bealdhere.' Cf. Bawdeswell, and see -ey. •^"' 


Bawdrip (Bridgewater). Dom. Bagetrepe. 'Drop of Baga,'' or 
' BcBga.' There is The Drip near Stirling; the So, verb is 
dreep, ' to drop down from a height.' It occurs in Id.E. as 
dripe, and in O.E. as dry pen, but is not found in either as a 56. 
Cognate with drip, droop, and drop. Cf. Bawtry, Yorks, not in 
Dom. ? ' Baga's tree.' 

Baxenden (Accrington). 1332 Bakestonden; also cf. B.C. 8. 917 
Beaces hlaw, and B.G.lS. 906 Bacgan broc. A somewhat rare 
combination — 'town of Beaca,' + -den, q.v. Cf. Baxby, Cox- 
wold par., Yorks, Dom. Baohesbi, 1201 Baxeby. 

Baxterley (Atherstone). 1327 Baxterleye. A unique name. 
' Meadow of the baxter,^ still a common Sc. surname. O.E. 
hcecestre, M.E. haxter, ' a baker.' 

Baydon (Lamboume). Prob. O.E. Beagan dun, ' Beaga's (or 
Bacga's) hill,' cf. B.C.S. 882 Beagan wyl. Cf. Bayton and 
BaywortA. Bay =' bay-coloured,' is O.Fr. hai, and is not found 
in Eng. till 1374. Bayford (Hereford) will have a similar 

Baylham (Ipswich). Dom. Beleham, 1453 Beylom, 1456 Boylom. 
Prob. O.E. Bcel'Mm, 'home, house of Bsel ' or 'Bayle'; cf. 
B.C.8. 1316 BseUes wseg. Not so prob. fr. O.E. heel, O.N. 
hdl, 5-9 bail, ' a blaziug pile, a bonfire, a funeral pyre.' 

Baynards Castle (Horsham). Said to be fr. Bainiardus, Bai- 
nardus, or Baignardus, tenant of the abbot of Westminster, 
named in Dom. Cf. Bayswater. The final -ard in personal 
names, like Bernard, Reynard, etc., is usually O.E. heard, 
O.H.G. hard, ' strong (in counsel).' 

Bayston Hill (Shrewsbury). Dom. Begestan. ' Town, village 
of Begha or Baega' same name as St. Bees. Cf. Bayworth; 
-stan i.e., -stone often interchanges with -ton, q.v. 

Bayswater (London). 1653 Grant, ' At Paddington, near to a 
place commonly called Baynard's Watering.' But in 1720 
clipped down to Bear's Watering. 

Bayton (Cleobury Mortimer). Dom. Betune, a 1200 Bertune, 
1275 Beyton, 1339 Baynton. Some confusion here, but 
Duignan is prob. right in making it O.E. Bcegan tun, ' Baega'e 
town.' Cf. Baydon and next. 

Bayworth (Abingdon). 956 chart. Beegen weorthe; Bsegan wyrthe; 
Dom. Baiorde; a. 1200 Hist. Abindgon Baigeuuortha. 'Farm 
of Baega or Begha,' same name as St. Bees. Cf. Bayston 
and Bagworth, and see -worth. 

Beachamwell (Swaffham). Dom. has Becheswella, ' well, spring 
of Bcecca, Beac' or ' Beocca," all in Onom. Dom. also has 
Becham, Bicham, which is prob. ' home on the beck,' O.E. 
heSce, bece, cf. Bacup, but may also be ' Beac's home.' This 


Beacham can hardly be the same as Beauchamp (pron. Beecham) 
Court, Wore, Dom. Bello Campo, which is Fr. and L. for 
'fine field '= Belch AMP. Beachley, Tewkesbury, is old 
Betesle, fr. a man Beta or Betti. 

Beachy Head (Sussex). Fr. heau chef, ' fine head or headland.' 
There is a Beauchief near Sheffield. 

Beaconsfield (Bucks). Old forms needed. Cf. Baconsthorpe. 
Dom. has only Bechentone and Bechesdene, fr. Becca or Beco, 
names in Onom. 

Beadlam (Helmsley). Dom. and 1202 Yorhs Fines Bodlum. -lun. 
Older forms needed. See -ham. But Bodlum suggests corrup. 
of O.E. hotlon, loc, ' at the dwellings.' Cf. Hallam, Kilham, 
etc. O.E. hotl is O.Fris. bodl. Cf. Harbottle. etc. 

Beadnell (Bedford). [Cf. B.C.S. 936 Beaden heal.] Prob. 
' Beadd's nook ' or ' hall,' as in charter cited. Cf. Bednal and 
Bed WIN, and see -hall. 

Beal (Northbld.). chart. Behil, Beyl. Prob. O.E. be, hi. Ml or 
hyl, ' by the hill,' as in Biddick, Durham 1183 Bedyk, Bydyk, 
' near the (Roman) Wall,' and Biwere, ' by the weir,' Inquis. 
Eli., p. 190, ' Hec sunt piscaria monachorum . . . Vttrewere 
('outer weir'), * Landwere . . , Biwere, Northwere, etc' Bea- 
ford, Torrington, may also mean ' by the ford ' ; old forms are 
wanting, but we have Dom. Wore. Beford. On the other hand, 
see Beaworthy in the same county. The ending in Beal may 
be -hale (see -hall). Beall (Knottingley) is Dom. Begale, 
which is prob. ' Bega's nook.' Cf. Baydon and Brill. 

Bealings, Great and Little (Woodbridge). Dom. Belinges, and 
B. parva. Patronjrmic; ' place of the sons of Bella ' or ' Beola,^ 
both in Onom. Prob. = Billing. 

Beane R. (Hereford), c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Beneficia. This yields 
a curious conundrum. 

Bear- Bersted (Maidstone). 1005 chart. Berhamstede, and so 
same name orig. as Berkhamsted; or else as in Bersham, 
' stead, place, farm of Ber.' 

Bearley (Alcester). A changed name. Dom. Burlei, 1327 
Burlege, a. 1600 Byrley. ' Burgh on the lea '; see -burgh and 

Beaudesert (Henley -in -Arden and Cannock). Hen. B. c. 1135 
Beldesert, a. 1400 Beaudesert. Can. B. a. 1300 Beaudesert, 
a. 1400 Bellum Desertum. This is Fr. for 'beautiful wild'; 
desert in Eng. is often used for ' wild, mountain or forest land.' 
Henley B. was in Dom. Donnelie. 

Beaufort (Brecon). Fr. beau fort, ' fine fortress.' Called after 
the Fr. Beaufort, near Angers. It belonged to the Lancaster 
family in the 14th cny. and from them the Dukes of Beaufort are 


descended. Beauprb House, Cowbridge, Fr, for ' fine meadow,' 
is on the site of a Norman fortress. See also s.v. Beaumaris. 

Be AULiETJ (Southampton). Pron. Bewly. c. 1246 deBello Loco Regis 

. {i.e., John), 1289 Contin. Gervase Bellum-locum. Fr. beau lieu, 

'beautiful place'; founded by K. John for the Cistercians 

in 1204. Cf. Beauchief (Sheffield), Beatjly (Sc), and Bewdley. 

Beaumaris (Anglesea). Old forms Bumaris, Beumarish, Byw- 
mares. The old W. name was Rhosfair, ' moor of Mary.' In 
1293 Edward I. built a castle on the low-lying land by the shore, 
that so the castle ditch might communicate with the sea. 
Because of this suitability of site the King called it Beau marais, 
(O.Fr, mareis), which is Fr. for ' fine marsh ' or ' low-lying, 
swampy ground.' Cf. Beaudesert. In W. to-day it is pron. 
Bliwmaris, just as Beaufort, (Mon.) is pron. Bluefort. Maresden 
(Glouc.) is also fr. mareis. But Beamish, Co. Durham, is old 
Beaumeis, 'fine dwelHng,' fr. O.Fr. mes, 'a manse, a mansion.' 

Beaumont (Lanes., Colchester, and Jersey). La. B. 1230 Bello 
Monte, 1316 Beahnont. 1494 Fabyan, ' The castell of Beaw- 
mount.' Fr. beau mont, ' fine hill ' = Belmont. But Bowmont 
Water, Cheviots, is a. 1000 Bolbend, of doubtful meaning; it 
cannot be fr. bend sb*. 

Bbausale (see Beoley). 

Beaver (Ashford). Old forms needed. It may be = Belvoir (pron. 
beever). Fr. for 'fine outlook' or 'view,' = 6ea% voir. Cf. 
BeacSy Head. 

Beaworthy (N. Devon). Dom. Bicheordin. ' Farm of Bica ' 
{i=ee). The ending is O.E. wor'Qige, a dat.; see -warden and 
-worthy. Cf. Beaford (Devon), old forms needed. 

Bebington (Birkenhead). \Gf. 1298 Willelmus de Bibington.] 
' Town, village of Bebba,'' or of his descendants. Cf. Bam- 
BOROUGH, and see -ing. 

Becolbs (Lowestoft). Sic Dom. 1157 Pipe in Becclis, 1298 Bekles, 
1443 Bekelys. An abnormal name. Possibly O.E. bi, be 
EccLES, ' by, beside the church,' Of. Beeford, Bix, etc. 
But prob. one of those rare cases of a man's name in the gen. 
standing alone for a place-name, as in Beedon, Brailes, 
Coven, etc., and so ' (place of) Beoccel.' Cf. B.C.S. 1117 
Beocceles put. Dom. Suffk. has also Abecles, and Dom. Nfk. 
Breckles, Breechles. 

Beckenham (Kent). O.E. chart.- Beohhahamme, -hema, Dom. 
Bacheham, a. 1200 Text. Roff. Becceham. A little doubtful; 
prob. not. 'Mecca's home,' as in Beckbury (Shifnal), nor ' enclosure 
on the bach or beck, as in Bacup; but prob. 'enclosure of 
Beohha,^ though we should have expected some sign of the gen. 
Cf. Dom. Essex, Bacheneia; and see -ham, ' enclosure.' 


Beckeemet (Egremont and W. Riding). Eg. B. 1189 Pipe Bekir- 
met, a. 1200 Becchiremond. W. Rid. B. not in Dom., but old 
Beckermond; O.N. hekJcjar mu'S-r, ' mouth of the beck or brook.' 
Beck occurs again in Albecq, Guernsey; prob. O.N. dll-bekkr, 
'ed brook.' ' Mouth ' in O.N. is munn-r, mu^-r. Dan. mund ; 
and N. nd regularly becomes th or t in Eng. names. Cf. 
Amotherby, Osmotherley, and Mite. Also cf. 1183 Boldon 
Bh. Becchermore, ' moor of the brook,' in Durham. 

Beckeord (Tewkesbury). 803 chart. Beccanforda — i.e., 'ford of 
Becca'; 1158-59 Pipe Becheford. Cf. Beckbury (Shifnal) and 
Becesworde, Dom. Surrey. 

Beokestgham (Gainsboro' and Newark). Dom. Notts Beching(e)- 
ham, [Liacs Bechebi]; and Beckestgton (Bath). Dom. Beching- 
tone. ' Home ' and * village of Beca's, descendants.' Cf. above; 
and see -ing, -ham, and -ton. 

Beckwithshaw (Harrogate). Dom. Becvid. It seems a tautology. 
' Wood on the beck or brook.' Cf. Beckermet. For -with is 
Icel. vith-r, ' a wood, shrubs ' {cf. AskwitS); and -shaw is O.E. 
scaga, ' a wood ' (cf. Atjdenshaw). 

Bed ALB (Northallerton). Sic in Dom. It is on R. Ure. Analogy 
would make this, O.E. he dal, ' by, near the dale.' Cf. Beal 
and Bbeford. Of course, it might be ' bee dale,' O.E. beo ; 
prob. not. 

Beddgelert (Carnarvon). W.=' grave of Gelert,'' the famous 
and faithful dog of Prince Llewellyn, in the legend, killed by 
him by mistake. Some, however, say the orig. name was 
Bwth Cilarth or Bethcelert, and say it orig. was ' housC; booth 
of Celer,' patron saint of Llangeler. 

Beddingham (Lewes). 810 Grant Beadyngham, ' Home of the 
Beadingas.' Cf. Beeding, BedingSam, and next. 

Beddington (Croydon and Hants). Croy. B. c. 905 Beddrnctun, 
Dom. Beddintone. Prob. patronymic like the above, and so 
' town, village of the Beadingas.^ Cf. 854 cMrt. Beaddingbroc. 
But both this and the above may be fr. a man Bedda. 

Bedfont (Middlesex). Dom. Bedefunde, -funt. ' Bedd's font,' 
O.E. font, 2-6 funt{e). Cf. Bedfield, Framlingham, and Chal- 


Bedford. There is also a Bedford near Manchester. The Bed- 
ford is in W. Rhydwely, which prob. means ' ford on this 
torrent,' W. gweilgi. O.E. Chron. 577 Bedecanford; 1011 O.E. 
Chron. Bedanfordsclr, 1016 ih. Beadaford scire, c. 1150 
Bedefordia. ' Ford of Bedeca.' Cf. B.C.S. 1307 Bedecan lea. 
The Man. B. is 1296 Bedeford, ' Bosda's ford.' 

Bedingfield (Eye and Notts). Eye B. Dom. Bedinge-, Bedinga- 
fielda, Bading-. Not. B. Not in Dom., a. 1199 Bedingefeld. 


Prob. both patronymics like BEDDmoHAM. But Bedingham 
(Bungay). B.C. 8. 81, Beddenham, is ' home of Bedda.^ See -ing. 

BEDLiNaTON (Northumberland). Chart. Betligtona, Bellintona, 
c. 1155 Bellingtonesir (-shire). 'Town, village of Bedling,^ a 
name found in Onom., prob. a patronymic. Cf. Bidlingtojst, 
Sussex, a. 1100 Bedelingstone. See -ing. 

Bbdlinog (Glamorgan). W. hedd llwynog,' grave of the fox'; 
but T. Morgan thinks rather, hedw llwynog, ' place with a grove 
of birch -trees ' ; they are plentiful here. 

Bedminsteb (Bristol). Dom. Betminstre, 1155 Bedmenistre. 
' Beda's minster ' or ' church.^ Cf. Bedfont, and see -minster. 

Bedmont (Herts). Not in Skeat. ' Beda's mount ' or ' hill.' 
O.E. munt, L. mons, -tis, ' a mountain.' 

Bednal (Stafford). Dom. Bedehala, 1271 Beden huUe ( = 'hill'), 
a. 1300 Bedan- Baden hale. ' Bede's nook ' or ' hall ' =Bead- 
NELL. Cf. Bethnal Grben, and 1160-01 Pipe Nthbld. 

Bed WAS (Cardiff). O.W. bed gwas, ' grave of the servant.' 

Bed WIN, -WYN, Great and Little (Hungerford). • 778 chart. 
Bedewind, Dom. Bedvinde, 1155 Fife Estbedewind, As mnd in 
O.E. simply means ' wind,' this would seem to be W. hedd 
gwynn, ' fair, beautiful grave.' Though it is said to be O.E. 
Chron. 675 Bedan- or Biedenhafod— t.e., ' Bieda's head' or 
' headland.' But the two names cannot be the same. 

Bedwobth (Nuneaton). Dom. Bedeword. ' Beda's farm ' Cf. 

Bedminsteii, etc., and see -worth. 
BEEDiNQ(Steyning). Dom. Bed(d)inges (nom. plur.). Patronymic. 
See Beddestgham. 

Beedon Hill (Newbury). Chart. Bedene, Bydene; Dom. Bedene; 
1316 Budeneye; 1428 Budene, Bedene. Skeat thinks this must 
be simply O.E. Bedan, ' Byda's or Beda's,' 'home ' to be sup- 
plied. Cf. Biddenham. This is a rare type of name, but see 
Baldon, Benson, and Wigan. 

Beefobd (Driffield). Dom. Biworde. ' Beside the farm or estate ' ; 

O.E. bi worth ; -worth and -ford often interchange. Also cf. 

Beal and Bidbford. 
Beenham or Benham (Reading). 956 chart. Bennanhamme; Dom. 

Benneham, Beneham . ' Home of Benna ' ; see -ham. In Calend. 

Inquisit. I. we find ' Benham manerium ' among lands held by 

Adomarus de Valencia or Aymer de Valence; hence the full 

name B. Valence. 

Beer (Axminster), Dom. Bere, Beer Alston, and Beer Ferris 
(Devon). Dom. Bere, Bera. O.E. hearu, 'a wood'; and see 
Alston. The other name is better written Bere Ferrers. F. 
was a crusader, whose tomb is in the church here. 



Beesby (Alford). Dom. Besebi. 'Village, dwelling of Besa.'' 
One in Onom. See -by. 

Bbeston (Leeds, etc.). Leeds B." Dom. Bestone, 1202 Bestona. 
Notts B. Dom. Bestune. Chester B. Dom. Buistane. Perh. Bovis 
in Ant. Itin. The Ches. B. looks as if fr. N. hui, ' a goblin ' ; but 
the others are prob. fr, the name Begha or Bees. Cf. above. 

Beetham (Westmorland). Dom. Biedun, which may be ' Bede'a 
hill ' ; it is very rare for dun to become -ham. 

Beetle Y (Dereham). Dom. Betellea. Doubtful, mpre old forms 
needed. Prob., as above, fr. a man Beta. But perh. ' beet- 
root meadow,' fr. O.E. hete ; whilst Betel- might also stand for 
Bethild or Betweald, names in Onom. 

Begelly (Pembksh.). Old Bugeli. It is thought to be a tribal 
name, fr. W. hugail, G. huachail, ' a shepherd ' ; or perh. a 
man's name, Bugail ; cf. Merthir (' martyr ') Buceil in Lib. 
Land., once near Bridgend, Glam. 

Beighton (Rotherham and Norwich). Ro. B. not in Dom. Nor. 
B. Dom. Begetona, 1450 Beyton, Boyton. ' Begha' b town,' 
Cf. St. Bees. 

Bekesboubne (Canterbury). Not in Dom. ' Beca's' or ' Becca'a 
brook. See -bourne, and cf. Beckbuky. 

Belbroughton (Stourbridge). 817 chart. Belne, et Brocton^ Dom. 
BeUem, Brotune, a. 1200 Beolne, 1275 Belne-Bruyn, Brocton, 
a. 1400 Belne-Brocton, -brotton, Bellenbrokton. A curious 
compound. Bboughton is plain enough ; but ' Belne ' seems 
at present insoluble. 

Belchamp St. Paul and Belchamp Walter (Suffolk). Dom. 
Belcamp. O.Fr. bel champ, ' fine field or plain.' Same name 
as Beauchamp or Beacham. Cf. Dom. Bucks, de Belcamp, 
1160 Pi'pe ' Belcap,' Hereford, and Beachamwell; also 1281 
Close B. Belcham, Essex. 

Belch- or Belsheobd (Homcastle). Dom. and 1281 Beltesford. 
Prob. 'ford of Bealda,' two in Onom. But cf. Dom. Essex 
Belcham. Onom. has one Balchi. 

Beley (Glostrsh.). 972 chart. Beoleahe, =Beoley. 

Belfobd (Northumberland), c. 1175 Fantosme Belefort; there 
is in B.C.8. 454 Bellan ford. Perh. O.Fr. ' bel fort, ' fine fort,' 
as in Belfort, Alsace. But prob. ' ford of a man Bella ' ; cf. 

Belgrave (Leicester). Old forms needed. Not in Dom. Prob. 
* Bella's grave,' O.E. graf. Cf. above. From this comes 
Belgbavia, London. 

BELLBUriK (Leeds). Not in Dom. ' Bell-bush,' referring to an 
inn sign. ' Good wine needs no bush,' which is M.E. busk, 
O.'N. busk-r, 3-7, and still in Nthn. dial., busk. 


Bellepoed (Dartmoor). Old forms needed. ? Dom. Boleborde 
(b for /, or else v, and so = -worth, with which -ford often inter- 
changes). ? 'ford of Bola,' two in Onom. cf. Bolsoveb and 
Belfobd. All Dartmoor names in -ford are said by some 
to be fr. W, ffordd, ' a road, a way.' This is doubtful. 

Bellebby (Bedale). Dom. Belgebi, 1166-67 Pipe Beleg'ebi, Berle- 
gerbi ; perh. ' dwelling of Bealdgcer/ one in Onom. More old 
forms needed. The name may still survive in the surname 
Bellairs. See -by. 

Belle Vue (Manchester). Mod. Fr. =''fine view.' Cf. Bel- 
vom and Belvedere, Erith, which is Ital., with similar meaning — 
' fine to see,' or ' fine view.' 

Bellingham (N. Northbld., Notts, and Kent). Notts B. sic 1230 
Close R., ' Home of Belling ' or 'of the sons of Bella.' Cf. 
Inquis. Camb. Belincgesham, and BrLLiNGSGATE. Also Bel- 
LiNGTON (Worcestrsh.), Dom. Belintones, 1275 Belinton. See 
-ing and -ham and -ton. 

Belmont (Bolton and Surrey). Fr. =' fine hill.' 

Belpeb (Ambergate). Not in Dom. Cf. Belbepeie, Haresfeld, 
c. 1220 Bewper, c. 1450 Beaurepaire, which last is Fr. for ' lovely 
haunt'; O.Fr. bel., Fr. 6ea%, 'fine, beautiful.' Cf. Babbipper. 

Belsay (Newcastle). ' BelV^ or Bella's island. Cf. Belfobd, 
and see -ay. 

Bei^tgne (Okehampton). Dom. Bellestham. Here the ending has 
changed fr. ham to tun or -ton. The name of the man intended 
by the first part is a little doubtful, but is prob. Bella. Cf. 
Belfobd and Dom. Beleslei, Salop. Dom.'s form may be a 
scribal error. 

Belton (Doncaster, etc.). Prob. not 'town with the bell,' O.E. 
belle, but 'Bella's town.' Belthobp, Helmsley, is Dom. 
Balchetorp {cf. Belchfobd); but Belby, York, is Dom. Bellebi. 
Cf. Belfobd. 

Belvgib Castle (Grantham), pron. Beever. c. 1540 Leland 
Beavoire, Bever. O.Fr. =' fine to see/ or 'fine view.' Cf. 
Bellevtje and Belvedebe. 

Bembbidge (Ryde). Old forms needed. Bem- may be O.E. beam, 
a tree, a ' beam.' 

Bemebton (Salisbury). Dom. Bimertone. 'Town, village of the 
trumpeter,' O.E. beamere, by mere. 

Bempton (Flamborough). Dom. Bentone. Prob. =Bampton — 
i.e., O.E. bean-dun, ' bean hill.' It is 3-6 ben. See -don and -ton. 

Benefield (Oundle). a. 1100 Grant of 664, Beinfelde, c. 1200 
Gervase, Benigfelde. Doubtful. Possibly ' field of Beonna,' or 
Benna,' a common O.E. name, in one case Latinized Benignus. 
It might even be O.E. bean-feld, ' bean field.' 


Benenden (Staplehurst). Dom. Benindene. 'Den or dean or 
haunt of Benna or Beonna,^ gen. -an. Cf. above and Bidden- 
DEN, close by. 

Benfleet, N. and S. (Essex). 893 O.E. Chron. Beamfleot (c. 1120 
Hen. Hunt. Beamfled), which is O.E. for ' tree river,' ? river 
lined by trees. It is Dom. Benflet, 1166-67 Pipe Bemflet. 
See Fleet. 

Bengeo (Hertford). Dom. Belingehon, 1210 Beningeho, Benigho, 
1291 Beningho. ' Hoe, hoo or high ground of the Bennings,* 
or 'sons of Ben{n)a^; O.E. hoh, ho, 'high ground, hill,' Gf. 
Bletsoe and next. As to Dom.'s form, cf. Bennestgton. 
Dom. is always confusing the liquids. 

Bengewoeth (Evesham). 709 cMrt. Benigwrthia. 714 ib. 
Benincgworthe, 780 ib. Benincwyrthe, Dom. Benningeorde, 
Bennicworte. ' Farm of the sons of Ben{n)a.' Cf. Benefield, 
Bengeo, and Benniworth; and see -ing and -worth. 

Benhall Green (Saxmundham). Dom. Benehal(l)a, ' Benna's 
or Beonna^a nook.' Cf. Beenham and Benson, and Dom, 
Benehale, Salop. See -hall. 

Benhilton (Sutton, Sussex). Not in Dom. Old Benhill Town. 
Prob. ' Bennd's or Beonna^s hill.' Cf. above. 

Benington (Boston), Bennington (Stevenage), and Benniworth 
(Lines.). Bos. B. Dom. Beninctim, Beningtone, c. 1275 Benig- 
ton. St. B. Dom. Belintone. ' Town ' and ' farm of the 
Bennings,^ a patronymic. Cf. Bengeo and Benton; and see 
-ton and -worth. 

Ben Rhydding (Leeds). ' A modem coinage.' Ben is G. beinn, 
" a mountain, a hill,' W. penn. W. rhydd is ' red.' 

Benson, more fully Bensington (WaHingford). O.E. Chron. ann. 
571 Baenesingtun, 1155 Pipe Bensentun. ' Town of the 
Bensings.' There is a Dan. chief Benesing in 911 O.E. Chron. 
For the contracted or dropped ending, cf. Bald on and Beedon; 
and see -ing and -ton. 

Bentham (Lancaster and Badgeworth). La. B. Dom. Benetain 
(scribe's error). ' Home among the bennet or bent-grass,' O.E. 
beonet, c. 1325 bent. Cf. next and Chequerbent; and see -ham. 

Bentley (Doncaster, Walsall, Atherstone, on Severn, Suffolk, etc.). 
Don. B. Dom. Benedlage, -leia, Benelei, 1298 Bentele, Wa, B. 
a. 1200 Benaetlea, Benetlegh. Ath. B. Dom. Benechelie, a. 
1300 Bentley. Sev. B. 962 chart. Beonet laeage, 1017 ib. 
Beonetleah. Suff. B. 1455 Bentele. ' Meadow of the bent- 
grass or bennet,' see above. Cf. Bentworth, Hants. In some 
cases perh. fr. Benet for Benedict. See -ley. 

Benton (Newcastle). 1311 Durham Reg. Benton, Benington. This 
is clearly a contracted patronymic, ' Town, village of the 


Bennings^; cf. Benengton. Other 'Bentones' have become 
Bampton or Bempton. 

BEifWELL (Newcastle), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Bynnewalle — i.e., 
' within the (Roman) wall.' O.E. binnan, 2-4 hinne ' within, 
inside of.' Cf. Binbeook, and the So. ' ben the house,' where 
ben iSi says Oxf. Diet., var. of binne. 

Benwick (March). Ramsey Chart. Benewick. Prob. ' Ben{n)a''s 
or ' Beonna'e, dwelling.' See -wick. 

Beoley (Redditch). 972 chart. Beoleahe, Dom. Beolege, 1327 
Beleye, ' Meadow of the bees,' O.E. beo. Cf. Beley, Beobridge, 
Claverley, Salop, and Beausale, Warwk., Dom. Beoshelle or 
' bees's nook,' see -hall; also see -ley. 

Berden (Bp's. Stortford). Dom. Berdane. Prob. ' barley dean ' 
or ' den ' or ' glen.' O.E. bere ' bear or barley.' Cf. Berwick; 
and see -den, 

Berea (Haverfordwest). Fr. Acts xvii. 10. Welsh Nonconformists 
love to name their chapels^ and the villages around them, so. 
Hence we also have Bethel, Beulah, Horeb, etc. 

Bereppa (Cornwall). See Barripper. 

Bere Regis (Wareham). O.E. bearu ' wood.' L. regis ' of the 
king.' Cf. Beer and Lyme Regis. 

Bergh Apton (Norwich). Dom. Bere, Berch. Merc, berh., O.E. 
beorh, beorg, ' hill, grave, barrow.' Apton is ' town, village ' of 
' Apa, Ape, Appa, Appe, or Appo ' ; all these forms are 
found in Onom. Baddeley derives La Berge, Glostrsh., fr. 
beorg also. 

Berghholt (Colchester). Dom. B'colt, Bercolt. See above. 
Holt is O.E. and Icel. holt, ' a wood, a grove.' 

Berkeley (Sharpness), 824 chart. Beorc-, Berclea, 1088 O.E. 
Chron. Beorclea, c. 1097 Flor. W. Beorchelaum, a. 1142 Wm. 
Malmes. Bercheleia, 1297 R. Glouc. Berkele. Prob, ' meadow 
of the birch-trees,' O.E. beorc, byre. Cf. Dom. Wore, Berchelai. 
B. Herness, in same shire, Baddeley derives fr. O.E. 
hyme, M.E. hiime, 'corner, district'; it is Dom. Berchelai 

Berkhamsted. 1066 O.E. Chron. Beorhhamstede; 1155 Berk- 
hamstede, a. 1200 chart. Berhamstead; 1501 Will Gret Berke- 
hamstede. Prob. O.E. beorh-hdm-sted, ' sheltered-home-place,' 
or fortified farm. Perh, 'home-place of Beorht,^ a very 
common O.E. name. Cf. Berstead, 

Berkshire. 931 chart. Be(a)rruc-scire; 1011 O.E. Chron. Bearruc- 
scir; Dom. Berrochescire, Berchesira; 1297 Barcssire; c. 1325 
Barkschyre (which is still the pron,). 'Box-tree-shire,' O.E. 
bearroc ; though some, without sure evidence, would derive fr. 
the tribe Bibroci, Caesar B.G. v. 21 ; or even say it is ' bare oak 


shire ' ! Bearruc is a dimin. of hearu, which means simply ' a 
wood, a grove ' ; the meaning ' box-tree ' is a later and perhaps 
mistaken idea. 

Bekkswell (Coventry). Dom. Berchewelle; a. 1400 Bercleswelle. 
It seems 'well of BeorJit or Beret,'' but form a. 1400 points to 
an earlier Begrcol, 4 in Onom. 

Bermondsey (London). ? a. 715 Vermundsei, ' isle of Fcermund or 
Pharamond.' But Dom. Bermundesye ; c, 1180 Ben. Peterh. 
Bermundsheia. ' Bermund's ' or ' Bermond^^ isle.' Cf. ' Bear- 
modes lea.' Worcestersh. in Grant, c. 802; and see -ey. 

Berney Arms (Yarmouth). ? fr. the Fr. Bemay near Evreux. 
Villages called after public - houses are common all over 
England, and not less so in Wales. 

Bernwood Forest (Bucks). 921 O.E. Chron. Bymewudu — 
i.e., O.E for ' Beom's ' or ' Byrne's wood.' O.N. hjorn means 
' a bear.' 

Berriew (Montgomery). =Aber-Rhiw, ' confluence of the R. 
Rhiw ' with the Severn. In W. rhiw is ' a break out ' ; also ' a 
slope.' Of. Barmouth. 

Berrington (Tenbury and Shrewsbury and Glostrsh.). Te. and 
Sh. B. Dom. Beritune. Te. B. 1275 Beriton. Gl. B. 1273 
Byrton. Possibly =BT7RT0]sr; quite as likely, 'town of BcBra,' 
-an, now become Berry. Cf. Barren gton and Burbxjry; and 
see -ing. 

Bbrrow (Bumham and Ledbury). Var. of Barrow. 

Berry Brow (Huddersfield). Berry, like the above, is perh. a 
variant of Barrow, ' a hill, a mound/ M.E. herghe, herie. 
But Berry or Btjuy Hill, Stone, is a 1300 Leburi; see -bury. 
Brow, O.E. bru, is found used for ' brow or edge of a hill ' as early 
as c. 1435. In North, dial, it commonly means ' a slope, an 
ascent,' as in Everton Brow and Shaw's Bro\*-, two steep 
streets in Liverpool. Cf. Dom. Warwk. and Wore, ' Beri- 
cote.' The Yorks Dom. Berg has now become Baragh and 

Berrymead Priory (Acton, Middlesex). ' Mead or meadow with 
the mound or hillock.' See Berry Brow and Barrow. 

BerrynIrbor (Dfracombe). Old forms needed. Not in Dom., 
and all is doubtful. The first part is prob. O.E. biorn, beam, 
4^5 beryn, ' a hero, a warrior.' As to -arbor, it might quite 
possibly be for harbour, the M.E. herberg, in 6 harbor, which 
means orig. ' any kind of place of shelter or sojourn.' Not so 
likely fr. arbour, which is fr. Fr. and first in Eng. c. 1300 

Bersham (Wrexham). Old forms needed, cf. Dom. Sffk., Barsha; 
but prob. ' home of Ber,' a man named in Chesh. Dom, 


Beested (Sussex). 680 chart. Beorganstede, O.E, for ' Beorgd's 
place ' ; 2 Beorgas in Onom. 

Berwick (on Tweed, etc.). 700-15 chart. Wihtred Bereueg (Kent); 
1060 chart. Uppwude cum Ravelaga berewico suo ' ; Ber. on Tw. 
1097 Berwick, a. 1150 Berewic, Berwich, 1187 Suthberwyc (as 
contrasted with North Berwick, Sc). Shrewsbury B. Dom. 
Berewic. O.E. berewic ' a demesne farm,' fr. here, ' barley,' and 
wic, ' dwelling, village.' Cf. Barton, also Berwick St. James 
and St. John, Salisbury. 

Berwyn (Llangollen) and Bbrwyn Mtn. W. aher gwyn, ' clear, 
bright confluence.' For loss of a- cf. Abergavenny and Berriew. 

Beryan (Cornwall). Sic 1536. Called after Buriena, pretty 
daughter of Aengus, K. of Munster, time of St. Patrick. 

Besoar Lane (Southport). Old forms needed. Not in Wyld and 
Hirst. Possibly it is = Bess agar, Cantley, Yorks, 1202 Besacre, 
which, though it might be ' Bead's acre ' or ' field,' is prob. 
' Besa'a rock,' Anglian O.E. carr. But Bes- may represent 
many things. See below. 

Bescot (Walsall) . Dom. Bresmundes cot, a. 1300 Ber (e)mundescote, 
Bermondscote, Bermonscot, a. 1400 Berkmondescote, Berkes- 
cote. This is an extraordinarily contracted form, fr. O.E. 
Beorhtmundes cot. 

Besthorpb (Attleborough and Newark). At. B. Dom. Besethorp, 
Ne. B. Bestorp. * Bead's village.' Cf. Beeston and Bescar, 
and see -thorpe. Bessingby, Yorks, was Dom. Basingebi. 

Beswick (Manchester and Beverley). Man. B. 1327 Bexwyk, 
' jBecc's dwelling.' But Bev. B. is Dom. Basewic, which is prob. 
' Bassa^e dwelling.' Cf. Baschurch and Bastwell. See 

Betchley (Tiddenham). Old Bettisley, 'lea of Betti.^ Cf. 
BeacbCley, Batchworth, and Betchworth, Surrey (? fr. Becca). 

Bethania (B1. Festiniog), BetbCel (Carnarvon), BetSbsda (Bangor), 
and Beulab: (Brecon) are all Bible names for villages called 
after Nonconformist chapels. Cf. Berea. 

BethInal Green (London), a. 1600 Bednall Green. Said to be 
' Bathon's hall,' fr. the famOy Bathon, who had lands in Stepney, 
temp. Edw. I. But Bednal is Bedanhedl or ' Bede's nook or 
haU.' See -hall. 

Betley (Crewe). Dom. Betelege, a. 1200 Betteleg. 'Veto's 
lea or meadow.' O.E, bete also means 'beet root'; but this 
would give Beetley. Cf. Bitton. 

Bettisfield (Whitchurch). Dom. Beddesfeld. 'Field of Beta^ 
Betti, or Bettu,' all names found in Onom. Cf. Dom. Bucks, 


Bettws (8 in P.G.). W. hettws, ' a place of shelter and comfort,' 
' a (prayer) house.' Common in Wales, and there are two in 
England, B. Y Cbwwyn (O.W. crewyn, ' pen, sty, hovel '), S.W. 
Salop, and B. Newydd (' new '), Newport, Mon. It seems now 
agreed that W. hettws phonetically and actually represents Eng. 
head-house, c. 1160 hed hus, ' prayer-house, almshouse.' Bettws 
is said to have been first applied to a W. parish church in 1292, 
Taxat. of Benefices. But how is it that Wales has so many 
' bead-houses ' among her place-names, and England none ? 

Bettws Cedewen (Montgomery). Cedewen is prob. Gedwyn, a 
Welsh sixth cny. saint. 

Bettws Gabmon (Caernarvon). ' House of St. Oarmon^ or Oermanus, 
twice a visitor of Britain, and perh. the man who sent St. Patrick 
to Ireland. Of. Capel Garmon and Llanarmon. 

Bettws-Gwebftjl-Goch (Corwen). ' House of Red Gwerfid' who 
must have been a W. saint. Cf. Ffynon gwerfil, ' Gwerfil's well,' 
a farm, Cardigansh. 

Bettws-y-Coed (N. Wales). W. ' house in the wood.' 

Bevere(ge) (island in Severn). Chart. Beverege, a. llOOBeverie. 
O.E. heofer-ige, ' beavef-isle.' The beaver was not extinct in 
England till c. 1100. Ige as an ending in Eng. names has usually 
become -ey, q.v. 

Beverley. Dom. Bevreli, Beurelie; c. 1180 Bened. Peterh. Bever- 
lacum; 1387 Trevisa, ' Beverlay . . . the place or lake of bevers.' 
O.E. heofer or hyfere-leah, ' beaver- meadow ' ; though both Bened. 
and Trevisa seem to think the ending may be O.E. lac, ' pool.' 
Cf. FtLEY. Beverley is also the name of a brook at Wimbledon, 
693 chart. Beferith, where rith is ' stream.' Cf. above. 

Beverstone (Tetbury), 1048 O.E. Chron. Beofres stan. — i.e., ' the 
beaver's rock,' Dom. Beurestone. 

Bewcastle (Carlisle). O.Fr. heau castel, ' fine castle.' Cf. Beau- 
lietj pron. Bewley, and next. 

Bewdley (Eadderminster). 1304 Beaulieu, c. 1440 Bewdeley. 
Fr. heau lieu, ' beautiful spot,' as in Beaulieu. Hants, pron. 
Bewly. Also cf. Bewsboro', Kent, 1228 Close R. Beausbergh. 

BewSolme (Hull). Dom. Begun, 1202 Beighum. Prob. ' Begha's 
ham,'' or ' home.' The endings -ham and -holme, ' meadow,' 
q.v., often interchange. Possibly hegun may be loc. of O.E. heg, 
' at the rings.' This loc. is common in Yorks. See -ham. 

Bexhell (Hastings). Dom. has only Bexelei. ' Becca's hill.' Cf. 
next, B.C. 8. 309 Beccanford, and Dom. Bucks, Bechesdene. 

Bexley (Kent). Dom. Bix; a. 1200 Text. Roff. Bixle; later Bekes- 
ley; also cf. Dom. Hants, Bexeslei. ' Bica's, Biccd's, or Becca's 
lea or meadow.' All these names are found in Onom. Cf. 
Bexhill and Bix. 


Bbyton (Bury St. Edmund's). Dom. Begatona, 1288 Beyton. 
' Begha's town.' Cf. Bay worth. 

BiBURY (Fairford, Glostr.). c. 740 chart. Beagan byrig, Dom. 
Beche-, Begeberie. This must be as above, ' burgh, fortified 
town of Begha.' See -bury. 

Bicester (Oxon). Dom. 1307 Berneoestre, ? 1149 Burcetur, 
1216 Bumecestr', 1414-31 Burcestre, 1495 Bysseter, 1612 Bisceter, 
1634 Bister, the present pron. ' Camp of Beorn,' in N. Biom. 
A fine study in the disappearance of liquids ! See -cester. 

BiokenHill (Birmingham). Dom. Bichehelle a. 1200 Bychen hulle, 
Bigen-, Biken hull, O.E. Bicanhyll, ' hill of Bica: 3 in Onom. 
Of. BiCKMARSH, Alcester, 967 chart. At Bicanmersce. It is 
just possible it is ' beacon-hiU,' O.E. becen, hecun, Wyclii 
bikene, S.W. dial, bick'n. This is not confirmed by BiokmarsA, 
Honeyboume, Dom. Bichemerse, 1608 Bickemershe. 

Bicker (Boston). Dom. Bichere. Doubtful. Prob. not M.E. biker 
(1297 R. Glouc), origin unknown, ' a bicker, a skirmish'; nor 
O.N. bikarr, ' a beaker, an open cup or goblet,' used here to 
describe the shape of the site ; but prob. var. of O.N. bekk-r, 
' a brook.' Also cf. next. 

BiOKERSTAFFE (Ormskirk). c. 1200 Bikerstat, 1230 Bykstat, 
c. 1260 Berkerstat, c. 1280 Bekirstat, 1292 Bykerstath. 1267 
Bikerstaff. The Bicker- is a little uncertain. The Eng. bicker, 
' a quarrel,' is of unknown origin, and not found till 1297, so is 
unlikely here. The o\d forms seem to waver between 0.1J5, 
hekkjar, ' of the brook,' cf. Beckermet, and bjarkar, gen. of 
O.N. bjork, 'birch.' The ending is curious; it also wavers 
between O.N. sta^-r, ' place,' and O.E. stcB]>, ' shore, river-bank ' ; 
this is still preserved in the personal name Bickersteth. Cf. 
Bickershaw, Wigan, and Bycardyke, 1189 Bikeresdic, Notts. 

BiCKBRTON (Wetherby and Cheshire). Weth. B.Do?n. Bickretone, 
Bichreton. Ches. B. Dom. Bicretone. As bicker is not found in 
Eng. till 1297, prob. ' brook-town.' See above and Bickerstafee. 

BiCKERY (Glastonbury). 971 chart. ' In insulis ' {i.e., the low 
lands often forming islands in flood-time) . . . Beheria, which is 
called ' parva Ybernia,' or 'little Ireland'; fr. O.Ir. bee Eriu, 
' little Erin,' Erinn being gen. of Eriu. Off Wexford is Beggary- 
island, really the same name; M'Clure, p. 205. 

BiCKiNGTON (Barnstaple and Newton Abbot). Dom. Bichentone. 
' Town, village of Bic{c)a,' gen. -an. See above. Cf. Bexley, 
and 1167-8 Pipe Devon, Bichingbrige. See -ing. 

BiCKLEiGH (Tiverton) and Bickley (Kent). Both in Dom. Bichelei. 
' Bicca's ' or ' Bica's meadow.' Cf. Bickford, Penkridge, Dom. 
Bigeford, 1334 Bikeford, prob. fr. Bica too; also Dom. Chesh. 
Bichelei, and Devon Bicheford. 


BiOKNACEE (Chelmsford). ' Field of Bica,'' -an. Acre is O.E. cecer, 
acer, 'a plain, open country'; L. ag&r, 'a field.' Gf. BiCken- 
HliLL, and next. 

BiCKNOLLEB (Taunton). Dom. has only Bichehalle. ' Bicd's 
alder'; or else perh. 'Beacon-alder-tree/ O.E. alor, aler, air, 
olr, ' an alder.' See above and Bickenhill. Bicknok. on 
Wye, Dom. Bicanofre, 1298 Bykenore, is clearly ' Bica' 8 bank.' 
See -or, -over. 

BiOKTON Heath (Shrewsbury). Dom. Biqhetone, also ib. Biche- 
done (Bucks). [Cf. 1298, 'Thomas de Bikebury.] ' Bicca's 
town or village.' Of. Bexley and Bickleigh. 

BiDDENDEN (Staplehurst) and Biddenham (Bedford). Old Biden-, 
Bedenham. ' Biddd's ' or ' Byda'a wooded valley ' and ' home.' 
Cf. Beedon, and Bidboro', Tunbridge Wells; and see -den and 

BiDDESTONE (Qhippenham) . Dom. Bedestone, ' Bedda's' or 
' Bidda's stone' or 'town.' See -ton; and cf. Bidston, Dom. 
Chesh,. Bedesfeld, and above. 

BiDDLE R. (Congleton). Doubtful, as so many Eng. river names 
are. ? W. bedw-dol, ' birch-tree meadow.' 

BrDDULPH (Congleton). Dom. and later Bidolf. This is an O.E. 
personal name, Beadulf or Beaduwulf. Such are very rarely 
applied to places without a suffix; but cf. Cbantock, Snitter, 
Northbld., Tydd, etc. 

BrD]s;roBD. Dom. Bedeford, a. 1300 Bydyford, Budeford. The 
form ' Bythef ord ' is also found early ; but this is mere ' popular 
etymology.' The name is ' ford of Bede, Buda,' or ' Byda.' 
Cf. BiDDESTONE and next. Possibly -ford may be for fjord, as 
in Haverfordwest, Waterford, Wexford, etc. The Norsemen 
came all round the Bristol Channel. 

Bidford (Stratford-on-Avon). 710 cTiart. Budiforde, Dom. Bede- 
ford, a. 1600 Bidford. ' Ford of Buda,' 3 in Onom., wjiich has 
also 2 Bydas. Cf. above, and Bidfield, For. of Dean, old Bude- 

Bidston (Birkenhead), and Biel. See Biddestone and Beal. 

BiERTON (Aylesbury). Dom. Bertone. Prob. ' bear ' or ' barley 
-town.' O.E. here, 6-8 beer. Hardly fr. O.E. beer, ber, ' a bier 
for carrying a corpse.' North Bierley (Yorks), Dom. Birle, looks 
as if Eng. -ley h,ad been attached to O.N. by-r, ' house, hut, byre.' 

BiGBTJRY (Kiugsbridge). Dom. Bicheberie. Notfr. ' big,' adj., which 
is unknown in Eng. till c. 1300, but ' Bica's or Biga's burgh,' 
or ' fort.' Cf. BiGSWEiB on Wye, 1322 Bikiswere. See -bury. 

Biggest (Coventry and Rugby) and Biggest Hill (Westerham, Kent). 
The only old form we have met is Cov. B. 1 327 Buggiuge. Biggin 
is North, word for ' building, house,' O.N. byggja, ' to dwell, to 


build,' already found in 1153 Newbigginghe, Oxnam, Roxbgh.; 
but prob. it only filtered late South into Warwick. In Kent it 
seems most unlikely; there biggin may be Fr. heguin, 'a 
child's cap,' found in Eng. fr. 1530, whose shape might easily 
be thought like that of the hill; or else fr. a man Biga, -an. 

Biggleswade (Beds). Dom. and 1132 Bicheleswade, -da., 'Ford,' 
lit. ' wading-place of Bichel' or ' Beccel.^ Perh. he who was 
servant of St. Guthlac of Croyland; -wade is O.E. weed, M.E. 
wath, ' a ford.' 

BiGHTON (Alresford). Dom. Bighetone. ' Bigha's, Biga's, or 
Begha'8 town or village.' 

BiGN ALL End (Staff ordsh.). Not in Duignan. Prob. ' J5^Va's' or 
' Bigo's nook ' or ' hall.' Cf. Beadnell and Bednal. The n is 
the sign of the gen. See -hall. 

BiGRiGG (Carnforth). Possibly 'Big ridge'; see -rigg. Big is an 
adj. of unknown origin, and does not come into Eng. imtil 
Havelock, a. 1300, The hig may also be O.N. hygg, 'barley,' 
found in Eng, and Sc. fr. c. 1450. 

BiLBEOUGH (York). Ini)om.Mileburg(?fr.amanlf^7o). 'Burgh, 
fortified town of Billa,^ as in Bilham and Bilton also in Yorks, 
Dom. Bileham and Bil(l)etone. Cf. BilsborougH, Bilborough, 
Notts, Dom. Bileburg(h), and Dom. Essex, Bilichangra, ' steep 
slope of Bila.' See -burgh. 

Billesdon (Leicester). ' Billa's dune' or 'hill,' or 'fort.' Cf. 
BiLBOROTJGH, and BiLLESLEY (Warwk.), 704 chart. Billes Iseh, 
Dom. Billeslei, 1157 Pipe Bileslega; and see -don. 

Billing (Wigan). Patronymic. There are two Billings in Onom. 
It may mean ' descendant of Belin.^ On ' bhssful King Belyn ' 
see c. 1205 Layamon, 4290 seq. Cf. Billiagford, Dereham, Bil- 
lingham, Stockton, and next; also Bealengs, 

Billinghay (Lincoln). 1285 ' Waltero de Billingeye' (found in 
Norfolk). See above; -hay is O.E, haga, Icel. hagi, ' an enclosed 
field,' same root as hedge. 

BiLLiNGLEY (Yorks). Dom. Bilingeleia, 1178-80 Pipe Billingslea, 
and BiLLiNGSLEY (Bridgnorth). Perh. 1055 O.E. Chron. 
Bylgesleg. ' Billing's meadow.' Cf. a. 1100 ' Belnesthorpe,' 
Lines. See -ley. 

Billingsgate (London) and BtLLiNGSfiuRST (Sussex). 1250 Laya- 
mon, Belynes jat. See Billing, and -hurst, ' a wood ' ; also cf 
1155 Pipe Bilingete, Hants. 

Billington (Stafford), Dom. Belintone, and Billington Langho 
(Whalley). Sim. Dur. ann. 798 Billmgahoth. 'Town of the 
Billings,' see Billing. The -both in Sim. Dur. may represent 
the -ho in Langho. Hoe, as in Plymouth Hoe, is O.E. hoh, ho, 
' a hill, high ground.' 


BiLNEY, East (Dereham). Dom. Bilenei, 1298 Bilneie. 'Isle of 
BiUl)a' Cf. BiNLEY, and see -ey. 

BiLSBOBOUGH (Preston), and Belsby (Alford). Dom. Billesbi. 
=Bilbe.oxjgh:. ' Billa'a burgh or fort,' and ' dwelling.' See 
-borough and -by. 

BiLSTON. 994 Bilsetnatun, -netun, Dom. Billestune, a. 1300 Biles- 
tun, -tone. ' Billd's town' or 'village.' See Bilbbough and 
BiLLESDON. In 994 -setna is gen. pi. of scstan, ' a settler, 
dweller in.' Cf. Dorset, Somerset, etc. 

BiLTON (Knaresboro' and Rugby). Knar, B. Dom. Billetone, Bile- 
ton. 'Billa'a town.' See BilbbougS. But Rug. B. is Dom. 
Beltone, 1236 Belton, 1327 Beultone. Duignan says this is 
O.E. Beolantun, ' town of Beola,' only one in Onom. 

BmBBOOK (Market Rasen). Dom. Binnebroc. Prob. ' within the 
brook.' O.E. binnan, M.E. byn, ' within, inside.' Cf. Ben well, 
BiNFiELD, etc. But Binneford (Stockleigh, English) is 739 chnrt. 
Beonnanford, ' food of Beonna' perh. he who was father of St. 
Sativola of Exeter. 

BmcHESTEB (Bp. Auckland), c. 380 Anton. Itin. Vinonia. Here 
the Bin- or Vin- prob. represents W. gwyn ,' white, clear'; in 
1183 Boldon Bk. it is Byn cestre, -chestre, 1197 Bincestr'. Cf. 
Benwell. See -Chester, ' camp.' 

BiNEGAB {Shepton Mallet). Old forms needed. Not in Dom. 
Perh. corrup. of bin acre, ' within the field.' O.E. cecer, acer, 
L. ager, a' field.' Cf. Bicknacbe, Binfield, and Bessaoab. 

BiNFiELD (Bracknell). 1316 Benefeld; but earlier Benetfeld, Bent- 
feld. This is ' field of bent or bennet ' — i.e., a coarse grass, 
O.E. beonet. Cf. Bentley. But by temp. Hen. VIII. it had 
become Bynfeld, which by analogy should mean ' within the 
field.' Cf. Benwell, Binbeook, etc. 

Bingham (Notts). Dom. Bingheha, Bingehamhou Wap., 1230 
Close R. Bingeham. It seems hardly to be fr. O.N. bing-r, 
* a heap,' found in Eng. c. 1325 as ' bing,' and though there 
seems no name in the Onom. which suits, form 1209 in next 
suggests a man Binge or Binga. Cf. Bengewoeth. Mutsch- 
mann derives fr. Benning ; see Bennington. 

Bn^^GLEY (Keighley). Dom. Bingheleia, Bingelei, 1209 Bingelege. 
Doubtful. See above; -ley is O.E. ledh, ' meadow,' and Binge- is 
prob. some man's name. 

BiNLEY (Coventry). Dom. Bilnei, Bilueie, 1251 Bilney. Prob. 
O.E. Billan ige, ' isle of Bil{l)a.' See -ey. Cf. Bilney. Change 
fr. In to nl is uncommon. 

BiNNEFOBD. See Binbeook. 

Binstead (Ryde and Sussex), and Binsted (Alton, Hants). Suss. 
B. 1280 Close B. Benested. Ryde B. Dom. Benestede, which 


may either be ' bean place ' or, less likely, ' prayer place,' fr. 
O.E. bean, 3-6 hen, 4-6 bene, ' a bean,' or ben, 2-4 bene, ' a prayer, 
petition, boon ' ; and stede, ' farm-yard, steading.' Cf. home- 
stead. Not fr. bin or binne, O.E. binnan, ' within.' This never 
seems spelt with a central e. 

Benton (Stratford, Wwk.). 710 chart. Bunintone, Dom. Benintone, 
Benitone, a. 1200 Buvintone, 1325 Bunynton. 'Town of 
Buna,^ 3 in Onom.; but the form Bynna is much commoner. 
Dom. Yorks, Binneton, is now Binnington. 

BmCHAM (King's Lynn). Dom. Brec^am, 1489 Brytcham. Cf. 
Dom. ' Bercham,' Warwick. Prob. ' house, home built of birch.' 
O.E. beorc, berc, byrce, birce ; though the first part may be the 
name of a man Beorht or Berh, as in Dom. Yorks, Berceworde, 
now Ingbirchworth. 

BmCHANGER (Bp's. Stortford). ' Birch-slope.' O.E. hangra, angra, 
once said to be ' a meadow ' ; but M'ClurS thinks ' the slope of 
a hill,' and Duignan, more exactly, ' a wood growing on a hill- 
side.' Cf. CiiAYHANGER, Aldcrhanger (Worcestersh.), Hunger- 
roBD, and Rishangles. 

BmcHiLLS (Walsall), a. 1600 Birche leses, Burchelles, Byrchylles, 
Byrchells. ' Birch hills.' O.E. berc, beorc, 5-6 byrche. 

BniCHOVEK (Matlock). Dom. Barcoure. ' Birch brink or bank,' 
O.E. ofr, obr, ' brink.' See Bercham, and -over. 

BiBDfiAM (Chichester). Dom. Brideha, and Birdholme (Chester- 
field). ' Bird home ' and ' bird meadow.' See -holme. Bird 
may be a man's name, cf. next. Bird ia O.E. is brid, Northumb. 
bird ; and Brid is a name in Onom. Cf. Bebdsall. 

BiEDiNGBUiiY (Rugby). Pron. Birbury. 1043 chart. Burtingbury; 
K.C.D. 916 Birtingabyrig juxta Aven, Dom. Berdingberie, 
Derbingerie (blunder) a. 1300 Burdingbury. ' Burgh, fort of 
the sons of Beorht,^ or ' Birht." Patronymic. See -bury. 

Berdlip (Gloucester). Not in Dom., 1221 Bridelepe, 1262 Brudelep. 
Prob. 'bird's leap,' O.E. hlyf{e), 3 leef, Up, 4-6 lepe. Cf. 
HiNDLiP and Islip. Here, again, Bird may be a man's name. 
W. H. Stevenson points out, hlyp must sometimes mean not 
' a leap,' but ' an enclosed space.' Cf. Lypiatt (Stroud), old 
Lypgate, Lupeyate, ' gate into the enclosure.' 

BiEDSALL (York). Dom. Briteshale, Brideshala, 1208 Brideshale. 
' Nook of Brid, Briht, or Beorht,' all names on record, and prob. 
all the same name too. Change of r is common, as in board 
and broad, etc. Cf. Bdrkby and Bebtley, and see -hall. 

Bebkby (Co. Durham and Huddersfield). Dom. Yorks, and 1197 
R. Bretebi, Durham. ' Dwelling of Beorc ' or ' Beorht,' of 
which Bret {t) is a later form. Cf. Bebdsall; and see -by. 

BiRKDALE (Southport). Birk is N. Eng. and Sc. for birch, O.E. 
beorc, byrce, birce, berc. Cf. Birkacre (' field '), Chorley. 


Birkenhead. Sic 1282, but a. 1100 Byrkhed. ' Head, promon- 
tory covered with birch,' O.E. beorc, here, byrce, birce. The adj. 
birchen, JiioTth.. birken, is not given in the Oxf. Diet. a. 1440; so 
that this name, in 1282, seems the earUest known instance of it. 

BiRKENSHAW (Leeds) . ' Birch wood,' O.E. scaga, a wood ; see above. 
Now a personal name in this district. 

BiRKiN (Normanton), Dom. Berchinge, Berchine. A patronymic. 
' Place of the descendants of Beorht.' Cf. Barking ; and see 

BiRLiNG (Maidstone) and Biblingham (Pershore). 972 Byrling- 
hamme, Dom. BerHngeham, 1275 Byrlyngham. ' Place of the 
descendants of the cup-bearer or butler,' O.E. byr{e)le. The 
-ham, q.v., in this case means ' enclosure.' Cf. Burlingham. 

Birmingham. Dom. Bermingeha', 1168 Brimigham, 1166 Breminge- 
ham, 1255 Burmingeham, 1333 Burmyncham, c. 1413 Bry- 
mecham, c. 1463 Bermjmgham, 1538 Bermigham, also Bro- 
mieham. ' Home of the Beormingas/ or ' sons of Beom.' 
Duignan makes the original family Breme, ' illustrious,' and 
connects with Bromsgrove; see his full art, s.v. For the mod. 
pron. Brummajem cf. Whittingham, pron. Whittinjem, and 
' Nottingham ' is also heard. 

BiRSTALL (Leeds). Dom. thrice Beristade (? -ade, error for -ale) 
Berist- seems to be for ' Beorhtsige's' or ' Byrcsige's,' a very 
common O.E. name; and -ale is 'nook,' see -haU. Close by is 
BiRSTWiTH, fr. O.N. vith-r, 0. Dan. wede, Dan. ved, ' a wood.' 
Cf. AsKWiTH, etc. 

BiRTLET (Herefordsh., Chester-le-Street, and Wark.). Ch. B. 1183 
Britleia, Birdeia, ' Meadow of Brid/ or ' Bird/ or ' of the birds.' 
Transposition of r is common ; cf. Birds all and Birtwistle (see 
TwiZEL). BiRTS Morton, Glostersh., is a. 1350 Morton Brut, 
1407 Bruttes, -tis, fr. Walter le Bret, known as living here, 1275, 
or some one earlier. The name means ' the Breton.' 

BiscovEY (Par.) Not in Dom. Might be Eng., ' Biso's cave ' ; 
the names Besa, Besi, Bisi, and Biso are all found in Onom. ; 
whilst the O.E. for ' cove or inlet ' is cofa. But Bis- looks like 
Corn, bes, bis, bys, ' a finger.' Cf. Bissoe. 

BiSHAM (Marlow). Dom. Bistesham; 1199 Bistlesham; later Bes- 
tlesham, Bustleham. ' Home of Bestel,' cf. B.C.S., i. 108, 
ii. 206, Bestlesford, Bsestlsesford, near Bradfield, also Basiuden. 

BiSHAMPTON (Pershore). Dom. Bisantune, a. 1100 Bishamtone. 
' The home-town or village of Bisa,' see Biscovey. The mod. 
-hampton may here be a corrup. of -antune. 

Bishop Auckland, also North and West Auckland (Co. Durham). 
1183 Boldon Bk. North Alcland and Aclet, West Aclet, Alclet- 
shire, v.r. Aukelandschire, 1305 Auke-, Aucland. Auckland is 


O.E. dc land, 'oak land'; but the form Alclet is puzzling. 
M'Clure thinks it is O.E. hah clet, ' haugh, river-meadow rock'; 
but klett-r, ' a rock/ is O.N., not O.E. at all, nor even English, 
save late in Scotland. The -let may be a var. of O.E. hlith, 
' a slope/ c/. Yarlett, and so the name be ' river-meadow slope.' 
But this is doubtful. The Bishop is, of course, the Bishop of 
Durham. Also c/. Atjckley. 

Bishop Burton (Beverley). Dom. Santriburtone, ' Bishop's burgh- 
town,' or ' fortified village ' ; ? fr. St. John of Beverley, Bishop of 
Hexham and York. The Santri- in Dom, must be a corrup. of 
sanctuary, O.Fr. saintuarie, spelt in Eng. in 6 santuary ; but not 
given in Oxf. Diet, as Eng. till a. 1340. 

Bishop Monkton (Ripon). Dom. Monuchetone. O.E. monuc, 
munuc, munec, fr. L. monachus, ' a monk.' Cf. Monkton. 

Bishop's Canntng (Devizes), Sim. Dur. ann. 1010 Canninga merse 
{cf. Mersey). Canning is a patronjrmic, fr. Cana or Cano, in 

Bishop's Caundle or Caundle Bishop (Sherborne). Dom. Candel, 
-dele, -delle. Caundle is O.E. cendel, 1-4 condel, ' a candle.' 
Of., too, Fhrio, 1611, ' Fungo . . . that firy roimd in a burning 
candle called the Bishop.' 

Bishop's Cleeve (Cheltenham). Bede and c. 780 cJiart. CHfe, 
Dom. CUve. Cleeve is M.E. cleve, var. of cliff, O.E. clif. Cf. 
Cleveland. It is called ' Bishop's' to distinguish it fr. Prior's 

Bishop's Fonthill (Salisbury). Dom. Fontel; but chart. Funt- 
geall; O.E. font, fant, (L. fons, -tis), O.Fris. and in Eng. 2-6 
funt, 'a font, a fountain'; but in Diets, gealla has only the 
meaning of ' bile ' or ' a gall in the skin,' so it may be an error 
in the charter, perh. for heal, ' hall.' Cf. Fontley, Fareham. 

Bishop's Hull (Taunton). Hull is west midl. for ' hill.' See 


Bishop's Itchington (Learning-ton). 1043 chart. Ichenton, 1111 ib. 
Yceantune, Dom. Icetone. ' Town on the R. Itchen.' It 
belonged formerly to the Bps. of Lichfield and Coventry. 

Bishop's Lydeard (Taunton). See Lydiard. 

Bishop's Nympton (S. Molton). Dom. Nimetone, 'Town of 
Nima.' Onom. has only Numa and Nunna. On the common 
intrusion of jp, cf. Bampton. 

Bishopstoke (Southampton). 'Bishop' (of Winchester's) 'place/ 
See Stoke. 

BiSHOPSTON (Stratford, Warwick, and Glam.), also Bishopstone 
(5 in P.G.) . Str. B. 1016 chart. Biscopesdun— i.e., ' bishop's hill ' 
— but c. 1327 Bisshopeston. See -don and -ton. 


Bishop's Stortford. Dom. Storteford. Skeat thinks the R. Start 
may mean ' pourer/ Cf. Dan. styrte, ' to rush, to spring/ cognate 
with start. 

Bishop's Waltham (Hants). 1001 O.E. Chron. Wealtham. The 
Bp. of Winchester's ' home in the weald or forest.' See 

BiSHOPSwoRTH, contracted Bishport (Bristol). 'Bishop's farm.' 
See -worth. 

BiSHTON (Rugeley, Tidenham, Newport, Mon.). Ru. B. Dom. 
Bispestone, a. 1300 Bissopestune, Ti. B. 956 chart. Bispestune. 
' Village of the bishop ' of Lichfield or Llandaff, O.E. biscop, 
though possibly fr. a man Bisp, found a. 1200. Cf. Bishport 
and Bispham. 

BiSLEY (Stroud, Coventry, Woking). St. B. 896 chart, (late MS.) 
Bislege, Dom. Biselege, 1156 Bisselega. Co. B. a. 1200 Bisselei. 
Skeat thought there must have been an O.E. bisse, 'a bush'; 
cf. Bushwood (Stratford, Wwk.), a. 1300 Byssewode, 1404 Bis- 
wode. But this is prob. ' mead of Bisi ' or ' Biso,' both in 
Onom. Cf. Dom. Wore, Biselege, and Bisham. See -ley. 

Bispham (Preston). Dom. and c. 1141 Biscopham— ;4.e., 'bishop's 
home.' Cf. Bishport. ' 

BissoE (Perranwell, Cornwall). Doubtful. Dom. has a ' Be veshoe,' 
which may be this, and may stand for ' how, hollow of Beffa,* 
2 in Onom. It may be fr. a man Bissa. Cf. Biscovey and 

Bitterne (Southampton). Perh. c. 380 Anton. Itin. Clausentum. 
' Bitta's or Bitto's house,' O.E. erne, ' a house.' Cf. next, and 
Whithorn (Sc). 

Bitteswell (Lutterworth). ? Dom. Betmeswelle, [Cf. c. 1200 
Gervase ' Bittesdene,' Northants.] ? ' Bitta's well.' Cf. above. 

BiTTON (Kingswood, Glos.). Dom. Betone, 1158-59 Pipe Bettune. 
Prob. ' town, village of Beta/ 2 in Onom., or ' of Betti/ also 
2 in Onom. Cf. Betley. 

Bix (Henley). Dom. Bixa, 1216-1307 Bixe, -a, 1300 Buxe Jelwyni 
(fr. the Gelwyn family). Doubtful. Alexander compares Box, 
Herts, not an exact parallel, and derives fr. O.E. bixen, byxen, 
' (place) of the box-tree ' ; this is far from certain. The form 
bixen is very rare, and for the 56. there seems only 60a;. Nor 
does there seem any good analogy. Bexley (Kent) is also Bix 
in Dom., and seems to mean ' Beca's ' or ' Bica's lea.' As likely 
as not Bix is bi Ex, ' by the river.' Cf. Beeford, Beal, etc., 
and ExE. 

Blaby (Leicester). Sic 1298. O.N. bld-r bi, 'blue, blae-looking 
hamlet.' Cf. Bladon, and see -by. 


Blackawton" (Dartmouth). {Dom. has Blache-berie, -grave, -pole, 
etc.). Old forms needed. Perh. ' Blaca'a Haughton ■* or 
' village on the haugh or river-meadow.' 

Blackboys (Uckfield). Not in Dom. Old forms needed. One 
may conjecture ' Blaca's boss ' or ' knoll.' Boss is found in 
Eng. a. 1300 meaning ' a hump/ and in 1598 meaning ' a hump- 
like hill '; whilst it is spelt in 5-6 boysis). But all this is quite 
doubtful. Of. Blaehestela, Dom. Surrey. 

Blackburn. Dom. Blacheburne; also chart. Blagborn. 'Black 
brook/ O.E. blaec, blac, c. 1190 blache ; and see -bourne. Cf. 
833 chart. ' Blakeburnham/ Kent. 

Blacker (Bamsley). Old forms needed. Not in Dom. As a 
rule -er is contracted fr. -over, ' bank.' Cf. Ashover, Hasler, 
WooLEB, etc. ; so this is prob. ' black, dark bank.' 

Blackheath (London, etc.). Lend. B. c. 1420 Lydgate, Blakeheth. 
Cf. Blachefelde, Dom. Surrey. 

Blackpill (Swansea). Pill here is corrup. of Eng. pool, W. pwl. 
In S. Pembrokesh. 'pill is quite common for ' a little bay, a 
creek.' Cf. next. 

Blackpool. Modern. Cf. B.C.S. 834 Blssccanpol — i.e., ' Blacca'a 

Blackrod (Chorley). 1199 Blackeroade, 1292 Blakerode. Either 
' Blaca's road,' or ' dark, black road,' O.E. rod, North. Eng. and 
Sc. rodd. Cf. Blackburn. 

Blackwall (London). 1377 Blakewale, 1480 'the wall called 
Black Wall,' along the bank of the Thames. 

Bladney (Somerset). Not in Dom. Prob. c. 712 chart. Bledenithe. 
' Bleda'a ' or ' Blcedda's Hythb.' A hithe is ' a landing-rise.' 

Bladon (Woodstock, both river and village). O.E. chart Blsedene, 
Bladaen, Dom. Blade, 1216-1307 Bladen(e), 1272 Bladone. 
Cannot be ' blae hill,' because blae or blue-looking is O.N. bid. 
But it may be contr. for ' Blcedda's hill.' Cf. K. CD. 121 Blsed- 
dan hlsew. See -don. Baddeley thinks that this, as a river 
name, must be pre-English. 

Blaenau Festiniog. W.= ' highlands of Festiniog.' Of. next. 

Blaenavon (Monmouth). W. blaen afon, 'source, hill source of 
the river ' — i.e., the R. Avon, Glamorgan. 

Blaengarw (Glamorgan). W.= ' rough fore-part,' blaen means 
both ' source ' and ' fore-part,' whilst its plur. blaenau means 
' highlands.' W. garw or geirw, ' rough,' is the same as G. 
garbh, so common in Sc. names; whilst in Sc. we also have 

Blaenllecha (Pontypridd). W. = ' projecting rocks or stones.' 
Cf. Blaengarw. 



Blaen-y-ffos (Pembroke). W.= ' source of the ditch' or 'little 
brook/ W. ffos, L. fossa. 

Blagdon (Bristol and Taunton). Dom. Blachedone. O.E. hlac 
dun, 'dark hill'; c/. Blagborn, old form of Blackburn. 
Blaisdon, Glostr., is 1200 Blechedun, prob. ' hill of BlcBcca/ 
which may be the origin of Blagdon too. 

Blaina (Monmouth). W. blaenau, 'highlands.' Cf. Blaengarw. 

Blaxedown (Kidderminster and Kenilworth) . ' Black down ' or 
'hill'; O.E. blcec, blec, bloc. Duignan has no authority for 
saying that black here means ' uncultivated, running wild.' 

Blakenall (Walsall) and Blaelenhall (Nantwich, Wolvermptn.). 
Nan. B. Dam. Blechenhale, Wo. B. c. 1300 Blakenhale, 
' Blecca's or Blaca'a nook.' Cf. next and Bletchley, and see 

'"Blakeney (Newnham, Glos., and Norfolk). Not in Dom. Ne. B. 
c. 1280 Blacheneia, ' Blceca's ' or ' Blaca's isle.' Blceca is the 
mod. surname Blake, which may either be fr. O.E. blcec, blac, 
' black, dark man,' or fr. O.N. bleik-r, in Eng. c. 1205 blake, 
' pale, wan.' 

Blakenham, Great (Ipswich). Sic 1298, but Dom. Blacheha. 
' Blaca's or Blceca's home,' Cf. Dom. Surrey, Blachingelei, a 
patronymic, and Blakesley, Towcester. 

Blanchland (Corbridge). Land paid for in 'white' or silver 
money, Fr. blanc, blanche, ' white.' ' Blanch farm ' or ' blench 
ferme ' is a common legal term. 

Blandeord. Dom. Blane-, Bleneford. Difficult to say what the 
Dom. forms stand for; whilst O.E. bland is ' a mixture, a blend,' 
and our adj. bla'iid is quite mod. Blandsby (Pickering), Dom. 
Blandebi, must be ' dwelling of a man Bland ' ; Onom. has only 
Blandmund and Blandwinus. More light needed for Blandford. 
See -by. 

Blankney (Lincoln). Dom. Blachene. 'Isle of Blaca,' here 
nasahzed Blanca, gen. -can. See -ey. 

Blatchington (Brighton). Prob. Dom. Bechingetone {I omitted 
in error). The present name represents an O.E. Blceccan tun, 
' Blaecca's town.' Cf. Bletchtngley. 

Blatherwyck (Kingscliffe). 1166-7 Pipe Blarewic, c. 1350 chart. 
Blatherwyk. ' Dwelling of Blithgcer, Blithhere, or Blithmcer.' 
All these names are in Onom. For omission of th in 1166-7 cf. 
' Brer Babbit ' for ' Brother R.' See -wick. 

Blawith (Ulverston). O.N. bid vith-r, 'dark blue, blae-looking 

wood.' Cf. ASKWITH. 

Blaxhall (Tunstall). ' Blcecca's nook ' or ' hall.' Cf. Blatching- 
ton ; and see -hall. 


Blaydon-on-Tyne. Prob. ' dark blue, blae-looking dune or hill/ 
O.N. bid, North. Eng. and Sc. blue. Cf. next. 

Bleadon (Weston-s.-m.). ? 975 chart. Bledone and a. 1100 WincTir. 
Ann. Bleodona. Prob. ' coloured hill/ O.E. Bleo dun, fr. bleoh, 
' hue, colour.' Cf. Blewbury, Blofield, and Dom. Bucks, 

Blean or Blee (Canterbury) . Dom. Blehem, c. 1386 Chaucer Ble(e) . 
Prob. ' Blih's home,' one Blih in Ononi. For the contraction 
cf. Beal ; but it is rare to find the unstressed final syll. f aUing 
quite away. See -ham. 

Bleasdale (Garstang). 1228 Blesedale, 1540 Blesedale. Possibly 
fr. a man, but seemingly ' dale, valley of the blaze or beacon- 
fire,' O.E. blase, blcese, 3-6 North, blese. 

Blea tarn (Westmld.). 1256 Assize R. Blaterne. ' Blae, bluial^ 
moimtain lake,' O.N. bld-r; and see Tarn. 

Bleddfa (Radnor) . Perh. W. blaiddfau, ' wolf's cave.' But the old 
form is Bleddfach; where the ending is doubtful. Bledd is ' a 
plain,' and the latter part may be ffag, ' what unites or meets in 
a point.' 

Bledington (Chipping Norton). Dom. Bladintone, 1221 Bladyn- 
tone. ' Town on R. Bladon.' See -ing, as river-ending. 

Bledlow (Bucks). K.C.D. 721 Blaeddan hlgew; Dom. Bledela,^^ 
? 1297 Scot. Chancery Roll ' Johannes de Bledelawe.' ' Bkedda'fi^ 
or ' Bledda's hill.' Bledisloe, Awre, Dom. BUteslau, is prob. 
fr. a man Blith. See -low. 

Blencow (Penrith) . ? W. blaen cu, ' dear source or promontory ' ; 
cf. Blaengarw and Glasgow (Sc), also 1210 Blenecam, 
Cumbld., ' headland with the cairn.' 

Blennerhassett (Aspatria). 1189 Pipe Blendherseta, 1354 Carlisle 
will Alan de Blenerhayset, 1473 Paston Lett. Blaundrehasset 
and Blenerhasset (as a personal name). This seems to be 
' seat, dwelHng of Blandhere ' or ' Blender,' an unknown man. 
Cf. Dorset, etc. But this leaves the -hass ill-accounted for. 

Bletchingley (Red Hill), Bletchtngton (Oxford). Dom. Bleces-, 
Bhcestone, 1139 Bleche-, Blachedon, 1216-1307 Blecchesdon 
(see -don) ; and Bletchley. ' Meadow ' and ' village of Blecca,' 
or his descendants. Cf. Blatchington; and see -ing and -ley. 

Bletsoe (Bedford). Dom. Bleches-, Blachesou, a. 1199 Blacheho. 
' Blecca's mound.' Cf. Thingoe; and see -how. 

Blewbury (Didcot) and Blewbury Down. 944 chart. Bleobyrig. 
Dom. BUtberie, a. 1450 Bleobery. One would expect this to 
be fr. some man; but there is no name in Bleo- in Onom. So 
the first part may be as in Bleadon, ' bright borough,' lit., as 
Skeat puts it, ' show-borough.' Cf. Fairfield, etc. 


Buckling (Norfolk). Dom. Blikelinga, 1450 Blyclyng. A patro- 
nymic ; but it is not easy to give the root. Onom. gives no help. 

Blldwoeth (Mansfield). Dow. Blideworde, -vorde. ' Blcedda's 
farm.' Cf. Bledington; and see --^orth. 

Bldstdley Heath (Red HiU). Old forms needed. Not in Dom. 
? ' bhnd lea ' or ' meadow ' ; blind being here used in its meaning 
of ' obscure, dark, concealed." A place ' Blindsyke ' is found 
in a Dumbartonsh, charter as early as c. 1350. 

Blisland (Bodmin) and Bliswobth (Northants). Dom. Blides- 
worde, 1158-9 Pipe BUeswurda. ' Land ' and ' farm of Blida ' 
(or Blih'). See -worth. Pike o' Bhsco, Westmld., will be 
' peak of BUda's or Bhh's wood ' ; -sco or -scough for Shaw, cf. 


Blocjkley (Moreton-Henmarsh). 855 cliart. Bloccanleah, Dom. 
Blockelei. ' Blocca's lea." Cf. Bloxham . 

Blobield (Norwich). Dom. Blafelda, 1157 Blafeld, 1452 Blofield. 
'Leaden-coloured, bluish field.' M.E. c. 1250 bio, O.N. bid, 
' Hvid,' cognate with blae and blue. Cf. Bleadon and Blowick. 

Bloomsbuby (London and Birmingham). Lo. B. c. 1537 Lomes-, 
Lomsbury. The history of this name is very obscure, and more 
evidence is needed. Possibly the Lome- represents Leofman, 
a fairly common O.E. name. See -bury. 

Blobe Heath (Staffs). Dom. and later Blora. Blore is an ono- 
matopoeic word meaning ' a violent gust or blast ' ; not found in 
Eng. a. 1440. 

Blow Gill (Helmsley). 1200 Blawathgile. O.N. bid wath, ' leaden- 
coloured, bluish ford,' in the ravine. See -giU. Cf. JjAHG- 


Blowick (Southport) . ' Leaden-coloured, bluish dwelling.' See 
Blofield and -wick, which must be Eng. here and not N., as 
Blowick is inland and can have no ' bay.' 

Bloxham (Banbury). Dom. Warwk., Lochesham (error), 1155 
Pipe Blochesham, 1231 Blokesham. ' Home of Blocca.' Cf. 

Bloxwich (Walsall) and Bloxwobth (Bere Regis). Dom. Bloches- 
wic, a. 1300 Blockeswich, Blokeswyke. ' Blocca's dwelling ' 
and ' farm.' See -wich and -worth. 

Blundell Sands (Liverpool). Perh. fr. Randulph de Blundevill, 
Earl of Chester in 1180. Blundell has been a common Lanca- 
shire name from at least the 17th cny. Cf. next and -hall, 
which the -ell may represent. 

Bltjndeston (Lowestoft). Not in Dom. ^ Blunda's town or 
village.' The name is now Blunt, Fr. blond, Nor. Fr. blund, 
* fair, flaxen.' Cf. next, and Dom. Essex, Blundeshala. 


Bluntisham (Hunts). Dom. Bluntesham. 'Home of BlunW or 
' Blunt/ which last is still a common surname. Cf. Dom. Wilts, 
Blontesdone, K.C.D. 666 Bluntesige, and Bluntington, Wore. 
Blunham, Sandy, prob. represents the same name. 

Blyborotjgh (Kirton Lindsay). Dom. Bliburg. Prob., as in 
Blisworth, ' burgh, fort of Blida,' but it may be ' of Blih* 
Of. 1157 Pipe Norfk. BHeburc, See -borough. 

Blymhtll (Shifnal). Dom. Brumhelle {r for I, one liquid confused 
in sound with the other), a. 1200 and later Blumonhull. Prob. 
' hill of the blooms,' or molten masses of metal, O.E. hloma, 
-an, then, curiously, not found till 1600 bloom; but 1584-5 
blomary, or bloomer y, a forge for making blooms. One must 
have stood on this hill, which is in an iron-producing district. 

Blyth(e) (Northumbld., Warwk., Notts, and Rotherham), Blythe 
Bridge (Stoke-on-T.). Roth B. c. 1097 Flor. W. Blida; Notts, 
B. Dom. Blide, 1146 Blida, c. 1180 Blya, 1298 Blythe. The Eng. 
blithe never refers to places; so this may be connected with 
W. blytlmir, ' a belching,' blythach, ' a bloated person,' and 
blwth, ' a pufE, a blast.' There are two rivers in Northbld., and 
one each in Staffs, Notts, and Suffk., all called Blyth(e), and 
nearly all Eng. rivers are Kelt, in origin; though what that 
was is now lost. On the Staff. Blythe are Blithbury, a. 1200 
Blith(e)burie, and Blithfield, Dom. Blidevelt. In Northbld we 
find 1208 Snoc de Bliemus — i.e., ' snout, projecting headland 
of Blythmouth ' — 1423 Blythe-snuke, a. 1800 Blyth-snook, 
fr. O.N. snoh-r, ' a mark stretched out,' hnuTc-r, ' a little moun- 
tain, a rock ' ; cf. ' The Snewke or Conny-warren ' in Blaeu's 
map of Lindisfarne. 

BoARSTALL (Bucks). Popular etymology. See Borstal. 

Bobber's Mill (Nottingham). Bobber in mid. dial, means 'a 

BoBBiNGTON (Stourbridge). Dom. Bubintone, a. 1200 Bobintune; 
cf. 798 chart. ' Bobing-saeta,' Kent. ' Town, village of Bobba ' 
(or his descendants), mentioned in a Worcester chart, of 759. 

BocKHAMPTON (Lamboum and Dorchester). Both a. 1300 Boc- 
hamton. 'Beech-built Hampton,' or 'home-farm'; O.E. boc, 
O.N. bok, ' a beech.' Cf. Btjckland and Great Bookham; 
also Dom. Norfk., Bocthorp. 

BocKCNG (Braintree). Dom. Bochinges. Patronymic, 'place of 
the sons of Bocca '; cf. 806 Bokenhale, ? near Croyland. Onom. 
gives only Bacca and Bacco. See -ing. 

BocKLETON (Tenbury and Salop). Te. B. Dom. Boclintun, 1275 
Boclinton, a. 1400 Bocklington, Bokehnton. Sa. B. 1321 
Bochtone (an error), 1534 Bucculton. ' Town of Boccel.' Onom. 
gives only one Beoccel. 


BoDEDERN (Anglesea). W. bod edyrn, 'residence of sovereignty/ 
or ' royal house ' ; but T. Morgan says, ' abode of Edern/ son of 
Nudd, warrior and poet. 

BoDELWYDDAN (Flintsh.). W. hod-el-gwyddan, 'residence of the 
wood-spirit ' or ' satyr/ 

BoDENHAM (Leominster and Salisbury). Sic 1202. ' Boda'8 
home.' O.E. boda, 2 bode, is ' a herald, a messenger/ one who 
' bodes ' or forebodes. Dam. Wilts, has Bodeberie, and Dom. 
Nfk., Bodenham. Cf. Boddington on Chelt, Dom. Botintone. 

BoDFARi (Denbigh). Perh. c. 380 Ant. Itin. Varis. But now W. 
bod Fari, ' house of Mary,' the m being aspirated. 

BoDFFORD (Anglesea). W. bod jfordd, ' dwelUng by the road or 

BODHAM (Holt, Nfk.). Dom. has both Bodha and Bodenham. 
' Home of Boda ' or ' Boddus.' See -ham. 

BoDicoTT (Banbury). Dom. Bodicote, 1216-1307 Bodicot. ' Boda'& 
cottage.' Cf. above. 

BoDMEsr. Dom. Bodmini, Exon. Dom. Bodmine; c. 1180 Ben;- 
Peterb. Bothmenia; c. 1200 Gervase Bomine; 1216 Bodminium. 
1294 Bodmin. Com. bod or 6o is ' a house,' the second half is 
more uncertain; it may be ' house of stones,' Com. min, myin 
{cf. next), or ' on the edge,' min, or ' on the hill,' mene. 

BoDVEAJsr (PwUheli). W. bod faen, 'house of stone.' Cf. cist faen, 
' a stone coffin.' As houses in Wales and Cornwall usually are 
of stone, the reference will prob. be to some ' Druidical ' erection. 

BoGNOR. Not in Dom., but 680 chart. Bucgan ora — i.e., ' Bucga's 
edge ' or ' brink ' or ' shore ' ; three Bucgas in Onom. In 1166-7 
Pi^e it is Begenoura. See -or. 

BoLDON (Jarrow). 1183 Boldona. Prob. O.E. botl-dun, ' hill, 
dune with the dwelling on it.' Cf. Bolton and Bole. 

Bole (Gainsborough). Sic 1316, but Dom. Bolxm. [Dom. Lines has 
Bolebi, ' dwelling of Bola.') This may be O.N. bol, ' house, dwell- 
ing ' (with -un an old loc), if not bol-r, ' bole, trunk of a tree.' Cf. 
BoLroBD, Kendal, Dom. Bodelforde, 'ford at the house '; see 
Bolton. Also cf. next, and Dom. Salop and 1157 Pipe, Northbld., 
Bolebec. 1160-1 Pi'pe, Sussex, Bulebech, may not be the same. 

Bole Hill (Wirksworth) . Oxf. Diet, bole s6*, ' a place where miners 
smelted their lead.' Not found a. 1670, and origin unknown. 

Bolingey (Truro). Prob. * isle of the Bolings,' or ' descendants of 
Bola,' a name in Onom. We have ' Bulluigbrooke ' already in 
the time of Wm. the Conqueror, 1166-7 Pipe, Billingeburc and 
Bull-, 1233 Bulingbroc, Lines, hence the name Bolingbroke. 

BoLLiNGTON (Macclesfield and Altrincham). ' Town, village on the 
Er. Bollin,' which may be connected with same root as W. bol, 
boly, ' the belly,' and so ' swollen river.' See -ing as river-ending. 


BoLNEY (Hayward's Heath) and Bolnhtjest (St. Neot's). Not in 
Dom. ' Isle ' and ' wood of Bola,' -an. Of. Dom. Bucks, 
Bolebech (= bach, ' brook '), Devon, Bolewis, Yorks, Bolesford; 
also Bollesdon (Newent), old Bolesdone, Bullesdone, whilst 
Dom. Yorks, Bolebi is now Boulby. See -ey and -hurst. 

BoLsovER (Chesterfield). Dom. Belesovre, 1166-67 Pipe Bolle- 
shoura, 1173-74 ih. Castella de Pech et de Bolesoura, c. 1180 
Bened. Peterb. Boleshoveres. ' Sola's bank or brink"; O.E. 
ofer, obr ; M.E. overe, ' border, bank of a river/ Cf. Ashover, 
and see Bolney, etc. 

Bolsterstone (Sheffield). Not in Dom. Not likely to be fr. Eng. 
and O.E. bolster, but prob. a tautology, fr. O.N. bol-sta^r, 
' dwelling-place ' or ' farm ' ; so common in Sc. names as -bister, 
-buster, and -bster ; Scrabster, Ulbster, etc. Bolster will have 
been taken for a proper name, and -ton added; for the final e 
cf. Johnston and Johnstone, both meaning ' John's town.' 

BoLTBY (Thirsk). Dom. Boltebi, 1209 Bolteby. 'Dwelling of 
Bolt,' a name not in Onom. Hardly fr. bolt sb^ ; but perh. a 
tautology, fr. O.E. bold, 'house, dwelling,' and -by. 

Bolton (nine in P.G.). Dom. Boletone, 1208 Bollton (on Swale). 
Other B's in Dom. Yorks and Lanes are Bodeltone. We get 
an interesting set of forms for the Sc. Bolton (Haddingtonsh.), 
c. 1200 Botheltune, Boteltune, Boweltun, 1250 Boulton, 1297 
Boltone. O.E. botl-tun, ' dwelling-enclosure, collection of houses, 
village'; influenced by O.N. bol, 'a house, a dwelling-place.' 
It is according to its rule for Dom. to spell Both- or Bot- as Bod-. 


Bomer(e) Heath (Shrewsbury). Earlier Bolemere. *Mere or 
lake,' O.E. mere, ' of the bull/ not in O.E., but O.N. bole, boli ; 
in Eng. c. 1200 bule, 3-5 bole. Cf. Dom. (Yorks) Bolemere, 
1166-67 Pipe Bulema, now Bulmer; also The Bolmers, Castle 
Bromwich, and the Bullmoors (Shenstone), and Boll Bridge 
(Tamworth), 1313 Bollebrigge. 

BoKBY (Hull) . Either a man ' Bonda or Bondo's dwelling,' or ' dwell- 
ing of the peasant ' ; O.E. bonda ; O.N. bonde; d readily disappears. 
But Dom. (Yorks) Bonnebi (twice) is now Gunby. See -by. 

BoNCATH (Pembroke). W. boncath means 'a buzzard'; but bon 
cath is ' tree stump of the cat.' 

BoNCHURCH (Ventnor). Dom. Bonecerce. Bone- must be O.N. 
bon, ' a prayer, a boon ' ; in Eng. 2-7 bone, 3-4 bon. Cf. Bunwell. 
There is no man named Bona or Bonna, in Onom. The O.E. for 
a prayer is ben, so that, curiously, this must be a Norse name, 
the indication of a forgotten early N. settlement here. This is 
confirmed by Dom.'s ending -cerce, the hard c's having quite 
a N. look. Dom. nearly always has -cherche, chirche, ' Alvieve- 
cherche,' ' Bascherche,' etc. Dom.'s form is also our earhest 
Eng. example of boon ; the earhest in Oxf. Diet, is c. 1175 bone. 


BoioNGTON (Notts and Kent). Sic 1297-98, but Dom. Bonintone 
(Kent), Bonnitone (Notts), 1296 Bonigtone (? where). Doubtful. 
It should mean ' Bona'8 town," but there is no such name in 
Onom. Cf. BONNINGTON (Sc). 

BoNSALL (Derby). Perh. Dom. Bunteshale. Prob. 'nook, corner 
of Bunda or Bonda/ both in Onom. But cf. Dom. (Bucks) 
Bonestov, ? ' place of Bone/ stiU a surname. Cf. Bunny, and 
see -hall. 

BoNTDDtr (Dolgelly). W. pont du, 'black bridge.' 

BoNTNEWYDD (Caernarvon). W. ' new bridge '; W. pont. 

BoNviLSTON (Cardiff). Bonville, Fr. for 'good town,"" as well as 
Melville, ' bad town,' occurs as a surname in Britain. In W. it 
is Tresimwn, ' house of Simon Bonville,' chief steward of the 
Norm. Sir Robt. Fitzhamon. There is a Hutton Bonville 
(Yorks). We find -ville common in the Channel Isles. 

BoosBECK (Yorks). NotinjDom. Prob. ' brook with the cow-stall 
beside it '; O.N. bass ; M.E. boose, ' a cow-stall.' See -beck. 

Boot (Ravenglass). O.N. but) ; Dan. and Sw. bod, ' a hut, a dwel- 
ling.' Cf. G. both or bot, ' a house.' 

BooTHBY (Grantham). 1298 Bothebi. Prob. ' dwelling of Botha 
or Bota.' Booth is still a common surname. Cf. Bootham 
(York). See -by. 

BooTHROYD Lane (Dewsbury). Called after a man Boothroyd, 
where -royd is prob. fr. rod 56,^ 6 roid, ' a path, a way.' 

BooTLB (Liverpool, Cumbld.). Li. B. a. 1540 Bothul. Demi, for 
N. Lanes, has Bodele and Fordbodele (now washed away). 
O.E. botl, ' a dwelUng, a house.' Of. Bolton andNEWBATTLE (Sc). 

BoKDEN (Sittingbourne). Not in Dom. 'Boar's den'; O.E. bar, 
3-7 bor. The wild boar was not extinct in England till at least 
the 17th century. 

BoRDESLEY (Birmingham). 1156 Bordeslega, 1158 -lea, in 1275 
also Bordeshale. ' Borda's lea ' or ' meadow.' Cf., too, B.C.S. 
739 Bordeles tun. See -ley. 

BoREHAM (four in P.O.). Dom. (Surrey) Borham. 'Boar's 
home.' See Borden. Boar may here be a proper name. Cf. 
Borley Green (Sudbury). But Borley House (Upton-on- 
Severn) is Dom. Burgeleye, or ' fortified place in the meadow.' 
See next, and Btjrley. Borefleet is the old name of Bright- 
lingsea Creek, earlier found as Bordfliet, Berfliet, and Balfleet; 
prob. Fleet or 'river of the boar'; O.E. bar, 3 ber, 4-7 bore. 
Dr. Diekin postulates an O.E. bord, ' border,' which does not 
exist; and bore, ' tidal wave,'. is not found till 1601. 

Borougkbridge (York). 1380 Ponteburg. ' Fort -bridge ' or 
' fortified bridge,' fr. O.E.- burh, ' a fort, castle, or burgh.' Cf. 
Pontefract, 'or broken bridge,' and Borough Green (Cambs). 


BoRRODAiL (Cumberland) . N. borg-dal-r, ' dale, valley with a fort 
in it/ Cf. next and Borrowstonness or Bo'ness (Sc). 

Borrow ASH (Derby). Not in Dom. ' Burgh ash-tree/ Cf. above 
and next. 

BoRROWBY (several in Yorks). All in Dom. Berg(h)ebi. ' Fortified 
dwelling-place/ fr. O.N. borg or O.E. borh, borg, burh, ' fort, 
burgh." Cf. Barrowby, Borwick, and Borrodail; and see -by. 

Borstal or Bostal (Rochester) . Dom. Borcstele, Borchetelle ; 
a. 1200 Text. Bqff. Borestella, Borgestealla. O.E. beorh-steall, 
'seat, place, stall on the hillside.' Or Bor- may be O.E. borh, 
borg, burh, *fort, burgh.' Cf. Pipe 1157 Burchestala, prob. in Beds. 

BoRTH (Cardigan). W. bordd, burdd, ' a board or table.' 

BoRWiCK (Carnf orth) . Dom. Borch and Bereuuic (second e an error) . 
O.E. borh-wic, ' fort-dwelling, fortified house.' Cf. Borrowby. 

BosAHAJsr (Falmouth). Pron. Bow-sane. Corn, bod, bos, bo, ' house, 
dwelling,' G. both, common in Com. names, as in Boscawen, 
' house beside the elder -tree,' scawen, Boslowick, Bosistow, etc. 
The latter half is often now uncertain, but Bosahan may be fr. 
sawan, ' a hole in a cHfE beside the sea.' None of these in Dom. 

BosBURY (Ledbury). Flar. Wore, and Sim. Dur. re ann. 1056. 
Bosanbyrig, ' Burgh, castle of Bosa.' 

BoscASTLE (Cornwall). Prob. ' Bosa's or Boso's castle '; names in 
Onom. But Corn. 60s also means ' moor.' Cf. Bosahan. 

BoscoMBE (Bournemouth and Sahsbury). Sal. B. Dom. Boscumbe. 
' Bosa's valley.' See above and -combe. 

BosHAM (Chichester). Bede Bosanham, 1048 O.E. Chron. Bosen- 
ham, 1167-68 Pipe Boseham. ' Bosa'a home.' Cf. Bosbury. 

BosHERSTON (Pembroke). Modem. Bosher is an English surname, 
prob. fr. Fr. boucher, 'a butcher.' 

BosLEY (Macclesfield). Dom. Boselega. 'Bosa'a lea or meadow.' 
Cf. Bosh AM. 

Boston. Not in Dom. 1090 chart. Ecclesia sancti Botulphi, 
a. 1200 Hoveden Sti Botulphi, c. 1250 Dame Siriz Botolfston in 
Lincolneschire, Leland Botolphstowne, and Boston. Linking 
forms seem curiously lacking. The copious Hist, of Boston, 
1856, by Thompson, mentions none; but the name was, St. 
Botolph's in Eng. or in Latin, rather than Boston, till after 
1400. We have found ' Boston ' first in 1391, Earl Derby's 
Exp. (Camden), 23. Of the origin there can be no doubt, as 
O.E. Chron. ann. 654 says, the hermit Botwulf (L. Botulphus) 
built the minster at Icanho, the earlier name of Boston. A 
similar contraction is perh. seen in Boss all (Yorks), whose 
church is also dedicated to St Botolph. But here Dom.'s forms 
are puzzling — Boscele and Bosciale. The ending is certainly 


-hall, q.v. ; but Bosc- does not suggest Botulph. The only name 
near it in Onom. is one Bascic. Cf. Dom. (Hunts) Botulves- 

BoTHAMSALL (Newark). Dom. Bodmescel(d) , 1180 Bodemeskil, 
1278 Bodmeshill, 1302 Bothemeshull, 1428 Bothomsell. Now 
'Bothelm's nook' or 'hall/ Cf. Bonsall, etc., and see -hall. 
But the orig. ending was either late O.E. cell, ' a small monastery 
or nunnery/ Med. L. cella ; or, more prob., O.N. kelda, ' a spring, 
a well.' 

BoTLEY (Hants and Henley -in- Arden) . Han. B. Dom. Botelei. 
Hen. B. Dugdale Botle. Prob. ' Botta's ' or ' Bottoms lea or 
meadow.' Possibly O.E. botl-Uah, 'meadow with the hut or 
house on it.' Cf. Botlob (Dymock), Dom. Botelav (see -low) ; 
also Dom. (Cambs) Botestoch (O.E. stoc, ' a place '). 

BoTTiSHAM (Cambridge). Dom. Bodichesham, 1210 Bodekesham, 
1372 Bodkesham, 1400 Botkesham, 1428 Bottesham. ' Home 
of Bodeca.' See -ham. 

BoTTLESFORD (Pewsey, Wilts). Not in Dom. [c. 1190 chart. 
' Botlesford,' Notts.]. ? 'Ford of Botvmlf or ' Botweald.' 
Only, in 796 chart. (Wilts), we have a Butlesleye, which must 
represent a name Butela, or the like. 

BoTUSFLEMiNG (Cornwall). Corn. = ' parish of the Flemings' or 
men from Flanders. Cf. Flushing opposite Falmouth. Botus 
may be=W. bettws, corrup. of Eng. bead-house, 'house of 
prayer ' ; but this is uncertain, c. 1175 Lambeth Hom. has bode, 
beode, for bede, ' prayer, petition.' Cf. Bacchus (Glostrsh.), 
1304 Bakkehuse, ' the back house.' 

SouGHTON (nine in P.G.). Dom. (Notts, Nfk., Northants) Buche- 
tone, -tuna. 1179-80 Pipe (Yorks) Bouton. Some conceivably 
might be ' town at the bend,' M.E. bought, same root as bight, 
' a bay.' But B., Notts, 1225 Buketon, is fr. a man Bucca. 
Boughton (Wore.) is 1038 chart. Bocctun, 1275 Boctone, 
which is certainly ' town of the beech-trees, O.E. boc' The 
phonetics here are as in Broughton. 

Boughto(u)n-tjndeb-Blee (Canterbury). Sic Chaucer, c.^1386. 
See above and Blee. 

Bourne (Cambs and Lincoln) . Cam. B. Dom. Brune, 1171 Brunne, 
1210 Bume . B . Line . c . 1 200 Gervase Brunne . .N . brunn-r, ' a 
brook ' ; O.E. burn{a), ' a spring, a well, a stream,' the Sc. ' bum.' 

Bournemouth. Perh. c. 1150 Gaimar, re ann. 1066 Brunemue. 
See above. 

BouBTON (seven in P.G.). Glos. B. 949 chart. Burgtune, Dom. 
Bortune. Rugby B. Dom. Bortone. Bath B. c. 1160 Burton; 
also B.C.S. i. 506 Burgton (Berks). -Burton, 'fortified 
town.' See -bury and -ton. 


BovERTON (Cowbridge). Prob. O.E. bi-ofer-tun, ' town, village, by 
the brink or edge/ Cf. ' Bovreford ' (Hants) in Dom.; also 
Beefobd, Bolsover, etc. 

BovEY Tracey (S. Devon). Pron. Buvvey. Dom. Bovi. Prob. 
' Bofa's isle ' ; see next, and -ey. On Tracey cf. Wollacombe 

BoviNGTON (Hemel Hampstead). 1298 Bovyngton. 'Bofa's 
town/ or else ' Botwine's town/ This last is a common name 
in Onom. Cf. Dom. Bouinton, 1205 Buvintone (in YorkS), now 
Boynton; and Dom. (Wilts) Boientone. Boving may be a 
patronymic. See -ing. 

Bow (London). Early often called ' De Arcubus,' fr. a bridge 
arched or ' bowed,' built here in the time of Q. Maud, the first 
in England. 

Bowes Castle (Yorksh.). c. 1188 Gir. Gamb. Beoves. Prob. fr. a 
man Bofa or Beofa ; several Bof as in Onom. The s will be the gen. 

BowNESS (Cumberland), c, 1200 Bowenes. 'Ness or naze (O.N. 
and O.E. nces, ' cape, nose ') at the bow or bend ' ; O.E. boga. 

BowNHiLL (Stroud). Not in Dom. Some think this is Bede's 
Mons Badonicus. But old forms are needed; meantime doubt- 
ful. Baddeley can throw no Hght. 

BowTHORPE (Menthorpe, Yorks). Dom. and 1199 Boletorp. ' Vil- 
lage of Bola/ two in Onom. Cf. Bolney; and see -thorpe. 

BoxFOBD (Newbury and Colchester). New. B.B.C.S.i. 506 Boxora, 
Dom. Bovsore, Bochesome. The present -form seems quite 
mod. Box-ora is O.E. for ' edge, river -bank lined with box- 
trees.' Cf. Windsor, etc. Box Hill (Surrey) was early famed 
for its box-trees. Close by is Box Hurst or ' box wood.' 

BoxLEY (Maidstone) . ? Dom. Bogelei, 1155 Pipe BoxeF, c. 1188 Gir, 
Gamb. Boxletha, 1289 Boxleya. Prob. O.E. box-ledh, ' box-tree 
meadow.' There are no names in Onom. like Boc or Bocca; but 
cf. next. The -letha might be for O.E. hlv^, c. 1200 li^e, ' a slope.' 

BoxwoRTH (Cambridge). Dom. Bochesuuorde, 1228 Bukeswrth, 
1256 Bokesworth. ' Farm of the he-goats.' Icel. bokk-r, Sw. 
bock ; also O.E. buc, ' a buck, a he-deer,' fr. which comes form 
1228. Cf. BoxwELL (Charfield), Dom. Boxewelle, 1316 Bockes- 

BoYNTON (BridUngton). See Bovington". 

BoYTON (Launceston) . Dom. Boye-, Boietone. ' Boia's town 
or village.' Several of this name in Onom. Cf. Boythorp 
(Yorks), Dom. Buitorp. 

Brabourne (Kent). Dom. Bradeburne. O.E. brad burna, ' broad 
stream.' See -l3ourne. 

Braceborough (Stamford). Dom. Braseborg, and Bracebridgb 
(Lincoln), Dom. Brachebrige, 1298 Bracebrigge. Prob. ' burgh. 


fort/ and ' bridge of Bracca, or Breca, or Brece.' But as to the 
latter note also 1483 Caihol. Angl. ' A brace of a bryge or of a 
vawte, sinus, arcus,'= ' span/ Cf. next, and Bracewell 
(W. Riding), JDom. Braisuelle. 

Brackley (Northampton), c. 1188 Gir. Cambr. Brakelega, 
Bracheleia. ' Bracca's lea or meadow/ Cf. Brackenthwaite 
(Cockermouth), 1202 Brakinthweit ; see -ley and -thwaite. 

Bracknell (Winkfield). 942 chart. Braccan heal. There can be 
little doubt this means ' nook of Bracca.' There is no word like 
the mod. bracken in O.E., and in any case ' bracken nook ' is 
not the Hkely meaning according to analogy, though it is sup- 
ported by Skeat. See above and -hall. There is also a Bracken 
(Yorks), Dom. Brachen, which must be ' Bracca's place.' Cf. 
Beedon, Coven, etc. 

Bradbury (Durham), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Brydbyrig. Broad, 
O.E. brad, never takes the form bryd or brid, so this is prob. 
'Burgh or castle of the bride'; O.E. bryd, 3-4 bryd. See 

Bradden (Towcester). 1221 Braden is 'Broad valley.' See 
Bradon, and -den. But for Braddn see Vraddan (Lizard). 

Bradenham (Thetford and High Wycombe) . B.C.S. 877 Bradan- 
ham. [Cf. c. 672 Grant ' Bradanfeld ' (Berks), and 1298 ' Thomas 
de Bradenston.'] ' Brada's home.' The name is common in 
Onom. But Skeat holds that Bradanfeld, now Bradfield, is 
a weak dative fr. O.E. brad, ' broad.' 

Bradeston (Norfolk). {Dom. has only Bradeha.) 1298 Braden- 
ston, 1422 Breydeston, 1450 Brayston, 1451 Braydeston. 
' Brada's town.' Cf. Bradenham. Form 1298 will then show 
a double gen. 

Bradford, Dom. Bradeford; and Bradford -on-A von (Wilts). 
O.E. Chron. 652 Mt Bradanforda be Afne. ' Broad ford.' Cf. 
Bretford, and Dom. (Yorks) Bradfortun, Bratfortone, now 

Brading (I. of Wight). Dom. Berarding. This must be 'place 
of the descendants of Beorhtweard,' later Beorhward, Berard. 
See -ing. 

Bradley (Keighley, and 7). Dom. (Yorks) several, Bradeleia; 
Bilston B. Z)om. Bradeley; Stafford B. Dom. Bradeleia. 778 
chart. Bradan lea3e (? which), ' Broad lea or meadow,' or pos- 
sibly ' Brada's meadow.' Cf. Bradeston, 

Bradon (a district W. of Swindon). Sic O.E. Chron. 904. O.E. 
brad dun, ' broad hill.' Cf., too, ' Bradene,' Dom. Somerset — 
i.e., ' broad dean ' or ' valley.' 

Bradshaw (Bolton and Halifax). Not in Dom. Bol. B. 1313 
Bradeshagh. O.E. brad scaga, ' broad wood.' 


Bradwell (5 in P.G.). Dom. Bradeuuelle (Bucks)., Braintree B. 
a. 1300 Bradwall — i.e., ' broad well or spring/ Cf. 1160 Pijpe 
Bradew'h, in the same region. But Dom. Bradewell (Yorks), is 
Braithwell (Doncaster). 

Bradyair (Cumberland), c. 1141 Bradjere. O.E. brad '^eard, 
' broad yard.' 

Brapferton. See Bradford. 

Br AFIELD (Northampton). Dom. Bragefelde. a. 1130 Brau- 
field. ? ' Field on the brae or brow or hill slope/ O.N. bra, 
O.E. brdew, breaw; lit. 'the eyeUd.' But Dom. suggests 
' field of ' an unrecorded ' Braga.' Onom. has only Broga. 

Brailes (Banbury). Sic in Dom. and 1248. A unique and puzzling 
name. Prob. some man ' Brail's ' (village), as in Brailsford 
(Derby). The name is otherwise unknown; it might be contr. 
fr. Breguweald, 2 in Onom, We have similar names, only with 
O.E. gen., in Beadon, Coven, etc. 

Braintree (Essex). Dom. Branchtreu; later Branktry, Brantry. 
This must be ' tree of Branc,' the same name as in Branksome 
(Bournemouth), Branxton (Coldstream), and Branxholm 
(Hawick); a. 1400 Brancheshelm. The ch in Dom. and in this 
last are due to the habitual softening of Norman scribes. Cf. 

Braithwaite (Keswick). 1183 Boldon Bk. Braitewat, Braithe- 
wath, perh. in Durham. ' Brae-place.' See Brafield and 
-thwaite. But Braithwell (Doncaster) is Dom. Bradewell. 
See Bradwell. 

Bramber (Shoreham). ? Dom. Branbertei, which suggests an un- 
recorded ' Brandbeorht's isle.' See -ey. Old Brymmburg ; also 
cf. Grant of 672 Brember wudu (Salisbury). The first part is 
doubtful. It may be O.E. brom, ' the broom,' cf. next, or 
brime, 3-6 brem, ' famous.' The -ber seems to be for burh, cf. 
Bamber, and see -bury. Cf. Eark Bramwith (Doncaster), 
1201 Bramwith, where the ending is O.N. vith-r, ' a wood.' 

Bramcote (Nottingham and Nuneaton). Not. B. Dom. Bron-, 
Brunecote, c. 1200 Brancote. Nun. B. Dom. Brancote, a. 1300 
Brom(p)cote, a. 1400 Bramkote. Duignan says ' cot in the 
broom ' or ' gorse,' O.E. brom. Mutschmann thinks of brand 
cote, ' cot on the place cleared by burning.' Neither is certain. 
Cf. the other names in Bram-; also Castle Bromwioh. 

Bramham (Tadcaster); sic 1202, and Bramham (S. Yorks). Dom. 
Bramha, Brameha. See above and next. The Bram- here is 
doubtful. Bramshall (Uttoxeter) is Dom. Branselle, a. 1200 
Brumeshel, a. 1300 Bromsholf, -sulf. Both look certainly as 
if fr. a man Bram, Brom, or Brum. The Onom. has Brand, 
Bron, Brum, and Brun, the last common. For the present 
ending see -hall; but -sholf, and -sulf point to O.E. scylfe, 'a 
shelf, a shelving piece of land.' 


Brampton (7 in P.G.). Nfk. and SufEk. B. Dom. Brantuna. Hants 
B. 1121 O.E. Chron. Bramtun, 1149 Brantona; 1238 Close R. 
Brampton, ? which. Prob. 'town of Brand or Brant.' Brand 
is common in Onom. Cf. B.C.S. 712 Brantes wyrth. But 
Branton Green (Aldborough) is 1202 Brankstona. Cf. 
Bampton for common intrusion of p. 

Brancaster (N.W.Norfolk), a. 4:50 Notitia BT&nsdnnnm. 'Castle, 
camp of Bran.' Ir. and O.G. bran, 'a raven'; in Breton 'a 
crow.' A chief Bran is found in Bk. of Taliessin, while Nant 
Bran, vale of Glam., is c. 1130 Lib. Land. Nant Baraen. 

Brandeston (Wickham Market). Dom. Brantestuna. 'Town of 
Brand ' (common in Onom.), or ' Branti.' Cf. Bransburton, 
(Yorks), Dom. Brantisburtune, and Branston. 

Brandon (Hereford and Durham, Coventry, Salop, and on Little 
Ouse). May be same name as Eav. Geogr. Branogenium. 
Gov. B. Dom. Brandune, 1227 Brandon, 1273 Braundon. 
Another, a. 1200 Brandune. ' Hill of Brand,' a common O.E. 
name. See -don. Brancot (Stafford), is often Bromcote in 
the 14th cny — i.e., ' cot among the broom.' See Brampton 
and Brancaster. 

Branscombe (Axminster). Chart. Brancescumb. Dom. Branches- 
come. ' Branca' s valley.' Cf. Brantin Green (Aldborough), 
1202 Brankstona, and next. See -combe. 

Branston (Burton, Grantham, Lincoln). Bur. B. 771 chart. 
Brantistun, 978 Brantestun, Dom. and later Brantestone. 
' Town, village of Brant or Brand ' ; the names are the same. 
Cf. Brandeston. Bran(d)sby (N. Riding), has been identified 
with 910 0.^. C^ron. Bremesbyrig. This cannot be. See rather 
Bromsberrow. This is Dom. Branzbi, 'dwelhng of 5raw<.' See -by. 

Brant Fell and Brant How (Bownegs). O.E. brant, bront, ' high, 
steep, sheer'; while How is O.N. haug-r, 'mound, cairn.' Cf. 
Great How, and Maeshow (Sc). See -fell. 

Brantin GHAM (Brough, Yorks). Dom. Brentingeha', Brentingham, 
Brendingham. c. 1180 Ben. Peterb. Brentingeham. ' Home of 
the Brentings,' or descendants of Brent. Branting, Breniing, 
and Brant are all in Onom. Cf. E,. Brent. 

Branton (Alnwick). Cf. 1157 Pipe Brantona (Devon). ' Town of 
Brant.' See above. 

Braunston (Oakham and Rugby). Not in Dom. 1298 Brauntes- 
ton. Cf. B.C.S. 712 Branteswyrth. ' Town of Brant or Brand.' 
Cf. above and Branston. 

Brawby (Malton). Dom. Bragebi. 'Dwelling of ?' See -by. 

Brawdy (Pembroke), c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Breudi. Prob. W. 
brwyd, ' full of holes.' T. Morgan conjectures O.W. brawd dy, 
' judgment house ' or ' court.'  


Bray (Maidenhead). Dom. Brai; later Braie, Broy, Bray. Perh. 
= Sc. brae. See Brafield. Skeat agrees with this, and 
connects with O.E. brdw; Mercian breg, ' an eyebrow/ 

Brayton (Carlisle and Selby). Sel. B. Dom. Bretone, Brettan. 
Perh. ' Brae-town.' See Bray. 

Breage with Germoe (Helston). Fr. St. Breaca and her com- 
panion who landed forcibly, as missionaries from Ireland, at 
the mouth of the Hayle R., c. 500. 

Brean Down (Weston-s.-M.). Tautology. W. bre, ' a hill, a brae '; 
pi. 'breon. The R. Breamish, Northbld., prob. contains this 
root, or else bryn, a' slope ' ; w. so easily changes into m, and will 
mean ' slope, brae, with the stream ' or ' water.' Cf. G. uisge, 
pron. iishge, ' water.' There is also The Bream, For. of Dean, 
old Le Breme. Eng. Dial. Diet, gives for bream ' an elevated 
place exposed to wind,' which quite suits breon. 

Brecknock or Brecon. 916 O.E. Chron. Brecenanmere, 1094 
Brut y Ty. Brecheniauc, a. 1100 Brechennium, c. 1188 Gir. 
Camb. Brecheniauc, Brekenniauc, c. 1540 Leland Brekenock, 
Brecknock. These last are just Eng. spellings of the orig. 
W. name as seen in 1094. The name comes fr. Brychan, son 
of Anlac — i.e., ' the speckled ' or ' tartan-clad.' He was an 
Ir. prince who conquered all this region c. 430. The town is 
called both Brecknock and Brecon in 1606; but the town's 
W. name now is Aberhonddu, being at the confluence of Honddu 
and Usk. One of K. Arthur's battles in c. 800 Nennius was 
Cat Bregion, near the mountain Breguoin. Some hold that these 
are the same names as the above. The -ock prob. represents a 
W. dimin. 

Bredon (Tewkesbury) and Bredon Forest (Wilts) . Bede Briudun, 
781 Breodune, Dom. Breodun, c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Briodun. 
Tautology, W. bre, and O.E. dun, ' hill.' But B. Forest is 
905 O.E. Chron. Bradon, Braeden; which may mean ' hill with 
the brow or brae or cUfif.' See Brafield. 

Bredwardine (Hereford). 'Farm of Brid,' 2 in Onom. See 
-war dine. 

Breedon-on-the-Hell (Ashby-de-la-Z.) . a. 1100 Bredun. A triple 
tautology, for W. bre, O.E. dun, and Eng. hill all mean the 

Bremhill (Calne) . 940 chart. Brembelwerna must have been quite 
near here, fr. O.E. bremel, brembel, ' the bramble or blackberry,' 
and Bremhill might be corrup. of this. Only it is prob. Dom. 
Breme, for which see Bramber. 

Brent R. (Middlesex) and Brentford. 705 Lett. Bp. Waldhere, 
Breguntford ; 918 O.E. Chron. Braegent forda ; 1016 ib. 
Brent forda. This first half is W. bre, a ' hill,' a ' brae '; the 
second may be gwyn, gwen, 'clear, bright'; but perh. more 


prob. fr. W. gwantu, ' to sever/ or gwant, ' a butt, a mark/ 
The name of the tribe Brigantes, who dwelt N. of Humber, 
looks Hke the same name. 

Brent Knoll (Axbridge). c. 708 Grant K. Ine Mons qui dicitur 
Brente. O.E. brant, hront, 'high, steep, sheer'; and cnol, 
' knoll, knowe, hill/ Not the same as next. But Brand or 
Brent Ditch (Cambs), is the same word. Rhys inclines to 
connect the Brents with O.W. hreni, ' a prow.' 

Brentwood (Chelmsford). Not in Dom. Prob. 'burnt wood,' 
fr. burn vb, 4-6 brenne. Of. Brandwood (Rossendale), c. 1200 
Brendewod, and Burntwood. 

Brepper (Cornwall). See Barripper. 

Brereton (Rugeley and Sandbach). a. 1300 Breredon. 'Brier, 
bramble hill,' O.E. brer, brcer, 3-9 brere. See -don. 

Bretford (Coventry). Sic 1180, and Breteorton (Honeybourne) . 
709 chart. Bretferton, 714 Brotfortun, 860 Bradferdtun, Dom. 
Bratfortune, 1275 Bretforton. A little doubtful; it may be 
= Bradford -ton. But quite Ukely ' Ford of Bret ' or ' Briht.' 
Brett is still a common, personal name. (7/. Brettell, sic 1614, 
Kingswinford. It ma^ simply mean ' Briton.' C/. Brapferton 
and Britford. 

Brettenham (Suffolk). Dom. Bretenhame, and Bretton (Wake- 
field). Wa. B. Dom. Brettone. 'Home' and 'town of the 
Briton,' O.E. Bret. Cf. Britain. 

Brewood (Stafford). Dom. Brevde, a. 1200 Breo-, Brewude, 
' a. 1300 Brewode. Hybrid: W. bre, 'a hill,' and -wood. The 
Sc. brae is fr. O.N. bra ' (eye) brow.' 

Bridgenorth. 912 O.E. Chron. Bricge, c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. 
Bruge; a. 1145 Orderic Brugia, all meaning 'bridge.' North 
prob. added c. 1090 by Robert of Bellesne, to distmguish this 
place from his father's castle at Quatbridge, 3 miles to S. 
We have c. 1350 chart. Brugenorth. 

Bridgertjle (Bude) . Not in Dom. Old Lan Bridget, or ' church of 
St. Bridget, or Brigida, or Bride,' of Kildare, a.d. 453-523. It 
was granted at the Conquest to one Raoul. Cf. Abbotrule, (Sc.) 

Bridlington. Dom. Bretlinton (4 times); Sim. Dur. contin. ann. 
1143 Brellintun; 1200 Bridlinton. Prob. named fr. a man, 
but his name is doubtful. Prob. O.E. Bretelan tun, ' town of 
Bretel,' one such in Onom. See -ton. 

Bridport. 1156 Bridep't. ' Harbour on the R. Brit,' which is 
prob. W. brith, 'spotted, parti-coloured.' Connexion with 
Britain is imcertain. We get the root again in Little Bredy, 
near by. Dom. Litelbride. 

Bridston (Herefordsh.). Not in Dom. 'Town, village of St. 
Bridget.' See Bridgertjle. 


Brigg (Lincolnsh.). Not in Dom., but ' Bruge ' (Cheshire). O.E. 
brycg, So. brig, ' a bridge.' Cf. Briggate (Leeds and Knares- 

Brigham (Cockermth. and E. Eiding). E. Rid. B. Dom. Bringeha*. 
Prob. ' home of Brine.' Cf. Bbiningham. 

Brightlingsea (Colchester). Local pron. Bricklesey. 1223 
Patent R. Brichtlingese ; 1521 Bryghtlyngsey. 'Isle of Beorht- 
ling,' not in Onom., where we have only noted B.C.S., 1282 
Brihtulfing tun; whilst Dom. has Brictriceseia, fr. the common 
Beorhtric. The r here has changed into its kindred liquid I, and 
the patronymic -ing has been added, after Dom. No less than 
193 variants of the name are said to have been enumerated. 
See -ea. 

Brighton and Brighthampton (Oxon) and Brigkhampton 
(Gloster). All three practically the same name ! Brighton is 
Dom. Brichelmestone, Bristelmeston (on the st see p. 26), 
' Stone of Brihtelm/ var. of the common Beorhthelm. There was 
a Brithelm, Bp. of Chichester, in 956. Called Brighthelmstone 
as late as 1834, and Brighton as early as 1660. B. Oxon is 
old Brighthelmstone, and B. Gloster is c. 1230 Brithelmetim. 
But Breighton, (E. Riding) is Dom. Bricstune Briston, fr. 
Bricsi or Beorhtsige, cf. Brixton. See -ton which often inter-, 
changes with -stone. 

Brightw ALTON (Lamboum). 939 chart. Beorhtwaldingtune ; 1086 
Bristwoldintona ; Dom. Bristoldestone ; also Brictewalton. 'Town 
of the descendants of Beorhiweald,' very common in Onom. 
Brisiwoldv^, is known var. of Beorhtweald. Cf. next. Dom. 
regularly writes st for a guttural. 

Brightwell (WaUingford and Oxon). Ox. B. 947 chart. Beorhtan 
wille; also seb Berhtanwellan, which chart, translates ' declara- 
tam fontem ' — i.e., ' clear, bright weU.' O.E. beorht, berht, 
' bright.' Wa. B. Dom. Bristowelle {Dom. always avoids 
gutturals and usually has st for gh). Later Brictewell. 

Brigstock (Thrapston) . 1160 Pi^e Brichestoc. ' Place of Brica ' ; 
one in Onom. Cf. Brixworth, and Dom. (Bucks) Bricstoch; 
and see -stock. 

Brell (Thame). . 1155-57 Pipe Bruhella, -bulla; 1231 Brehull. 
' Hill,' or else ' nook' (see -hall) 'on the brow or brae '; lit. the 
eyelid, O.E. brdew, breaw. Cf. 1158-59 Pipe Northbld. Brie- 
helle, Dom. Essex, Bruheleia, and Beal. 

Brimham Rooks (Harrogate). 'Brim's home.' Cf. B.C.S. 64 
Brimes die. Locally, brim means ' a high place exposed to 
weather,' cognate with Eng. brim, first found c. 1205 brimme; 
origin doubtful. Cf. next. 

Brimpsfield (Glostrsh.) and Bremscombe (Stroud). Dowi. Brimes- 
felde. Old Brimmescombe. ' Field ' and ' valley of Brim.' 



Cf. a. 1000 chart. Brimhirst (Leicestersh.), Brimstage (Chesh.), 
BooMSBEREOW, and above. The man's name is a little uncertain. 
See -combe. 

Brimpton (Reading). 944 chart. Bryningtune, Dom. Brintone, 
a. 1300 Brimpton. ' Town of the sons of Brini.' Cf. Brington. 
For interchange of n and m-p cf. Bampton. 

Brindle (Chorley) . 1227 Brimhill, 1228 BurnehuU, 1254 Brunhull, 
1356 Burnhull, 1584 Brindle. The d is thus quite late, and the 
name is ' hill of the bum ' or ' brook/ 0. E. bryn, var. of burna. 
Cf. -bourne. There is also a Brindle Heath (Salford). Brine- 
ton (Shiffnal) is Dom. Brunitone; a. 1300 Bruneton, which is 
prob. ' town of Brun ' or ' Brown.' Mom. Yorks, Brinitun and 
Brinnistun is now Burniston. 

Brington (Hunts). Dom. Breninctun. 'Town of the sons of 
Brini ' or ' Brine,' Cf. Brempton and next ; and see -ing. 

Briningham (Norfk.). Dom. Bruningaha. 'Home of Bruning * 
or ' of the sons of Brun'; both names common in Onom., which 
also has Brine, and Brin as var. of Beorn. Cf. Brigham ; and 
see -ing. 

Brinkburn (on R. Coquet) and Brinkworth (Chippenham). 
1150 Brink(e)burne, 1183Brenkbuma; 1065 chart. Brinkewrtha. 
' Brook ' and ' farm/ at the edge ' or ' brink/ a N. word. See 
Oxf. Diet. s.v. The above are the earHest instances of it in 
Eng. There is no name hke Brink in Onom., though there is a 
Brica, -an. But Brink is a Du. quasi- personal name, as in the 
well-known Prof. Ten Brink; brink in Du. has the same meaning 
and root as the Eng. word. Thus the above names might mean 
' brook ' and ' farm of Brink.' However, the 1183 form Brenk- 
leans towards O.N. brekka, ' hillside, slope/ Dan. brink, 
' steepness, precipice, dechvity.' See -bourne and -worth. 

Brinklow (RrUgby). Cf. above, a. 1200 Brinchelau, 1251 Brinck- 
lawe; also thought to be the ' Bridelawe,' c. 1188 in Gir. Camb. 
If so the form will be corrupt, and also nasahzed since that time. 
Brink is Norse, and means, ' edge, border of a steep place ' ; here 
a huge tumulus or burial-mound, O.^.hlcBW. See -low, and above. 

Brestscall (Chorley), Brinscar (Lanes), 1228 Brunesgare, Brins- 
EORD (Wolvermptn. and Lutterworth); Wol. B. 994 Bruns-, 
Brenesford; 1227 Bruneford; 1381 Bruynesford. Lut. B. old 
Brunesford; Brinsley (Notts); Dom. Bruneslei, and Brins- 
WORTH (Rotherham), 1202 Brinesford. Prob. all fr. men 
named Brun or ' Brown,' a common O.E. name. One Brun 
was Dom. tenant of Brownsover ('bank'), Rugby. Brins- 
caU's ending, without old forms, is uncertain, but -car is 
O.N. kjarr, ' copsewood, brushwood '; or N. kjcerr, kjerr, ' marsh, 
wet copse.' Wyld and Hirst omit both Brinscall and Brinscar, 
but give Brindle in the same district. For the other endings 
see -ford, -hall, and -worth ('farm'). 


Beistnall (Smethwick). a. 1300 Brussenhulle, which is prob. 
' bursten ' or ' broken hill/ O.E. berstan, '.;to burst,' past tense 
4-6 briste, brust, pa. pple., 4-5 brusten, brosten; dial, brossen. 
Cf. BuRSTwiCK. See also -hall. 

Bristol. 1052 O.E. Chron. (Wore.) Brycgstow, Dom. Bristou. 
a. 1142 Wm. Malmesb. Bristow, c. 1160 Gest. Steph. Bristoa; 
c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Bristollum. Brycgstow is O.E. for ' bridge- 
place.^ It is interesting to see the -ow change into the liquid -ol. 

Britain. 345 b.c. Aristotle at (SpeTaviKol {v. r. IIpeT-) vrja-oi, 55 e.g. 
J. Gcesar Britannia, c. 50 B.C. Diod. Sic. BpiTxavla, a.d. 43. 
Lett, of Claudius Kara Bperavvwv. O.E. Ghron. ann. 495 Bretene, 
ann. 755 Bryttisc (= British). W. inis Prydain, ' isle of Britain.' 
Prydain is the Brythonic form of Ir. Cruithni, usual Ir. name of 
the Picts; but whether this is really connected with the name 
Britain, and what that name means, is doubtful. 

Britford (Salisbury). 1065 O.E. Chron. Brytforda, Brytan 
forda; a. 1100 Brethevorde. 'Ford of the Briton '; the th in 
the latest form cited is a common Norm, softening. Cf. Bret- 

Brixton. K.C.D. 940, Brihtricestan, ? which. Surrey, is Dom. B 
Brici-, Brixistan, ' stone of Beorhtsige/ a common name, found 
also as Byrcsige, Brehtsig, Bryxie, and Brixius. Plymouth 
B. Dom. Brictricestone, Bedricestone. ' Stone of Beorhiric,' 
another common name, found also as Brychtrich, Brihtrig, and 
Bricxtric. The endings -stone and -ton, q.v., often interchange. 
Brixton Deverill (Warminster), is not in Dom., but see 
Deverill. Cf. Dom. Bricsteuuelle, near Wallingford, ' Beorht- 
sige's well.' In Dom. we regularly have st for guttural h or ch. 
Dom. Yorks Brix5stune, Briston, is now Breighton. 

Brixworth (Northampton). Dom. Briclesworde. This is prob. 
' farm oiBeorhtel ' or Berhtel, or else Beorhtgils, all found in Onom. 
1160 Pipe Northants has Brichestoc. Cf. Brigstock; and 
see -worth. 

Broadwas (Worcester). 779 chart. Bradeuuesse, -wasse, K.C.D. 
iii. 386 Bradewasan, 1218 Bradewas. O.E. for ' broad, stagnant 
pool.' O.E. wase, mod. ooze. Cf. Alrewas. 

Broadwater (Sussex). Dom. Bradewatre. O.E. brad, 'broad.' 

Broadway. (Wore, and Ilminster). Wore. B. 972 chart. Bradwege 
and Bradanwege (a dat.). Dom. Bradeweia. It is on the road 
between London and Worcester. 

Brochurst (Warwksh.) and Brockenhurst (Hants). War. B. 
1327 Brochurst, Han. B. 1157 Pipe Brocheherst. ' Wood of 
the badger.' O.E. broc. Cf. next; and see -hurst. 

Brockxesby (Lines). Dom. Brochesbi, ' dwelling of Brocwulf.* 
Dom. is very careless of the Hquids. Cf. Broxted ; and see -by. 


Brookley Hill (Edgeware). O.E. Broc- leak, ' badger meadow/ 
Cf. 674 grant Brocces broc and Broxburn (Sc). Similar is 
Brockton, Much Wenlock, Dom. Broctune, Brochetune, and 
three Broctons (Staffs), all Dom. Broctone. In all 3 Duignan 
prefers O.E. broc, ' a brook/ Only the o here is long. Cf. 
Brockhill Dingle, Alvechurch, 1275 Brochole, Brockhampton 
(Glostrsh.), old Brochamtone, Brechampton (see Hampton), and 
Brockworth, ib. Dom. Brocowardinge, Brockwordin; see 
-worth and -wardine, ' farm/ 

Brokenborotjgh (Malmesbury). [737 chart. To brocenan beor^e.] 
1298 Broukenbmy, 1324 Brokeneberwe. 'Broken' — i.e., pre 
sumably 'rugged hill.' O.E. beorg. Cf. Barrow. 

Bromfield (Wigton and Salop). Wig. B. c. 1215 chart. Brunefeld; 
1610 Brumfield. Fr. O.E. brom, ' broom, gorse,' rather than 
brun, ' brown.' Cf. next; m and n freely interchange. 

Bromley (Kent, Stafford, etc.) . 862 chart. Bromlea3 (near Langley) . 
Staf. B. 1004 chart, and c. 1097 Flor. Wore, Bromleage, -lege. 
Dom. Brunlege. Kent B. Dom. Brunlei, Bronlei. As above, 
' broom meadow ' and not ' brown meadow/ There is also 
King's Bromley (Lichfield), 942 chart. Bromlege, Bromli, 
Dom. Bromelei. 

Brompton (London and Northallerton). Lon. B. a. 1016 Ordi- 
nance Ethelred I. Bromdun. Nor. B. a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Bromtun. 
' Broom, gorse village,' or else ' hill.' For intrusion of p cf. 
Bampton and Hampton. See -don and -ton. 

Bromsberrow (Ledbury). 910 O.E. Chron. Bremesbyrig; Dom. 
Brunmeberge; c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Brimesbirih; v.r. Brunes- 
birih, Brismesbirith ; 1284 Brommesberewe. Confusion here 
in both halves. The man's name in the first may either be 
Brunman, a fairly common name, or Brem{e) ; also in Onom . 
The ending is either what is now -bury — i.e. ' (fortified) town,' 
or O.E. beorg, ' hill,' now represented by -berrow or Barrow; 
Cf. Berry Brow and Bromsgrove. Brom's Ash (S. Herefd.) 
is 1228 Close R. Bromes heff, where heff is ' accustomed pasture- 
ground of sheep,' same root as heft. See Oxf. Diet. s.v. heaf, 
where the earhest quot. is c. 1525. 

Bromsgrove. 830 chart. Bremes grafa, 1156 Bremes-, Brimes- 
graua, 1166 Bromesgrava. ' Br em's grove/ O.E. grdf. Cf. 
above and Birmingham. 

Bromwich. See Castle Bromwich. 

Bromyard (Worcester). Chart. Bromgeard, O.E. for ' field 
covered with broom.' 

Brondesbury (London) . 1766 Entick Bromesbury . Prob. ' burgh, 
castle of Brom or Brem.' Cf. Bromsgrove. M and n often 
interchange. Cf. Dum- and Dunbarton, etc.; and d often 


Beongwyn (Caermarthen) . W. for ' fair, clear breast/ or ' breast- 
like hill.' Cf. W. hron goch, ' Robin redbreast/ The W. for 
' hill ' is bryn, but both hron and hryn are used in Cornwall. 

Beook (Ashford and Godalming). c. 1290 8. Eng. Legend Robert 
de Brok. O.E. broc, 'a rivulet.' Brookwood (Woking). 
1289 contin. Gervase Brokwode. 

Beoomfield (Bridgwater, Salop, etc.). Sal. B. a. 1196 Gir. Camb. 
Brumfeld, Brid. B. 1297 R. Glouc. Brumefeld, 'broom-clad 
field/ Cf. 909 chart. Brombricge, which will be called after a 
man Brom. or Brem. Cf. Bromsgrove. 

Broseley (Salop). Not in Dom. Old ' Burhweard's lea,' still seen 
in full in Burwardsley (Chester). Cf. Burslem. 

Brotherton (Ferrybridge, Yorks). Not in Dom.; but cf. Dom. 
(Norfk.) Brodercros, ' town of Broder or Brother/ ' brother ' 
being used as a surname. 

Brotton (Yorks). Sic 1179-80; but Dom. Brotune. Prob. O.E. 
broc-tun, ' badger village.' Cf. Dom. Bucks Brotone. 

Brougham Castle (Appleby). Thought to be c. 380 Ant. Itin. 
Brocavo or Brovonacae. But more old forms are needed. Prob. 
like Brough (Yorks), Dom. Burg, tr.O.lS.borg; O.^.burh, 'castle, 
fort, ' a broch,' with the common transposition of the r, and so 
= ' castle home. Cf. Brough Ferry (Elloughton), 1202 Burgum. 

Broughton (14 in P.G.). Broughton Hacket (Pershore), 972 and 
Dom. Broctune. Edinburgh B. 1128 Broctuna. Prob. aU 
like that in Warwk., 1285 Brocton, ' badger town.' O.E. broc 
is ' badger,' broc is ' brook.' Duignan seems certainly wrong in 
deriving from brook, a word never used in Sc, though we have 
two Sc. Broughtons as well as Broxburn and Broxmouth. 
Broctune occurs 14 times in Dom. Yorks, and represents several 
Broughtons. Of course Broc may be a man's name, now 
Brock. However, Broughton (Eccleshall) is Dom. Hereborge- 
stone, plainly a contraction fr. ^ Hereburh's (gen. -burge's) 
town.' Cf. K.C.D. 710 and 1298 Hereburgebyrig. 

Brown Willy (Camelford) . Said to be Corn, bron geled, ' con- 
spicuous hill.' Cf. Brongwyn. Perh. WiUie is for Corn, gelli 
or celli, ' a grove.' Yet another guess is ' hill of shackles,' 
W. huel or hual. Names in Brown — like Brownshill (Stroud, 
Glouc), and Brownsover (Rugby), pron. Brownsor; see -over) 
— will all come fr. a man Brun. Cf. Brinsford. 

Broxted (Bunmow) and Broxstowe (Notts). No. B. Dom. 
Brocholvestou, Brochelestou, 1457 Brocholwestouwa, also 
Broweston. Both prob. ' place (Stead and Stow both mean 
that) of Brocwulf.' Cf. Brocklbsby. 

Broyle, Forest of the (W. Sussex). 1399 laBroile. O.Fr. bruill, 
broil ; Mod. Fr. breuil, ' an enclosed piece of brushwood or matted 


Brtte R. (Somerset). ? Cognate with W. bru, 'womb, belly"; as 
likely fr. a similar root to G. bruith, ' to boil/ Cf. Bruar (Sc). 
For old forms see Bruton. 

Bruen Stapleford (Tarvin, Cheshire). Prob. Dom. Brunhala, or 
' Brun's nook/ or ' hall/ See -hall. But said to be called after 
the Le Brun family, settled here in 1230. There is a ' Brunhelle ' 
in Dom. Bucks. 

Brundall (Norfolk). Dom. Brundala, 1460 Brundehale. 
? ' Brand's ' or ' Brond's nook.' See -hall. But cf. Dom. 
Cheshire, Brunford, prob. 'ford over the bourne or burn,' 
and Brundala may be ' dale with the bourne ' — O.N. brunn-r 
dal-r. Horsfall Turner seems to identify all the numerous 
Brxhsttons or Brunetonas in Dom. Yorks with Bromptons. 
But one Brunton (Yorks) is 1166-67 Pi^e Birunton, 'town of 
Birun ' oi' Byron.' The Buruns, or Biruns, held lands in Notts, 
Derby, and Lanes as early as Dom. 

Brtjton (Somerset). Dom. Breuutona, 1471 Brewton. 'Town 
on the R. Brue.' 

Bryncoch (Neath). W. = ' red hill.' W. bryn, O.G. brun. Com. 
bron, bryn, ' a hill.' Cf. Brongwyn, and Brynmor, ' hill slope 
by the sea.' 

Bubbenhall (Kenilworth). Dom. Bubenhalle. 'Hall of Buba' 
or ' Bubba.' See -hall. 

Buckerell (Honiton). Not in Dom. 1166-67 Pipe Bucherel. 
More old forms needed, Perh. ' nook of Bucard,' one in Onom. 
The -el could be fr. hale or -hall, q.v. 

Buckingham. 915 O.E. Chron. Buccingaham, 1154-61 chart. 
Buchingham, 1297 Bukingham. ' Home of the Buccings.' 
Patronymic, fr. Bucca or Bucco, both in Onom. Cf. 1179-80 Pipe 
Parva et Magna Bukesbi (Yorks). 

BucKLAND (9 in P.O.). Faringdon B. B.C.S. iii. 205 Boc land, 
1292 Bokeland. Devon B. Dom. Bochelanda. Betchworth B. 
Dom. Bochelant; also Dom. Glostr. and Bucks, Bocheland. 
O.E. boc-land, ' book land,' land granted by a ' book ' or written 
charter to a private owner. Cf. Bockhampton. 

BucKLEBURY (Reading). Dom. Borgedeberie, 1316 Burghldeburg, 
' burgh of Burghild'; perh. daughter of Cenwulf, King of Mercia, 
796-819. The old Icknield St., between Saintsbury and New- 
comb, and also N. of Bidford, is called now Buckle Street, 
709 chart. Buggildstret, 860 ib. Buggan stret, ' road of Burg- 

Bucknell (Oxford and Salop). Ox. B. Do7n. Buchehelle, 1149 
Buckenhull (=hill), 1216-1307 Bikehell, Buckehull. Sal. B, 
Dom. Buche -hale, -halle. O.E. Buccan hale, ' nook, corner of 
Bucca ' — i.e., the He -goat. Cf. Buckingham. Bucknall cum 


Bagnall (Staffs) is not 949 chart. Badecanwell, as Birch says, 
but Dom. Buchenhole, a. 1300 Bukenhale, Bokenhowe, a. 1400 
Buchenhole, and so the same as above. Only here the ending 
varies between -hale (see -hall) and -hole, softened into -howe. 
O.E. hoi, holh, ' a hollow/ 

BuDE HAVEiiT (N. Cornwall). Not Budecaleeh (see Butleigh). 
Prob. same root as W. bwth, ' a hut/ G. both, ' a house '; Eng. 
booth, first found c. 1200 as bode. 

Btjdleigh Salterton (Devonsh.). Dom. Bodehe, ^ Boda'B lea* 
or ' meadow/ See -leigh. Cf., too, 693 Grant Budinhaam, prob. 
in Essex, Budbrook (Warwick), Dom. Budebroc, and Dom 
Essex, Budcerca. Btjdby (Notts), Dom. Butebi, and 1166-67 
Pipe Butebroc (Essex) are fr. a man Butti, a N. name. 

BuDOCK (Falmouth). Sic 1536. Prob. a Keltic dimin. =' little 
hut.' Cf. BuDE. 

BuGSWORTH (Stockport). ' Bugga's farm.' Bugga is said to be a 
pet contraction of St. Eadburga. Of. Bugthorp (E, Riding), 
Dom. Bughetorp, 1166-67 Pipe Buit-, Buttorp, also Bugbrooke 
(Weedon). See -thorpe and -worth. 

BuiLTH (Llandrindod) . a. 1000 Buelt, c. 1100 Ir. Ninnius Boguelt, 
a. 1196 Gir. Camb. Bueld, a. 1600 ByeUt. In W. Llanfair Ym 
Muallt. W. buw-allt, ' steep place, chff (L. altus, ' high ') of 
the cattle.' The Nennius form will be fr. W. gallt= allt. Buelt 
was that part of Powys between Wye and Severn. Of. BuHiD- 
WAS (O.W. gwas, ' a servant '), Abbey, Wroxeter. This abbey 
dates fr. 1135. 

BuLEXNGTON (Nuucatou). Dom. Bochintone, 1232 Bulkintone. 
Doubtful ; but prob. ' town of Bulca.' Cf. B.C.S. 225 Bulcan pyt. 

BtTLL Gap (Derbysh.), Thought to be a tautology. Bull= W. 
bwlch (G. bealach), ' a gap, a pass, a broken cut.' Gap is an 
O.N. word, not recorded in Eng. till c. 1380, which makes the 
idea of a tautology decidedly doubtftd. Bull How (Westmld.) 
is thought to be fr. a Norseman, Bol—i.e., 'The Bull'; O.N. 
bole, boli. How is ' mound, hill.' See -how. 

BuLLiNGDON (Oxford and Hants). Ox. B. ? c. 1097 Flor. Wore. 
ann. 1053 Bulendun, 1216-1307 Bulen, -Buhngden, Bolinden. 
Han. B. ? Dom. Bolende. ' HiU of Bula.' Cf 1233 Close 
E. Buleworthy (Devon) and Bulley (Glostrsh.), Dom. Bule- 
leye. See -ing and -worthy. 

Btjlmer (York and Suffk.). See Bomere. 

Bungay (Suffk.). Not in Dom. 1460 Bowunggey. Prob. Skeat 
is right in deriving fr. Icel. bunga, ' a round hill, a bing,' and 
ey, ' island, peninsula.' The site supports this. Certainly it 
is not Fr. bon gue, ' good ford.' 1460 might suggest derivation 
fr. some unknown man, perh. a nasaHzed form of Buga. Of. 
Dom. Sussex, Bongetune. See -ay. 


BuNHiLL (London). Old Bonhill. Doubtful. Cf. Bonchubch, 
- BoNSALL, and BowiraiLL. 

BuKNY (Nottingham). Dom. Bonei, 1228 Close R. Boneya, 1284 
Boneye. Might be O.N. ftdw-ey, ' prayer isle.' • Cf. next. But 
perh. fr. O.E. bune, ' a reed, the stem of the cow-parsnip' ; it 
is only once given with an o, in 1388. See bun sb^. However, 
we have 1166-67 Pipe Boueneia (Oxon), which must be ' isle 
of Bofa,' gen. -an, a fairly common name. See -ey. 

Btjnwell (Norfolk). Not in Dom. 1444 Bonewell, 1477 Bonwell. 
' Prayer-weir ; O.E. ben, O.N. bon, 'a prayer'; in Eng. 2-7 
bone, 3-4 bon. Cf. Bonchurch and above. 

BuBBAGE (Buxton, Hinckley, and Marlboro'). Hin. B. Dom. 
Burbece (also in Dom. Sussex). Mar. B. 961 chart. Burhbece; 
O.E. for 'burgh, castle on the beck' or 'brook'; Dom. Bur- 
betce. The more regular form would be Burbeck, still a surname ; 
but Oxf. Diet, gives beck as a name found only in those parts of 
England once in Danish or Norse occupation. See -bach, -beck. 

BxJBBUBY Hill (Swindon). O.E. Chron. ann. 556 Beranburh or 
-byrig (see Baebuby Hill), which is perh. meant. May be fr. 
a man, Beorga or Berga, or Boera. But Bxjbcote (Bromsgrove) 
is Dom. Bericote, 1275 Byrcote. Prob. O.E. bere-cote, ' cot 
for storing here or barley.' Cf. Bebwick. 

BuBDEN (Durham), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Byrdene, 1197 Bireden. 
' Dean, (woody) valley,' O.E. denu, ' with the house,' O.E. 
bur, the mod. Eng. bower, and Sc. byre. 

BuBEOBD (Oxford). O.E. Chron. ann. 752 Beor-, Beorgford; chart. 
Bergford; c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Bereford, 1231 Bureford. O.E. 
burg, burh, O.N. borg, 'a shelter-place, fort, burgh'; fr. O.E. 
beorgan, ' to protect.' See -burgh. 

BuBGH (Lincoln, Westmld., etc.). Lin. B. Dom. Burg. West B. 
c. 1175 Fantosme Burc, c. 1180 Bened. Peterb. Burgus. ' Castle, 
fortified dwelling.' , See above. Cf. Dom. Surrey Berge, 
? ' the Borough '; and ib. Essex, Burghstede. 

BuBGH Castle (Gt. Yarmouth). Bede Cnobheresburg id est, 
' Cnobher's Town.' See Bitbfobd. 

Btjbghclebe (N. Hants). B.C.8. 674 Clere, and Dom. often Clere. 
These may represent this place, or Highclere or Kingsclere near 
by. The Eng. adj. clear is fr. Fr., and is not found till 1297. 
This must be W. clegr, clegyr, ' a rock.' 

Bubgh-on-Sands (CarUsle). c. 1175 Burc; 1356 Scalacronica 
Burch sure le Sabloun (Fr. sablon, ' sand '). Now pron. BrufE. 
Thought to be Sim. Dur. ann. 792 Aynburg. Cf. Aintbee. 
Brough (Yorks) is Dom. Burg. 

BuBLEY (Leeds, Oakham, Hereford, Ringwood). Le. B. Dom. 
Burghelai. He. B. Dom. Burlei. 'Meadow with the burgh or 
castle.' See above and -ley. 


BuRLiNGHAM (Norwich). Dom. B'lingaha, 1452 Byrhyngham, 1454 
Suth birlyngham. ' Home of the jBirZmgrs/ SeeBiBLiNGand-ham. 

BuRMiNGTON (Shipston-on-Stour) . Dom. Burdintone, 1413 Bur- 
mynton. Doubtful. Duignan thinks ' Burhman's town.' A 
burh- or burgman was one who lived in a burgh or town. 

BuRNHAM (Chiltern). Sic c. 1018 chart., Dom. Burne-, Berneha. 
Prob. O.E. burna-hdm, ' house, home beside the spring, well/ 
or ' stream.' See -bourne. 

BuRNTWOOD (Lichfield), a. 1600 Brend-, Brandwood. Brand, 
brent, etc., are M.E. pa. tense of burn. Cf. Brentwood and 
Barnhurst. In 1262, says Duignan, a Forest jury find ' a 
certain heath was burnt by the vills of Hammerwich (Burnt- 
wood's parish), to the injury of the King's game.' 

BuRRAGB Town (Plumstead). 1355 'Bartholomew de Burghest,' 
1370 Burwash; also Burrish, Borage. The first syll. is prob. 
O.E. burh, 'fort, burgh'; but the ending is quite uncertain. 
Earlier forms are needed. 

BuRRiNGHAM (Doucastcr) and Burrington (Bristol and Chum- 
leigh). Old forms needed. Chu. B. Dom. Buretone. Done. 
B. (not in Dom.) might be fr. Ralph de Burun (now Byron), 
who had lands in Notts in Dom. In Onom. we also find the 
names Burwine or Beornwine, and Burro, which are all possible 
origins; so is Burga, gen. -an. See -ham and -ton. 

BuRROUQH (Melton Mow.). Dom. Burgo. Prob. burgh-hoe, or 
' castle hill.' See -burgh and Hoe. Burrow (N. Lanes) is 
Dom. Borch= Barrow. 

BuRRY Port (Carmthn.). Possibly the Eng. burgh or -bury, q.v. 
But it might easily be W. bur gwy, ' wild, frothy water ' ; whilst 
W. bur is var. of bar, ' top, summit.' Indeed, it is close to 
Penbre, ' head of the hill.' 

BuRSCOFGH (Ormskirk). Sic. c. 1200, but 1189-96 Burscogh, 1292 
Burskew, 1306 Burscow. ' Wood of the burh ' or ' fort ' ; O.N. 
shog-r, Dan. sJcov, ' a wood.' See Shaw. For ending -scough 
cf. Swinscoe (Ashbourne), a. 1300 Swyneskow, -eschoch. See 

BuRSLEM. Dom. BarcardesHm (scribe's error), a. 1300 Bur-, Bore- 
wardeslyme, a. 1400 Tunstall R. Borewaslym. O.E. Burh- 
weardes hlimme, 'Burward's stream.' Cf. Bxjrwardsley and 

BuRSTALL (Ipswich). Cf. 1157 Pipe Burchestala (? Beds.). ' Place 
of the burgh ' or ' castle '; O.E. steall, steel, ' place, stall.' See 
-bury. BuRSTON (Diss), Dom. Burstuna, has presumably a 
similar origin. Or it may be fr. a man, Burh or Burg. 

BuRSTON (Stone and Diss). St. B. a. 1200 Burweston, a. 1300 Bur- 
ceston, Buregeston, Bureweston, a. 1400 Bureston. Dom. h 


Burouestone, almost certainly this place, though in the wrong 
Hundred. It must mean ' town of Burga,' one in Onom. ; or 
Burege-, Burwe-, may be a contraction of Burgweard, or some 
other of the many names in Burg-. Old forms needed for the 
Diss name. 

BuRSTWicK (Hull). Dom. Brostewic, Brocstewic. 'Burst or 
broken dwelling." See Beistnall and -wick. 

Burton (23 in P.G.) Warwk. B. Dom. Bortone, Salop. B. Dom. 
Burtune. Pembroke B. c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Bertune. There 
are 29 instances in Dom. Yorks, all Burtone, or -tun. Also 
Btjrton-on-Trent. c. 1180 Bened. Peterb. Burtona; monas- 
tery founded here, 1004. They are all O.E. burh-tun, 
' fortified dwelUng-place." Cf. Bo'ness (Sc.) and Btjrgh. 
Burton Agnes (Yorks) is 1281 Close E. Anneys-burton. 
However, Burton, Bamboro', is originally Bumulfeston. 

BuRWARDSLEY (Chester) . 1280 Close R. Borewardesleye, ' Meadow 
of Burhweard.' Cf. Bueslem and Burwarton (Bridgnorth); 
and see -ley. 

BuRWELL (Cambridge). Dom. Burewelle, 1346 Burgewelle, 1521 
Bury Wells Berwill. Prob. 'burgh well'; with form 1521 
cf. Bertune, old form of Burton. It prob. stands where K. 
Stephen afterwards built a castle; burge is gen. of O.E. burh. 

Bury, also Bury St. Edmunds. 1066 O.E. Chron. Byrtune 
(= Burton). Dom. ' In Beccles villa abbatis sanctiEdmundi,' 
also, ' burgo ht abb. sci edmundi '; 1450 Bury Seynt Edmond, 
1480 Bury Wills Bury. Bury is O.E. burh, ' castle, burgh.' 
St. Edmund is Edmund the Martyr, K. of the East Angles, slain 
at Hoxne by the Danes in 870. Cf. Brougham. 

BuscoT (Lechlade). Dom. Boroardescote, c. 1540 Burwa,rdscott. 
' Cot, cottage of Burgweard.' 

BusHBURY (Wolverhmptn) . 994 Biscopesbry, Dom. Biscopesberie, 
(Warwk.), c. 1300 Bishbiri, Bischbury, ' Bishop's burgh,' a 
curious corruption. It is still pron. Bishbiry. See -bury. 

BusHEY (Middlesex). Dom. Bissei. ' Byssa's isle ' or ' peninsula.' 
Both Byssa and Bisi are found in Onom. See -ey. 

BuTCOMBE (Wrington, Somerset). Not in Dom. 1298 Buten- 
cumbe, which is O.E. for ' without the valley.' O.E. butan, 
M.E. buten, bute, ' without.' Cf. Binbrook. No But{t)a in 
Onom. See -combe. 

BuTLEiGH (Glastonbury), c. 725 chart, and c. 1130 Wm. Malmes. 
Budecalech, 801 Bodecanleighe, Dom. Bodech-, -uchelie, Exon. 
Dom. Bodecaleia. ' Bodeca'a lea or meadow.' See -leigh. 

BuTLEY (Tunstall, Suffk.). Dom. Butelea. This may be ' outside 
the meadow.' Cf. Butelege, Dom. Cheshire, and Butcombe. 


BuTTERBY (Durham). Butterknowlb (Co. Durham, O.E. cnoll- 
' hill-top, hillock, knoll,' 7-9 knowle), Buttermere (Cocker, 
mouth), BuTTERSHAW (Bradford). We have grouped the 
names in Butter- in two sets, and give first those which almost 
certainly have nothing to do with butter sb., but come fr. some 
Danish or N. settler. Butter or Buthar {Onom. gives only one 
Buterus); he may even have been sometimes a Saxon, as we 
have already in 931 chart and in Dom. a Butermere (Wilts). 
Or some of these names, if late, may come fr. M.E. bitoure, O.Fr. 
butor, the bird bittern, in Sc. butter, as in Butterdean (E. 
Berwicksh.). Buttergask (Dunkeld), however, is G. bothar 
gasc, ' causeway-hollow ' ; whilst Butterstone near by is plainly 
fr. a man. Butterton, there are 2 in StafEs, stands in de- 
batable ground. It is a. 1200 Buter-, Boterton, Buterdon, 
1200 Buter-, Boterdon, 1223 Butterdon, Buterden, a. 1300 
Botredon, a. 1400 Butterton. The endings -don and -ton often 
interchange, but it is more than likely that -don is the original 
here. If so, a hill would jnuch more prob. be caUed after a man 
than after butter. See -by and -shaw. 

BuTTERLEiGH (Cullompton), Butterley (Derby), Butterwick 
(Boston, Penrith, etc.) ; also Butterton. See previous article. 
Boston B. Dom. Butruic, 1216 Butterwyck, 1274 Boterwyke, 
c. 1275 Boturwyk, 1410 Boterwick. Dom. Yorks Butruic, 1183 
Buterwyk (Co. Durham). There is also a Bijtterworth 
(Rochdale). These aU prob., though not certainly, mean 
' meadow, dweUing, farm or village where they made butter.' 
O.E. butere, 3 buttere, 4 boter{e), botter, 5 buttyr, botyr, 4 -butter. 
See -ley, -ton, -wick, -worth, and above. With Butterwick 
c/. Chiswick, and with Butterworth c/. Cheswardine. 

Buttington Tump (Montgomery). 893 O.E. Chron. Buttingtiin. 
c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Budingtun. Cf. K.G.D. 746 Bottanige. Prob. 
patronymic ; ' town of the descendants of Botta or Butta.' 
Tump is W. turnip, ' mound, barrow.' 

BuxHALL (Stowmarket) . Dom. Bukessalla, a. 1200 chart. Bucysheal. 
Cf. Dgm. Buchehalle (Salop) and Bucknall. ' Buca's nook.' 
See -hall. 

Buxton. 1572 Buckstones. Enc. Brit, says prob. Dom. Bee- 
tune (3 times); if so. Bee- must be error for Buc-. The 
Enc. also gives as old forms Buestanes (where again Bue- 
must be error for Buc-) and Bawdestanes, a form which 
cannot represent Buxton. Prob. ' stone of the buck,' O.E. 
buc, bucca; and see -ton for -stone. But more evidence is 

BwLCH (Breconsh.). W. for 'pass, gap,' G. bealach or Balloch. 
BwLCH GwYNT (Pembk.) is ' pass of the winds,' in old charter 
Windy yete, where yet or gate also means ' pass, gap.' Bwlch-y- 
ITRIDD (Newtown) is ' gap in the forest.' 


Byfleet (Weybridge). 727 chart. Byflete, O.E. for ' by the river/ 
Cf. Beeford and Fleet. 

Byland with Wass (Coxwold, Yorks) . Dom. Begeland, 1156 Pi-pe 
Beland, 1199 Beilande, 122^ Close R. Begheland, 1242 ibid. Bey- 
land. ' Land of Bcega'; cf. Bayton, etc. Wass is O.E. wdse, 
' a marsh, a fen.' Cf. Albewas. 

Byley-cxjm-Yatehguse (Middlewich). Old Biveley. Doubtful. 
Perh. ' meadow of Beoba,' 3 in Onom. Cf. Bevington, Alcester, 
1316 Byvinton, a. 1400 Beovynton. Bive- suggests connexion 
with O.E. bifian, O.N. bifa, M.E. bive, 'to shake, to tremble.' 
See -ley. Yate- is Gate-. Cf. Yetholm (Sc). 

Bytham Parva (Lines). Dom. Bitham, 1228 Close R. Bi-, By- 
hamel, 1292 Parva By ham. Prob. ' by the home/ O.E. 
7idm. Cf. Byfleet, Beeford, etc.; also Attewell = ' at the 
well.' Parva is L. for ' little.' 

^ Cad AIR Idris (mtn., Central Wales) . W. = * seat of Idris/ a Welsh 
hero and a great astronomer. W. cader, cadair, is ' a chair/ 
but in O.W. and Com. 'a cradle, a framework.' The c has 
become g in Llyn-y-Gader hard by. 

Cadbury (Crediton and Wincanton). Cr. C. Dom. Cadebirie, c. 
1540 Cadburi. Win. C. Dom. Cadeberie. ' Fort, burgh of Cada, 
Cadda, or Ceadda'; several so named in Onom. Cf. Dom. 
Cadenho V (Essex) and Cadnam (Hants) . See -bury. 

Cadney (Brigg). O.E. Chron. 675 Cedenac (late MS.), ' Isle of 
Ceadda/ gen. -an, or ' Chad.' See -ey. 

Cae Athraw (Caernarvon) . W. = ' Field of the master or doctor ' ; 
cae, ' a field, an enclosure.' Cf. Caeglas, and the curious Cae 
Llwyn Grydd, Carnarvon, which is ' field of the bush of the 
red wall,' y gaer rudd, referring to an old castle now in ruins. 

Caerau (Bridgend, S. Wales). PI. of W. caer, ' fort, castle '; O.W. 
also gaer, Bret, ker, G. cathair, ' a fort.' Cf. Caerleon and 

Caergwrle (Flintsh.). An old castle here, and perh. once a Rom. 
station. Said to be W. caer gwr lie, ' castle, fort at the boundary 
place ' ; cwr or gwr, ' a boundary ' ; but the ending is decidedly 

Caerleon-on-Usk, pron. Karleen; in W. Caer Llion ar Wysc. c. 
800 Nennius, ' city of Leogis ' or ' Cair Lion,' Dom. Carleion' 
Castell; prob. c. 1145 Geoffr. Mon. Civitas Legionum, 1167-68 
Pipe Carliun, c. 1205 Layamon Kair-luine and Kair Uske, in 
edit. c. 1275 Ceyr-lyon, 1241 Karlyim. From early times 
thought to be W. caer lleon, ' camp of the (Roman) legions '; 
and the second legion, the Augusta, is said to have been stationed 
here. But the true ' city of legions ' is Chester, which Nennius 


calls Cair ligion. So this name is 'fort on the streams'; W. 
lli, pi. llion, ' a flood, a stream/ There is also a Caer Leon, St. 
David's. The present surname Carlyon is pron. Kar-lion. Cf. 
Caerdon (Sc). 

Caek-, Caemarthen". In W. Caerfyrddin, c. 150 Ptolemy MaptSvvov, 
c. 800 Nennius Cair merdin, 1158-59 Pipe Cairmerdin, c. 1188 
Girald Kairmardhin, -merdhin, c. 1205 Layam. Kair MerSin, 
1240 Close R. Calverdin, 1242 ih. Kaermerdin, c. 1330 R. 
Brunne Kermerdyn. In W. II has the soft ih sound; hence the 
idea which arose early that the name is ' fort of Merlin,' the 
famous wizard at K. Arthur's Court. The L. form Merlinus 
is found as early as 1148; the Mod. W. is Myrddin. The orig. 
name of Merhn's Bridge, S. of Haverford W., was Mawdlen's 
or Magdalen's Br. It is doubtful what this name meant in 
Ptol.'s day; perh. ' castle by the sea.' The dun is certainly = 
caer, and mari may be Kelt, for ' sea '; in W. mor, but in G. 
muir', gen. mara. 

Caernarvon or Car-. Also in Cumberland, Beckermet, with the 
same meaning. In W. Caernarfon, a. 1196 Gir. Camb. Kair-, 
Kaerarvon; in his Itin. Camb. ' Dicitur Arvon, provinicia contra 
Mon ' (or, Monia insula) ; 1307 Carnaruan, a. 1340 Kaernervan, 
Llywelyn's Survey Caer yn Arvon. W. caer 'n arfon, 'fort 
opposite Mona ' or ' Anglesea ' ; but in the Cumbld. case the 
Mona is the I. of Man. 

Caer Rhun (Camar vonsh.) . W. = ' fort of Rhun,' son of Maelgwyn 
Gwynedd, a prince of the 6th cny. 

Caerwent (Chepstow), c. 380 Ant. Itin. Venta Silurum. The 
-went may be W. gwant, ' a butt, a mark.' 

Caistor (Norwich and Lincoln). Dom., both, Castre, also Castra. 
Li. C. c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Castrum apud Lindeseiam. The root 
is, of course, L. castra, neut. pi., ' a camp.' But this in Bede is 
always caestir, and in Mercian cester. Mr. Anscombe has shown 
this impUes origin rather fr. late L. castra, fem. sing; the 
Wessex ceaster, the Merc, cester, and Northumb. caestir all 
coming normally from the inflected form castrae through an 
unrecorded caestri. 

Calbournb (I. of Wight). Pron. Kaalboum. 826 chart. Cawle- 
burne, Dom. Cauborne. O.E. for ' burn, brook of the fish- 
baskets or creels'; O.E. cawel, cawl, 'a basket'; still used in 
Cornwall as cawell or cowel. Cf. Porthcawl. See -bourne. 

Caldecott (Cambs) and Caldicot(e) (Newport, Mon., and 2 in 
Wrwksh.). Dom. Cambs., Bucks, Wrwk., and Chesh., Calde- 
cote, which is O.E. for ' cold cot ' or ' dwelling.' Skeat 
says Calde- is a remnant of the dat. of O.E. cald, ceald. 
Dom. Yorks Caldecotes is now Coldcotes. Cf. Cauldoots (Sc), 
and Dom. Norfk. Caldanchota. 

CALDER R. 182 CAMBERWELL R. (Chimbld. and Lanes). Prob. O.N. kald-r, ' cool, cold/ 
Cf. CAiiDBEBGH (N. Yorks), Dom. Caldeber; see Barrow. 

Caldy (Tenby). In W. Ynys Pyr. 884 Wrmonoc Insula Pyrus. 
c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Caldei; also a. 1196 ih. Enis Pir, Insula 
Pirri. This Pir must be some man. Cf. Manorbieb. But 
Cald-ei is Norse or M.E. for ' cold island.' See -ey. There, is 
also a Caldy in Cheshire, which may be Dom. Calders, which 
may be connected with Calder. 

Calf Heath (Cannock.). 994 chart. CaKre heie, O.E. for ' Calves' 
hedge.' Caldon, (Cheadle) in the same shire, is 1004 Celfdun, 
' calf hiU.' Cf. 940 chart. Chealfa dune (Wilts.). 

Callington (Cornwall), c. 988 chart. Csellwic, Dom. Calwetone. 
Ex. Dom. Caluuitona. 'Town of ? The nearest names in 
Onom. are Caldewine and Calwinus. The charter form seems 
to mean ' dwelHng of Codl.' Callebton (Nhbld.) is 1073 
Calverdon, 1242 Cauveredon. See Calverton and -don. 

Calltngwood (Burton-on-T.) is an unique word. c. 1280 Calynge- 
wode, Chalengwode ; in L. deeds Boscum calumpniatum ; a. 
1600 Challengewood. O.Fr. calenge, chalenge, -onge (fr. L. 
calumnia), 'a reproach, an accusation, then a challenge.' In 
Eng. a. 1300 Cursor Mundi, ' chalange.' Cf. Threepwood (Sc.) 
and in Northumbld. and Cheshire, fr. threap, 'a (scolding) contest.' 

Callow Hill (Blithfield, Staffs, Chippenham, etc.). Bli. C. a 1300 
Calu-, KalewhuU, a. 1400 KalughuUe. O.E. calu, calwe, L. 
calvus, ' bald, bare.' Cf. Caludon, Coventry, 1327 Calwedone. 
There are also 3 places called Callow (Wirksworth, Hereford, 
and Worcestrsh. (more than one). 

Calne. c. 996 Cahia, 1387 Cahie. Doubtful. Possibly fr. W. 
calen, ' a lump, a whetstone ' ; or even calon, ' heart, centre/ 
Colne (Lanes) is the same. Cf. Caunton, 

Calsthorpe (Louth). Dom. Caletorp, 1233 Kaltorp. 'Farm, 
place of a man Calla or Ceolla,' the latter a common name. 
See -thorpe. 

Calverton (Nottingham and Stony Stratford). Dom. Notts and 
Bucks, Calvertone. ' Town, village of Ceolweard.' But Mutseh- 
mann prefers O.E. calfre tun, 'calves' town.' See -ton. But 

'' Calverley (W. Riding) is Dom. Caverleia, -lei ; it may, how- 
ever, be fr. the same name ; or else f r. what ? Cf. Callerton, 
and 1160-61 Pipe Nhbld. Calualea. See -ley. 

Camallan R. (Bodmin). Corn, for ' crooked Allan '; the Allan 
and Camallan unite to form the Hayle. Cam is ' crooked ' in 
W., Com., and G. ; in W. the fem. is gam. But R. Cam is quite 
different. See Cambridge. 

Camberwell (London). Dom. Ca'brewelle; thereafter 6 is rare till 
17th cny ; 1 199 Camwell ; Camerwell, Cambwell, and Kamwell are 

CAM R. 183 CAMEL R. 

also found. Doubtful ; camber, ' slightly arched/ is impossible. 
See Oxf. Diet. W. cam her, 'crooked pike or spit/ might be 
possible, if Kelt, names were not so very rare hereabouts. 
Prob. it is ' well of Coenbeorht,' a common O.E. name; and this 
is phonetically quite admissible. Cf. Alberbuey fr. Eald- 

Cam R. and Cambridge. Possibly c. ^SO Ant. Itin. Ca,mboxico; 

prob. 0. Kelt, camb or, 'crooked river' {cf. Cameo and Orr, 

Sc), with ic- adjectival. No doubt this Rom. name influenced 

scholars long after to fix the name as it now is — Cambridge. 

But orig. they had no connexion, c. 700 Felix Growland 

Gronta flumen, Bede Grantacastir (the mod. Grantchester is 

2| miles fr. Cambridge) ; prob. a. 810 Nennius Caer Grauth (for 

Grant), O.E. Chron. 875 Grantebrycge, 1011 ib. Granta- 

brycgscir, a. 1145 Orderic Gruntebruga, 1142 Cantebruggescir, 

a. 1153 Hist. Eli. Cantebrigia, 1150-61 Cantabrigia, 1436 Can- 

brigge, 1449 Kawmbrege, 1462 Cambryge, 1586 Camden Camus. 

Granta is the old name for the stream now called Cam. The 

two names have gradually become assimilated, Gr having orig. 

become G through Norm, mispronunciation. Granta may be 

cognate with G. grdnda, 'ugly.' Cf. Allt Grand (Sc), also 

Grantown (Sc.) ; or it may perh. be connected with W. grwnan, 

' to hum, to drone.' Cf. Grantley There is also a little 

R. Cam, trib. of Severn, Dursley (Glostr.), 1177 Camme, 1221 

Kaumne, which is Keltic cam, ' crooked ' ; and on it there is a 

Cambridge, too. 

Cambo (Morpeth). 1298 Cambhou, Camou. Cf. Cambo (Sc), 1327. 
Cambou. Keltic camb ou, ' crooked stream ' ; the ou is same 
root as in L. Awe (Sc), and in Eu (Normandy), c. 1110 Owe. 
Cf. next. 

Cambois (Blyth), pron. Kamis. 1183 Boldon Bk. Camboise, -bous, 
Camhus, Cammus; later Commes. This is not Fr., but G. 
camus, ' a bay,' as in Cambus (Sc). fr. G. cam, O.G. camb 
' crooked.' Cf. above and Aldcambus, (Cockburnspath) 1212 
Aldchambos, Aldecambus (ald=G. allt, 'bum'). 

Camborne. Sic. 1536. Prob. Corn, cam bron, ' crooked hill.' 
Transposition of r is a common phenomenon. 

Camden Town (N. London). Called, after 1791, fr. Baron Camden 
of Camden Place, Chiselhurst (Kent), where Wm. Camden, 
b. 1551, author of Britannia, resided. The name may be Keltic, 
cam din, ' crooked hill ' ; but where was the original Camden ? 
Perh. Staffs, to which W. Camden's father belonged. 

Camel R. (Cornwall, and name of village, Somerset.) and Camel- 
roRD (N. Cornwall), c. 1145 Geoffrey Hon. Cambula, c. 1205 
Layamon Camelforde. Camel is perh. Kelt, for ' crooked 
stream,' in G. cam allt. Cf. Cambo, and Gamescleuch (Sc). 
But prob. fr. a Kelt, god, C amnios, a deity found both in Gaul 


and Britain, and giving name to Camulodunum, or Colchestee. 
Keltic rivers are much associated with deities. Cambula, 
' crooked river/ suggests a quite possible origin for the much- 
disputed name Campbell. Cf. Campbeltown (Sc). With 
CameLford cf. Galford. Near the Som. C. lay Camelot, c. 
1440 Lancelot Kamalot. Here the final syll. is perh. W. Hoed, 
' a place.' It seems first mentioned c. 1170, in Chretien de 
Troyes' Chevalier de la Charrette. Cf. next. 

Cameeton (Bath). Dom. Camelerton, 'town on the R. Camelar' 
{sic in 961 chart). See Camel. The -ar is quite uncertain. 
But the first part is almost certainly the god Camulos. 

Campden (Glostr.). Dom. Campdene. 'Wooded vale with the 
battle site.'' Camp is an early loan fr. L. campus, ' a plain.' 
Cf. Eynsham Cart. ' To Campsetena gemsera.' See -den. 

Camrose (Pembksh.). 1324 Kameros. W. cam rhos, ' crooked 

Candover (Hants). Prob. 707 chart. {K.C.D. v. 40) Cendefer, 
1238 Close R. Candevre. W. cefn dwfr, ' ridge by the stream.' 
Cf. Cenarth and Condover. 

Can^wdon (hiU, S. Essex). 1240 Close R. Canewedon' (and 
Calewedon), but Dom. Carendun, which Freeman thinks must 
be an error. The name is prob. ' Canute' & hill ' or dun. It Hes 
close to the site of K. Canute's or Cnut's victory at Assandun, 

Canklow (Rotherham) and Cank Thorn (Cannock). 1595 Canck 
Thorne, Cannock Thorne. The Cank- in both cases must be 
the same, one would think, as Cannock. If so, Canklow (not 
in Dom.) is a tautology; Kelt, and Eng.= ' hiUock ' or ' mound.' 
See -low. In Midi. dial, cank means 'gabble or cackle,' as of 

Cannington (Bridgewater). Dom. Candetona. Prob. named fr. 
some man, but both his name and the present name must be 
much corrputed. There is nothing in Onom. nearer than 

Canninq Town (Plaistow). So named from the former principal 
employer of labour there. 

Cannock Chase (Staffs). Dom. Chenet, 1130 Chnoc, a. 1200 Canot, 
Chenot, Chnot, Cnot, 1238 Canoe, a. 1300 Canok, Kannock, 
a. 1500 Cank. Dom. regularly spells O.E. en as chen; and in all 
old MS. c and t are constantly confused. So this must be that 
rarity a Goidelic Eng. place-name, G. and Ir. cnoc, gen. cnuic, 
* a hill, a knoll,' so common in Sc. and Ir. names. Eng. and 
W. place-names in Knock- are very rare, perh. only Knockin. 
There are also Knock and Knucklas, but they are fr. W. cnuc 
rather than G. cnoc. There is no trace of u in all the many old 
forms of Cannock. Cf. Canklow x Qhase 'm Q.^r, chace^ 


'chasing, hunting, a hunting-ground, wild park-land/ not 
found in Eng. in this sense till 1440. Of. Chevy Chase. 

Canterbury. [In Bede iv. 5 Rochester is also called Castellum 
Cantuariorum, O.E. versn. Cantwaraburhge.] a. 810 Nennius 
Cair Ceint [also Cantguaraland] ; O.E. Ghron. 754 Cantwareburh, 
ib. 1011 Cantwaraburh ; Dom. Cantorberia, c. 1100 Anselm 
Cantuarberia, 1258 Kant'bur', c. 1330 B. Brunne Canterbirie, 
' Kent men's burgh/ wara meaning ' dweller in.' C/. Lindiswara, 
Mersewara (dweUers in Romney Marsh) and Wihtwara. See 
-bury. In Rom. days it was called Durovernum (W. dwr gwern, 
' river with the alders '). 

Canwell (Birmingham), a. 1200 Canewelle; later Cane-, Canwall, 
Kanewall, -well. The name may be ' well of St. Cain ' or 
' Keyne ' or ' Keigwin/ There was a priory and a spring 
here, the latter dedicated to St. Modan; but there is no note 
of any connexion with St. Cain. Cf. Keynsham. W. can, cain, 
' beautiful, clear,' seems impossible here. But the first syU. 
may be O.E. canne, a ' vessel for liquids, a can.' Oxf. Diet. 
gives only one quot. fr. O.E., and then nothing till c. 1375, 
'a vatir-cane.' The name must thus be left doubtful; prob. 
it is fr. can. 

Capel Curig (Bettws y coed). Chapel dedicated to Curig, son of 
IHd or Juhtta; the mother shares the dedication with her son. 
The form Capel, O.N.Fr. capele, ' chapel,' late L. cappella, orig. 
' a Little cloak or cape,' reappears in Capel St. Maby and St. 
Andrew (Suffk.). There is also a Capel (Dorking), as well as 
a Dom. Herefd. Capel. In Pembk., 1603 Owen gives Capell 
Castellan and C. Colman (Irish Bp. of Lindisfame, 661). 

CabAdoc or Caer Caradoc (Salop) . W. caer Madoc, or else Cadoc 
* fort of St. Madoc/ or ' of St. Cadoc' Either MorC must have 
been lost by aspiration. Madoc or Modoc was a disciple of St. 
David in Wales, and Hved 558-625. Cf. Kilmadock (Sc). 
Cadoc, Cadocus, or Docus, another Keltic saint, Hved some 
years in Central Scotland, and is also commemorated in Landoc 

Carden (Malpas). Old Carwarden; the personal name Carwardine 
is still found. ' Farm of Gar ' or ' Cari,' both in Onom. For 
a similar contraction cf. Hawarden, now pron. Harrden. See 

Cardew (Dalston, Cumbld.). c. 1080 CarSen. W. Caer Dewi, 
' fort of David ' ; or possibly fr. Tiw, the Northern god of war. 

Cardief. 1126 Kardi, 1158-59 Pipe Cardif, a. 1150 Kardid, Cairti, 
a. 1196 Gir. Camb. Kaer-, Kerdif, 1218, Kaerdif, 1298 Kerdife, 
dyf, c. 1450 Cayrdife. Usually said to be ' fort on R. Taef '; 
but early forms make this more than doubtful. In Mod. W. 
it is Caerdydd, pron. Kaerdaeth. This suggests ' fort of 



Didius/ general of the Romans against the Silures, the British 
tribe of this region, a.d. 50. This is confirmed by the fact that 
we now know Cardiff was a Rom. fort. The form Caer Daf 
(Taff) is found only in Leland, c. 1550, though Caer Dyv does 
occur. However, there are 2 Cardeeths in Pembroke; and 
the learned editor of Owen's Pembroke dechnes to suggest any 
etymology either for these or for the plainly cognate Cardiff. 

Cardigan, c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Ceredigion, Kerdigaun; Brut y 
Tywsy. ann. 991 Ceredigion ; 1218 Kaerdigan, 1298 Writ 
Cardygan. Said to be fr. Garedig or Ceroticus, a Welsh prince, 
to whom St. Patrick wrote, denouncing him for his cruelty in 

Caedington (Church Stretton). Dom. Cardintune. 'Town, vil- 
lage of Carda.' Cf. B.C.S. 877 Cardan hleew. 

Cardurnock (Bowness, Cumbld.). G. cathair, W. caer, ' fort,' and 
G. dornag, ' by the pebbly place ' ; a pebble being a stone easily 
held in the ' fist,' G. dom, gen. dibirn. Cf. Dornock (Annan, Sc.) . 

Carew (Pembroke), c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Kaereu, Kerreu. The 
same name is pron. Carey in Cornwall, because this is for 
W. caerau, pi. of caer, ' castle, fort,' where the au is pron. ay. 

Carham (Kelso), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Carrum, prob. O.E. loc. 'at 
the carrs ' (O.E. carr) or 'rocks.' Cf. Harlow Car, Harrogate. 
But see -ham. 

Carisbrooke (Newport, I. of Wight). 1217 Patent R. Carebroc, 
1218 Kaerbroc, 1224 Carrebroc, c. 1350 Caresbrok; but O.E. 
Chron. 530 Wihtgarsesbyrg, or -garabyrg, which means ' Wight- 
dweUers' burgh ' or ' castle.' It does look as if the Wiht had 
been dropped, and the rest transformed into Carisbrooke ; but 
this is contested by Stevenson in his Asser, and by M'Clure. 
In Dom. the name seems to be Bovecombe. There is in 1199 
chart, a ' Carsbrok ' near Launceston — i.e., ' brook of the fort.' 
Possibly the first syll. is carr sb^, or carse, O.N. Jcjarr, ' copse- 
wood ' then ' bog or fen,' and not Keltic caer, ' fort.' 

Carleton (Pontefract and Skipton) and Carlton (22 in P.G.). 
K.C.D. iv. 288 Carlatun, ib. 300 Carletun. Dom. Carlentune 
(Cambs.), Careltune, Carentune (Notts), Cerletune (Chesh.), 
Cerletone (Salop), Ceorlatona (Devon); and in Yorks, 16 times, 
Carletun. a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Carltun, Stockton, 1189 Karlatun 
(Cumbld.). O.N. harla, or O.E. ceorla tun, ' carls', churls', serfs' 
village.' Cf. Carleton (Sc). Cearl or Ceorl is also a personal 

Carlisle, c. 380 Anton. Itin. Luguvallum, Bede Lugubalia, a. 
810 Nennius Caer Ligualia, Taliessin Caer LHwelydd (so in W. 
still), 1092 O.E. Chron. (Peterb.) Carleol, c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. 
Carleol quae a populis Anglorum corrupte Luel vocatur, Sim. 
Dur. ann. 1122 Lingua Britonum Caklel quae nunc Carleol 


Anglice appellatur, 1129 Chaerleolium, a. 1145 Order. Vit. and 
Waverley Ann. Cardeol, c. 1175 Fantosme Karduil, 1330 B. 
Brunne Carlele, 1617 CarlielL W. Stokes says, Luguvallum is 
' wall of the god Lugus/ See Ltjgg. And Llewellyn, of which 
Luel or Leol is a contraction, is prob. mod. W. for Lugu-belinos. 
The same name is seen in Lugdunum or Lyons. Carlisle is, of 
course, ' castle of Leol.' 

Caemel (Holywell and 2 others, Wales). Presumably all W. caer 
moel, 'fort on the bare, round hill." T. Morgan gives none. 
1160-61 Pijpe Herefd, Cormel (o error for a) is almost certainly 
the same name. 

Garn or Corn Cavall (mtn., Builth). W. cam Cabal, ' cairn of 
Cabal,' K. Arthur's dog. 

Caenaby (Bridlington). Dom. Cherendebi. ' DwelKng oi' some 
unknown person. The nearest in Onom. seems Ceolwen, a 
widow; eo regularly becomes a, and liquid I easily turns into 
its kindred r. Another possible name is Carthegn or Carthen. 
See. -by. 

Cabnforth (N. Lancashire). Dom. Chreneford. a. 1250 Kerne- 
ford. Prob. ' ford of Crina ' or ' Grin/ names in Onom. See 
-ford, -forth. 

Carperby (N. Yorks). Dom. Chirprebi. 'Dwelling of some 
Norse man unknown. His name may perh. be represented by 
the mod. surname Capper, the liquid r having vanished; though 
Prof. Weekley does not think so. Very Hkely the orig. name is 
the common Geolheorht, which would suit phonetically. Cf. 
Carnaby. See -by. 

Carrington (Manchester and Nottingham). No. C. Dom. Caren- 
Caretune; 1179-80 Pijpe Carenton. Seems to be ' village of Car 
or Cari ' ; both forms in Onom. See -ing and -ton. 

Carshalton (Mitcham). Pron. Casehalton, Casehorton. Dom. 
Aultone, c. 1200 Crossalton; also Kresalton, Kersalton, Case 
Horton. Orig. ' old town,' O.E. aid tun, then ' Cross old 
town '; r continually gets transposed. With this case c/. Bean 
cross for Bean corse or Bean carse (Falkirk). Carse (Sc), ' low- 
lying land beside a river,' is found in Scotland c. 1200, but not 
. in Eng. till much later, if really at all. Oarsington (Wirks- 
worth) c. 1460 Karsynton, must be fr. some unrecorded man, 
Carsa, or the like. 

Carswell (Newent and Gower). Ne. C. Dom. Crasowel, 1221 
Karswelle, 1303 Cassewalle; plainly =Crasswell, Cresswell, 
'water-cress well.' Go. C. is also spelt Caswell, and is prob. 
the same. Dr. G. Henderson, however, thinks this name to be 
N., with the ending N. voll-r, ' field/ cf. Scatwell (Sc), and the 
former part presumably= Carse (Sc). In face of the evidence 
above this is doubtful. There is also Karswell (Dursley). 


Oaetee, Fell (Cheviots). Sic a. 1540. Contract, fr. G. cearta- 
chair, ' a regulator, an adjuster/ fit name for a lofty hill, fr. 
ceart, 'right, just.' Prob. also the origin of the Dhu Heartach 
lighthouse, Colonsay. See -fell. 

Cautmell (Ulverston). Sic a. 1130 Sim. Dur., 1224 Kertmel. 
Cart is prob. connected with G. caraid, ' a pair ■* (c/. Cart, Sc.) — 
because Cartmell Fell stands in the triangle between the two 
streams which unite to form the R. Winster, just as the Black 
and White Cart unite to form the Cart in Renfrewshire. The 
-meU is Norse for a ' sand dune ' or ' sandbank.' See Mellis. 
If Cart- be Norse too — O.N. kart-r, ' a cart ' — it may refer to 
a sandbank found firm enough for a cart to cross. However, 
Cartworth (W. Riding) is Dom. Cheterwrde, or * farm of 
Kater.' Cf. Kettering, and see -worth. 

Gary R. (Somersetsh.). 725 chart. Kari, c. 1160 Carith. Prob. 
W. earth, ' scouring ' river, the root which Dr. M" Bain suggested 
for R. Cart (Sc.) . Of. Castle Gary. 

Cassop Colliery (Coxhoe, Durham). 1183 Gazehope, ' enclosed 
vaUey of Casa'; one in Onom. See -hope. But Dom. Salop 
Cascop will be ^Casa'a cop '; O.E. cop, copp, 'top, summit, crest 
of a hill.' 1160-61 Pipe Devon has a Cassewell, ^Casa's weU.' 

Casterton (Kirby Lonsdale), c. 380 Antin. Itin. Galacum; pos- 
sibly Dom. here and Chesh. Castretone. Hybrid fr. L. castra, 
O.E. ceaster, ' a camp.' But Casterne (Ham) is 1004 chart. 
Coetes thyrne, ' Coet'a thorn.' 

Castle Bromwich (Birmingham). Dom. Bromwic (under 
Northants), a. 1200 Bramewic, Bromwich, a. 1400 Castel Brom 
wych; O.E. brom wic, ' dwelling among the broom.' See -wich. 
Castle (sic) is found in Eng. as early as 1137 O.E. Chron. (See 
also p. 61. 

Castle Carey (Somerset), c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Castellum de Cari, 
c. 1160 Gest. Steph. 'Duo castella, Carith videHcet et Harpebren.' 
The personal names Carey and Carew, prob. derived from this, 
are interchangeable. In Cornwall Carew is pron. Carey; and 
we find in Berks a. 1300 a Nicholas Carew or Cary. See Gary. 
The Sc. Castlecary is a tautology. 

Castle Carrock (CarHsle). 1222 Patent R. Castel Kayroc. Prob. 
= Carrick (Sc). G. and Ir. carraig, ' a rock, a sea-cliff.' 
Carrick (Ayrsh.) is in Taliessin Carrawg. 

Castleford (Yorks). Prob. 948 O.E. Chron. Ceasterforda. O.E. 
ceaster, L. castra, ' a camp.' Cf. Castley (Yorks), Dom. Castelai. 

Castle Rising (King's Lynn). 1224 Patent E. Castra de Risingis, 
1450 Rysyng. Rising sb. is not found in Oxf. Diet., with the 
meaning of ' rising ground, hill-slope, hill/ until 1565. So prob. 
this is a patronymic, like Barking or Reading, ' place of the 
descendants of Rhys,' a well-known British name. Cf. Risby. 
Its Eng. form is Rice. 


Castleton (I. of Man). Manx Balla Chastal, which means the 
same thing. Balla is G. and Ir. bail, baile, ' farm, village/ 

Caston (Attleborough) . Dom. Cas-, Kastetuna. Difficult to say 
what Caste- represents, unless it be that the liquid r has dropped, 
and it is -caster, q.v. This would be abnormal. No likely name 
in Onom. 

Castor (Peterborough). Dom. Castre, 1154-61 chart. Castra. See 

Caterham (Croydon), c. 1210 Katerham, 'Home of Kater.' Still 
found as a surname. Cf. Kettering, and Catterton (Yorks), 
Dom. Cadretone. 

Catshtll (Bromsgro ve and Walsall) . Br. C. 1275 CatteshuU, a. 1400 
Gates-, KateshuU. Wa. G. a. 1300 Cutteslowe (see -low), a. 1500 
Gatteslowe alias Gattshill; also c. 1220 Elect. Hugo. Kateshill 
(Bury St. Edmunds) . ' Hill of Catt, Gatta, or Ceatta.' Cf. Cat- 
Eoss (Yorks), Dom. Catefoss, ' ditch of Gatta/ ' Cattestone,' sic 
c. 1200 in Norfolk, Catton and Chatham. 

CA^TAii, Magna and Little (Yorks). Dom. Cathale, Cathala, Catale. 
' Nook of Gatt.' See above and -hall. Magna is L. for ' Great.' 

Gatterick (Yorks). c. 150 Ptolemy Katouraktonion, c. 380 Anton. 
Itin. Cataractone, Bede Cataracta, L. for ' cataract, waterfall ' — 
' juxta Gataractam usque hodie cognominatur ' ; a. 900 O.E. 
vers. Bede Cetrehta, Dom. Catrice, 1241 Gheteriz. 

Catton (Allendale and E. Riding). E.R.C. Dom. Cattune, Caton, 
1179-80 Pipe Catton. ' Village of Ceatta or Gatta.' Cf. Chat- 
ham, and 1238 Close R. Catteshal' (Suffolk). 

Gatjnton (Newark). Dom. Calnestone, Carleton (an error), 1166-7 
Pipe Calnodeston, 1241 Close R. Calnedon. Clearly, 'town of 
Geolnoth/ a fairly common name. Caitston (Rugby) is Dom. 
Calvestone, fr. a man Ceolf. See -don and -ton. 

Cavendish (Suffk.). Dom. Kauanadisc, Kavanadis. O.'E.Ceofan, 
Gafan edisc, ' park, enclosure of Gafa.' Cf. Standish. 

Caversham (Reading). 1219 Gaveresham, 1238 Gavresham. From 
some unknown man. Gavbrswall (Stoke) is Dom. Cavreswelle, 
a. 1200 Chavereswelle, which seems clearly ' Ccefer's well.' In 
O.E. we have cafer-tun, ' a hall, court, or mansion '; but this is 
not likely to be the origin. Gf. Caversfield (Oxon). Dom. 
Yorks, Caverlei is now GaIjVERLEy. See -ham. 

Cawood (Lanes and Selby). La. C. 1230 Cawude, 1346 Kawode. 
Sel. C. not in Dom. (but Dom. Notts Cauorde, ? ' Cawe's farm '). 
Doubtful; but prob. either, as in Cawthorne, 'cold, cauld 
wood,' or as in Gawton, Ceolf's. wood.' Gf. 1233 Close R. 
'Calwodeleg' (Devon). 

Cawsand (Plymouth), more correctly Cosdon. Might be 'hill 
(O.E. dun) of Gasa,' the only prob. name in Onom. 


Cawston (Norwich) and Caxton (Cambridge). No.C. Dom. 
Cauestuna, Caustituna, Caustuna, 1167-68 Caustona. Cam. C. 
Dom. Caustone, 1238 Close R. Kaxston, 1245 Caxton. The great 
printer's name is often spelt Canston. Difficult. Skeat con- 
jectures, ' village of Cah,' gen. Cages. Cf. K.C.D. ii. 137 Cahing 
ls9g. But the Nor. name at least surely comes fr. Caua (3), 
Cawe, or Cawo, all names in Onom. See -ton. 

Cawthornb (Barnsley). Dom. Caltorne, 1202 Kale-, Kaldthorn. 
Prob. 'cold thorn tree'; O.E. cald, 'cold'; col, 'cool.' But 
Cawton (Yorks) is Dom. Caluetun, which is prob. ' town of 
Ceolf.' Cf. K.G.D. 816, Ceolfestun. It may be fr. O.E. cealf, 
' a caK.' 

Cefn Coch (Newtown). W.= ' red ridge.' Cefn Llys (Radnor). 
1246 Patent R. Keventhles (see p. 82). W.= ' ridge with the 
hall or mansion.* 

Ceiriog R. (Oswestry). W.= ' abounding in trout.' 

Cemais, incorrectly Cemmaes (N. Pembroke, Maehynlleth, and 
Anglesea). Pe. C. 1222 Patent R. Kammeis, 1298 Kemmeys, c. 
1550 Ldand Kemes, 1603 Owen ' Kemes head called Pen Kemes 
pointe.' W. cemmaes is ' a circle for games, a circus,' said to 
be fr. camp, ' a feat, a game ' ; and maes, ' a field.' But this whole 
derivation is disputed. 

Cenarth (Caermarthen). c. 1130 Lib. Land. Cenarth Maur, c. 1188 
Gir. Camb. Canarth maur. O.W. can arth, ' white hill or height.' 

Centtjbion's Copse (Brading). Corrup. of 'St. Urian's copse.' 


Ceri (Montgomery). 1298 Kery. W. ceri, 'medlar-trees.' For 
other suggestions see T. Morgan. 

Cerne Abbas (Dorchester). Sim. Dur. ann. 1102 Cemel, c. 1114 
O.E. Chron. Cemel, c. 1160 Gest. Steph. Cemei, 1237 Cern'. 
Cerney or Cernel is also var. of R. Churn, c. 800 chart. 
Cymea, c. 1130 Cirnea. Doubtful. There is an O.Nor. Fr. 
kernel, ' an embrasure in a battlement, a battlement,' which 
has prob . influenced the Cernel forms. But the root of Cerne Ab . 
is the R. Cerne, which is prob. W., as there is a R. Cemiog 
(Montgomerysh.) which flows into the R. Camo. W. cam is 
' a cairn, a heap of stones,' but this can hardly be the root here ; 
perh. it is pre-Kelt. 

Cerridge, The (Macclesfield). W. cerrig, 'a rocky ridge. Cf. 
Carrick (Sc). 

Cevnon (Cardiff), c. 1550 Leland Kevenon. W. cefn onn, 'ridge 
of the ash-tree.' 

Chacombe (Banbury). Sic 1373. Not in Dom. or Alexander. 
Prob. ' valley of Ccec, Cec, Cecca' a fairly common O.E. name. 


C/. Checkley. See -combe. Possibly it maybe 'cMZA; combe.' The 
hard O.E. c as a rule becomes the softer ch in Southern names. 

Chadderton (Oldham). 1190 Chaderton, 1278 Chadreton. There 
is no name in Oyiom. like C(h)ader, so this is perh. a case of a 
N. gen., Chad-r, ' of St. Chad.'' Such a gen. is very rare in an 
Eng. place-name, but in this case it seems confirmed by Chat- 
TERLEY, which a. 1300 is both Chadderlegh and Chaddendelle 
(or ' dale '). Cf. Chadkirk. However, Catterton (Yorks) is 
JDom. Cadretone; so that Chader may be var. of Kater, as in 
Caterham and Kettering. 

Chaddleworth (Wantage). 960 chart. Ceadelanwyrth, Dom. 
Cedeneord, 1291 Chadelew'rth. ' Ceadela's farm.' See -worth. 
Cf. Chadshunt (Warwksh.), 1043 Chadeleshunte ; Chadbury 
(Evesham) 714 chart. Chadelburi, 860 ib. Ceadweallan byrig; 
also Chaddleton and Chaleont. 

Chadkirk (Stockport). [Cf. Dom. Cheshire, ' Sco Cedde tenuit 
Estun.'] ' Church of St. Chad,' Bp. of Lichfield (d. 672). Kirh 
is the North, form of church, and is here near its South, limit. 
But Chadwiok (Birmingham) is a. 1200 Chadeleswi^, while 
Chadwick (Worcstrsh.) — there are two — are both a. 1300 
Chadeleswick or Chadleswick; the Bromsgrove one is Dom. 
Celdvic. But Chadsmoor (Cannock Chase) is fr. ' the blessed 
St. Chad.' Cf. Chadderton. 

Chagford (Dartmoor). Dom'. Chageforde, and still so pron. 
' Geagga's ford.' Cf. B.C.S. 762 Ceaggan heal. 

Chale (Ventnor). Dom. Cela. Perh. ' cold place.' Cf. O.E. cele, 
' cold, coldness '; 2-4 chele, mod. ' chill '; also O.E. cald, ceald, 
2-4 southern cheald, ' cold.' 

Cfalfont (Slough). O.E. chart. Ceadeles funtan, D(ym. Cel- 
funde, 1292 Chalfount sancti Egidii (St. Giles), 1298 Chalfhunte. 
' Ceadela's font, fountain, or spring ' ; Jj.fons, -tis. Cf. Chaddle- 
worth and Bedfont, and next. But Chalford (Gloucestersh.) 
is 1297 Chalkforde. 

Chalgrove (WaUingford). 1232 Close R. Chaugrave, 1240 ib. 
Chalf grave. ' Grave/ O.E. groif, ' of Ceolf,' one in Onom. In- 
mod, name endings -grove often supersedes -grave. 

Chalk Farm (N. London) . Originally ' Chalcot farm ' ; and Upper 
Chalcot mansion house survived near here till recently. Chalcot 
is prob. chalk cot. 1746 Rocque's Map of London has ' Upper 
Chalk House Lane.' 

Challock (Ashford). 835 chart. Cealf-loca. ' Calf -enclosure ' or 

' lock.' Cf. PORLOCK. 

Challow, East and West (Wantage). Chart. Ceawan hlsewe, 
1291 Westchaulawe, 1316 Estchaulo, c. 1540 Westchallow. 
' Ceawa'a mound, or burial-mound.' See -low. 


Chalton (Homdean, Hants). Dom. Celtone, and perh. K.C.D. 722 
Cealhtune, for O.E. cealc tun, ' chalk town.' 

Chapel-en -le-Frith (Stockport). 'Chapel in the wood' or 
' forest.' Frith is some kind of a wood. See Fbith Bane: and 
Oxf. Diet., s.v. 

Chapmanslade (Westbury). ' Lade ' or ' watercourse of the chap- 
man/ or ' pedlar.' Gf. 1155 Pipe Hants, Chepmanneshale, 
1160 -essele (see -hall), and Chepstow. 

Chard (Axminster). Not in Dom. Perh. W. cardden, ' a wild 
place, a thicket,' fr. cardd, ' exile.' Possibly fr. a man Carda, 
one in Onom., but it is rare for a place-name to be of this pattern. 
Gf. Goodrich and Tydd; also Chardstock, a little to the S., 
Dom. Cerdestoche. See Stoke. 

Charford (Salisbury). O.E. Chron. 508 Cerdigesford. The Saxon 
ealdorman, Gerdic or Geardic came to England in 495. But 
Charford (Bromsgrove) is 1275 Cherleford, 1327 Charleford. 
O.E. ceorlaford, ' ford of the churl ' or ' hind ' ; whilst Charfield 
(Wotton-under-Edge), Dom. Cirvelde, c. 1250 Charfelde, Badde- 
ley derives fr. O.E. ceart, ' rough, fern-growing ground.' 

Charing (Ashford). 799 chart. Ciornincge, 940 ib. Cirringe, Dom. 
Cheringes. This may be ' place of the sons of Georra, -an, only 
likely name in Onom. Gf. Cherrington (Shipston-on-Stour), no 
old forms. But the earliest form suggests a river -name, formed 
with -ing, q.v., fr. a stream called Ciorn, which would be akin to 
Cerne, Chtjrn, and Ciren-cester (? any such name still here. 
Could it be an old name of the Len, on which Charing stands ?). 
We also have 940 chart. Cyrfringhyrst (Kent). Charingworth 
(Ebrington) is Dom. Chevringaurde, c. 1320 Chavelingworth, 
which Baddeley thinks may be ' farm of the sons of Geafhere,' an 
unrecorded name. 

Charing Cross (London), c. 1290 Q.Eleanor's Executors Crucem 
^ de la Char-rynge. Popular etymology says, ' Ghere reine,' K. 
• Edward I.'s tribute to his Q. Eleanor; but this is absurd. Prob. 
it is simply a patronymic like the above. 

Charlbuby (Oxford). Die Heilige Engl. Ceorlingchmh, 1197-1208 
Churlebiry, 1238 Cherlebir. ' Burgh, castle of (the descendants 
of) Georl or Gearl,' a common O.E. name — i.e., ' the churl '; eo 
regularly becomes a in mod. Eng. Gf. next. 

Charlcombe (Bath). ' Valley of Gearl or Georl,' lit. ' of the churl, 
or carl, or bondman.' See -combe. 

Charlgote (Stratf ord-on-Avon) . Dom. Cerlecote; in Salop, too. 
' Cot, hut of the peasant or bondman.' See above. 

Charlton (15 in P.G.). O.E. chart. Ceorlatun, Dom. Cerletone 
(Berks), etc. ' Village of the churls or carls.' See Charlcombe, 
and cf. Chorlton. We also have a Dom. Bucks Cerleslai. 


Chabmouth (Dorset). O.E. Chron. 833 and Hen. Hunt. Carrum. 
- R. Char is perh, the same Kelt, root as in Carron (Sc), and so 

either 'rough' or 'crooked' river. 1160-61 P^;pe Kent, has 

a ' Charho.' 

Charney Bassett (Wantage). B.C.S. i. 506 Ceornei, Dom. Cernei, 
1291 Cernee. ' Island on R. Cerne.' See -ey. The Bassets 
were a Norman family who owned lands hereabouts. But 
Chabnes (Eccleshall) is Dom. Cervernest, a. 1200 Ohavernesse, 
1227 Chaunes, a. 1300 Chavemes, Charneves, Chaunes. O.E. 
ceafor, cefer, 5 chauer, ' a beetle ' ; and nest, ' nest/ or nces, 
' promontory, headland, ness ' — a very curious corruption. 

Charnwood Forest (Leicestersh.). Not in Dom., but it has 
Cemelega. Prob. same as Carnwath (Sc), which is c. 1165 
Charnewid, W. cam gwydd, ' cairn, cairnlike hill, covered with 
shrubs or woods ' ; influenced, too, no doubt by the O.Dan, wede, 
Dan. ved, Eng. wood. No name like Cam or Gem in Onom. 

Chart Sutton (Maidstone). 838 chart. Cert. Chert, a kind of 
quartz, is not found in Eng. a. 1679, so this name is doubtful. 
It seems httle use to compare Chertsey. However, Chartley 
(Uttoxeter) is Dom. Certehe, c. 1300 Certelea, which must be 
' Certe's ' or ' Ceort's meadow.' We have in O.E. charters 
Certsecer, Ceortanstapol, etc., as well as Certham, now Chartham 
(Canterbury). Thus the name Certe or Ceorta, though not in 
Onom., is well estabHshed. 

Chatburn (Chitheroe). 1241-42 Chatteburn. Prob. 'brook of 
Ceatta ' or ' Ceatt,' as in next and in Chetham, sic 1235. But 
both this and Chat Moss may be fr. O.W. c{h)et, W. coed, 'a 
wood,' as in Chetwode. 

Chatham. O.E. chart. Ceattham, Dom. Ceteham, c. 1150 chart, 
Csetham. ' Home of Ceatta,' a Jute. Cf. Catton. 

Chatteris (Cambridge), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Cateriz, Catriz, 
Chetriz, Dom. Cetriz, Cietriz; chart. Ceatrice, Chaterik; c. 1120 
Hen. Hunt. Chateric ; a. 1153 Lib. Eli. Chateriz. The forms in Ch 
and z are all Norm. Difficult. Possibly it contains the personal 
name -K'afer. C/. Kettering. Skeat and Stevenson think not, 
and think it may be a Kelt, river-name, which is doubtful. 

Chatterley (Newcastle, Staffs), a. 1300 Chadderlegh, Chadden- 
delle. This may be ' meadow ' or ' dale of St. Chad.' The -en 
is the O.E. gen. -an, whilst is a trace of the N. gen. in -r. 
Norse influence is coramon in N. Staffs. Cf. Chadeirk. Great 
and Little Chatwell in the same shire, a. 1200 Chattewelle, 
are also fr. Chad. But cf. Catterton, s.v. Chadderton. 

Chawton (Alton) . Not in Dom. It has a Caudevre {cf. Michel- 
dever). Old forms needed. Perh.= CHAUS0N (Droitwich), 
Dom. Celvestune, 1108 Chalvestone. O.E. Cealfes tun, 'town of 
Calf,' or ' the calf.' 


Che ABLE (Stoke-on-Trent and Cheshire), also C. Hulme and 
MosELEY (Cheshire). St. C. Dom. Celle (error for Cedle; Dom. 
continually has felle for felde), 1166 Chelle (repeating Dom.'s 
error), 1194 Chedele, a. 1300 Chedle, Dogge-Chedile. Ches. C. 
1194(jhedle. This must beN. Jcvidal, ' f old- valley '; N. influence 
is common in N. Staffs. Cf. Katewell (E. Ross-shire), in G. 
Ciadail, the same name. For -dale slurring into -die, cf. Rodil 
(Harris), and the ending of Marple ; whilst for N. k becoming ch, 
cf. -caster and -Chester. 

Hulme is O.E. holm, ' a piece of low, flat land by a river.' 
Cf. Hume (Sc), 1250 Home. The origin of ' Dogge-Chedile ' is 
unknown. Though Celle and Chelle are clearly errors here, 
Chell (Burslem) is 1313 Ceolegh, or ' Geol's lea.' But Kiddal 
(W. Riding), Dom. Chidal(e), is manifestly the same name as 
Cheadle; plainer still is Chee Dale, Millersdale (Derbysh.). It 
is worth adding as to the Celle forms that the sb. needle, O.E. 
nidi, whilst 3-6 nedle is also 3-7 nelde. 

Cheam (Sutton). 1018 (or later) chart. Cheyham. 'Home of 
Ceahha,' or some such name. Cf. B.C.S. 1230 Ceahhan mere. 
See -ham. 

Chebsey (Eccleshall). Dom. Cebbesio (o for e), a. 1250 Chebbesey. 
' Isle of Ceobba ' or ' Ceob,' 3 or 4 in Onom. Cf. Dom. Suffk. 
Cebbenhala. See -ey. 

Chbokley (Cheadle, Herefordsh., Essex, and S. Cheshire). Che. C. 
Dom. Cedla (error), 1227 Chekkesleye, Checkele. Ches. C. 
c. 1190 Boll Chekelee, later Chackleigh. He. C. 1252 Chackileg. 
' Meadow of Ccec, CcBcca, Cec ' or ' Cecce,' all forms in Onom. 
Cf. Checkendon (Reading), ' hiU of Cecca,' and Kekewich. 
See -ley. 

Cheddab (Somerset). Exon. Dom. Cetdre, Chart. Cedre, a. 1142 
Wm. Malmesb. Ceddren; later Chedare. Kelt, cet der, W. coed 
dwr, ' wood on the stream.' 1158-59 Pi'pe Cedresfeld (Somerset) 
seems to imply a man Ceder, of whom we would have the patro- 
nymic in 1160-61 Pipe Gloucstr., Chedringwurda, ' farm of Ceder 's 
sons.' C/. Chetwode. 

Cheddleton (Leek). Dom. Celtetone, 1200 Chetilton, 1204 
Cheteleton, a. 1400 Chetelton. Prob. not ' town of Geadel ' or 
' Ceadela,' as in Chaddleworth, but ' town of Cetel or Cytel,' a 

. common O.E. name. Change of t to d, or vice versa, is common. 
Cf. Catterton (Yorks), Dom. Cadretone, Chatterley, and 
Chedworth (Gloucstrsh.), 872 chart. Ceddanwyrde, fr. Cedda, 
but also 1190 Chedeleswarde, ' farm of Ceadel.' Caddel is still a 

Chelford (Cheshire). Dom. Celeford, also in Bucks, Celforde. 
'Fold of Ceolla' or ' Cella.' Cf. Chelsfield. Chellow 
(Bradford) is fr. the same name, Dom. Celeslau, ' Cella's hill.' 
See -low. 


Chellaston (Derby). Prob. Dom. Cellasdene. Cf. 939 chart. 
Ceolan hyrst (Kent). Now 'town of Ceolla/ but the ending 
seems to have been formerly -dean, q.v. 

Ohelmarsh (Bridgnorth). 1179 Cheilmarsh, 1255 Cheylmerse. 
Prob. contract, for ' Ceolmund'a marsh.' Cf. Chelmick in the 
same shire, 1232 Chehnundewyk; but Cheylesmore (Coventry) is 
a. 1300 Chisihnore, O.E. ceosel mor, ' shingly moor.* 

Chelmondiston (Ipswich). Local pron. Chimston. Not in Dom. 
' Village of Chelmond or Ceolmund/ a very common O.E. name. 
Cf. Cholmondestone (Chesl^re), Dom. Chelmundestone ; also 

Chelmsford. Dom. Celmeresfort, 1160 Pipe Chelmesford, 1161 ib. 
Nord chelmeresford. 'Ford of Ceolmcer' or 'Celmar/ 3 in 
Onom. Liquid r easily disappears. The name of the river 
Chelmer is thus a back formation fr. the ford. 

Chelsea. O.E. Chron. 785 Cealchype, 1465 Chalchithe, a. 1600 
Chellsaye. The name has changed. Orig. it was ' chalk- 
hithe ' or ' landing-rise.' See Hythe. But the present form 
represents O.E. ceosel-i^e, 'pebble-bank isle'; O.E. ceosel, 
'pebble or shingle.' Cf. Ger. kiesel, and Cheselhanger 
(Berkeley), 1368 Chisulhanger, 'shingly wooded slope.' 

Chelseleld (Chiselhurst) . Possibly by dissimilation Dom. Ciresf el., 
1298 Chelesfelde, 'Field of Ceolla,' a fairly common name. 
Cf. ' Chelesbergh ' in chart, of 935, near Shaftesbury, Dom. 
Surrey, Celesham, and Cheleswurda, 1159-58 Pipe Wilts. But 
Chelsworth (Bildeston, Suffk.) is 962 chart. Ceorlesworth, 
'farm of Ceorl' — i.e., the churl or carl — common name in 
Onom. See -worth. 

Cheltenham. 803 chart. Celtanhom, Dom. Chinteneham, 1158-59 
Chilteham. ' Enclosure on R. Chelt,' prob. a Kelt, word, pos- 
sibly the same root as Celtce. The ending here is hamm, not 
ham. See -ham. 

Chelwood (Bristol). Old forms needed. {Dom. has only Ceol-, 
Celflede, fr. Ceolf or Ceolvmlf.) May be ' Ceolla's wood,' or perh. 
' cold wood,' fr. 4 cheld, cheald, South, form of cold, O.E. cald. 

Chenees (Rickmansworth). ? 1131 O.E. Chron. (Laud.) Chinni, 
1297 Cheyny. Prob. O.E. cine, cyne, 3 chine, 4-6 chene, chyn, 
' a fissure, a crack, a chine.' Cf. Kempton. The ending is the 
commonly suffixed Eng. pi. But Dom. Yorks Chenehall is now 

Chepstow. Li W. Casgwent {cas for castel). Dom. Estrighoiel, 
1228 Close B. Striguill; also Straguil. The Dom. form looks like 
' dwelling, abode, W. ystre, of the Goidel or Gael.' But the 
present name is O.E. ceap-stow, ' market-place> place for bar- 
gaining,' as in Cheapside. 


Chequekbent (Bolton), c. 1574 M.8. Checkerbent. This must be 
' checkered, variegated bent grass.' The vb. chequer is rare so 
early in Eng., so this seems to be formed fr. chequer sb. ' chess- 
board/ or ' chessboard pattern '; O.Fr. eschequier ; in Eng. 1297 
chekere. See also Bentley; and cf. Chowbent (Lanes), 1641-42 
Cholbent, ? ' bent of Ceol' 

Cherhill (Calne). Dom. Cheurel, 1158-59 Pipe Ceriel. Doubtful; 
first part prob. as in next; -el is a very rare representative of 
-hill. It is conceivable that the root is O.E. ceafor, cefer, 4 chauer, 
' a chafer, a beetle '; O.H.G. chevar. 

Chebiton (4 in P.G.). Dom. Ciretona (Devon). Hardly fr. the 
cherry, O.E. ciris, cyrs, and then not found till c. 1350, cheri, 
chiry. Perh. ' village of Ceorra ' or ' Gyra' one such of each in 
Onom. Cheeeington (Warwicksh.) is the same name, 1327 
Chirytone. Here, and also in the case of the two Chirtons, 
Duignan votes for cherry. But Cheriton (Abesford) is prob. 
Dom. Cerewartone, fr. some man of doubtful name, (?) Ceorl- 
weard, a name not recorded, or, by dissimilation, Ceolweard, a 
fairly common name. The Kent Ch. is not in Dom. Cf. 
Churston. However, Cherington (Tetbury), Dom. Cerintone, 
c. 1120 Cherintone, later Chederintone, Baddeley thinks is, ' ton, 
farm-enclosure of the Ceadrings ' or ' sons of (?) Ceadhere.' 

Chertsey. Bede Cerotsesei, id est insula Ceroti, v.r. Ceoroti {grant 
ofQ15 Cherteseye]. 1084 O.E. Chron. Ceorteseye, Dom. Certesy. 
' Isle of Gerot.' See -ey. 

Cherwell R. (Oxford) . 681 chart. Flumen quod appellatur Ceruelle. 
864 ih. Cearwellan, 1005 Cearwylle, Cyrwylle. Possibly con- 
nected with O.E. cyrran ' to turn,' but prob. pre-Keltic. 

Chesham (Bucks). K.G.D. 658 Cissanham. O.E. for ' home of 
Gissa.' Gf. Chessington, Keswick, and Dom. Essex, Cesse- 
worda, Cishelle. The names Gis, Gisi, and Giss also occur. 

Cheshunt (Waltham Cross). Dom. Cistrehunt, a. 1300 Cesferhunt, 
1402 Chesthunte, ' camp's hunt ' or ' hunting-ground.' See 
Chester. But Chesford (Kenilworth) is c. 1422 Chessford, of 
quite uncertain origin; perh. O.E. ceosleg, ' shingly.' We get the 
personal name Ghesney in Sezincote (Glouc), Dom. Che(i)snecote, 
' cot of Ghaisne ' or ' Ghesney,' O.Fr. chesnaie, ' an oakwood.' 

Cheslyn Hay (Walsall), a. 1300 Hay of Chistlyn, -ling, ChistHng, 
Ches-, Chystlyn. Duignan takes this to be a dimin. of chest, 
Sc. hist, O.E. cest, cist. Gf. Chestal (Dursley), 1374 Chystelay. 
Hay is O.E. hege, ' a fenced or hedged enclosure,' here perh. 
round an ancient cromlech or burial-mound. 

Chessington (Surbiton). Dom. Cisendone. * Gissa' a fort'; O.E. 
dun. Gf. Chichester. See -don and -ton. 

Chester. Bede, ' Civitas Legionum, which by the English is called 
Legacestir, but by the Britons more rightly Carlegion,' in c. 810 


Nennius Cair Ligion (W. caer, 'fort, castle') and Urbs legionis, 
894 O.E. Chron. Anre waestre castre, Dom. Cestrescire, c. 1097 
Flor. Wore. ' Civitas quae Carlegion Britannice et Legeceaster 
dicitur Saxonice.' L. castra, ' a camp ' ; O.E. ceaster, ' a fortified 
place/ then often 'a town'; cf. A.S. Gospels (Luke x. 11). In 
mod. W. Caerlleon Gawr, ' great fort of the legion ' (? the 20th). 
Cf. Caebleon and Leicester; and see Caistor. 

Chesterfield (Derbysh. and Lichfield). De. C. 955 Cesterfelda, 
1162-65 Cestrefelt. Li. 0. 1262 Cestrefeud, Chestrefewde. See 
Chester. Field is O.E. f eld, 3-5 feU{e) . In 1262 the liquid I has 
become w, as it often does, esp. in Sc, but Oxf. Diet, gives no 
examples under field. 

Chester-le-Street. a. 1130 Sim. Dur.; also R. of Hexham Cuncha 
Chester; 1183 Cestria. The street implies a Roman road. 
Cuncha is also found in the form Cununga, which suggests Icel. 
honung-r, ' king.' 

Chesterton (Cambridge, Cirencester, Bicester, StafEs, and War- 
wicksh.). Ci. C. c. 1100 Cestretone. War. C. 1043 cJmrt. 
Cestretune, Dom. Cestretone, Cestedone, O.E. ceaster-tun, ' town 
of the fort, castle-town.' See Chester and -ton. Also cf. Dom. 
Bucks Cestreham. 

Cheswardine (Market Drayton). Dom. Ciseworth, a. 1200 Chese- 
wurda, Cheswordyn, Chesewardyn, Chesew'rthin. ' Cheese- 
making farm.' O.E. cese, cyse, ' cheese,' and -worth or its var. 
-wardine, q.v. Similar is Cheswick (Northumberland), c. 1100 
Cheseuuic, 1631 Cheswick, lit. ' cheese-house.' See -wick. Also 
cf. Butterwick and Chiswick. 

Chetnole (Sherborne). {Dom. has Chenolle and Chenoltone and 
CnoUe.) Hybrid. 0. Keltic chet ; W. coed, ' a wood ' ; and O.E. 
cnoll, ' a rounded hillock, a knoll.' Cf. Chetwode, Ejstowle,. 
and Kits Coity House, name of a cromlech, Aylesford, Kent. 
Jos. Colebroke, c. 1800, says Eat was an old shepherd, who fed 
his flocks here ; and Coity must be f r. coed. 

Chettle (Blandford). Dom. Ceotel1(o prob. error). 1238 Close R. 
Chetel. O.E. cytel, cetel ; O.N. cetel, 'a kettle,' hence a valley 
shaped like a kettle, a ' corrie.' Cf. Kettle or Kingskettle 

Chetton (Bridgnorth). ? Dom. Catinton. ' Town of Ceatta,' 2 in 
Onom. Cf. Dom. Bucks, Cetendone. 

Chetwode (Bucks). 949 chart. Cetwuda, Dom. Cetevde, 1248 chart. 
' Forest of Chett,' 1270 ' in Bosco (wood) de Cett,' 1290 Chet- 
wood. Hybrid tautology; O.W. coit ; W. coed, ' a wood.' Cf. 
Chute and the personal name Chetwynd (W. coed gwyn) ; also 
Dom. Cornw. Chilcoit (Corn, for ' neck of the wood '), and Bucks, 
Cetedone, though this last may be fr. O.E. cete, ' cot, hut.' Cf. 
Datchet. Also cf. Chetnole. 


Cheveley (Newmarket), c. 1080 Inquis. Camh. Cauelei, Chauelei, 
Cheuelei, Dom. Chavelai, a. 1200 chart. Cheaflea, Cseafle, 1346 
Chavele, 1426 Cheveley. ' Chaff -meadow ' ; O.E. ceaj, 2-4 cheue, 
4 chaue, ' chaff." See -ley. 

Chevenagb (Avening). Not in Dom. 1626 Chavenedge. Prob. 
Cheven- is O.E. Cifan, ' Cifa's/ with the usual Norm, softening. 
Cf. Chevening, Che vest gton, Chieveley, and Dom. Surrej'' 
Civentone. But it may be fr. Ceen. -age, q.v., is usually a late 
ending, and needs old forms to interpret it. 

Chevet (Barnsley) Dom. Cevet ; and Cheviot Hills, c. 1250 Montes 
chiueti, a. 1300 Mons chiuioth, c. 1500 Chevet, 1596 Cheuott. 
Possibly G. c{h)iabach, ' bushy place," fr. ciabh, ' hair,' which 
may also be the root of Chevy Chase. For -ach becoming -iot, 
cf. Elliot |Sc.). There is also Caville (Yorks), which is Dom. 
Cevetle (see -ley). The name is very doubtful. Fr. chevet, ' a 
pillow,' seems impossible. But the Chevin (Otley) is plainly W. 
cefn, ' a hill ridge.' 

Chevington (Ackhngton, Bury St. Edmunds, and Pershore). Bu. 
C. Dom. Ceuentuna. Pe. C. 972 chart. Civincgtune, Dom. Civin- 
tone, 1275 Kyvin-, Chyvintone. 'Town of the sons of Cifa.' 
Cf. Chevenage. See -ing and -ton. 

Chevy Chase (N. Northumberland). Sic c. 1650, but a. 1500 ballad. 
' The hunttis of Cheuet." See Cheviot and Cannock Chase. 

Chewton Mbndip (Bath) . Dom. Civetune, 1280 Close B. Chiweton, 
1238 ib. Chyweton. Onom. has no Ciwa, only one Ceawa, which 
may be the name here, and also in Chew Magna and Stoke 
(Bristol). Dom. Chiwe. There seems no Hkelier origin, though 
it is rare for a place to be called after a man alone; but cf. 
Goodrich, etc. Magna is L. for ' Great.' 

Chichester. 891 O.E. Chron. Cisseceaster, c. 1070 Ecclesia Ci- 
cestrensis, c. 1114 Cicestre, 1167-68 Cycestr', c. 1180 Cicestria, 
late chart. Chichestra, 1297 B. Glouc. Chichestre. ' Camp, fort 
of Cissa/ son of Ella, d. c. 520. See Keynoe, and cf. Cissbury 
Camp (Worthing). 

CmcH St. Osyth (Colchester), c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Chicce, Sim. 
Dur. ann. 1123 Cice, 1157 Pipe Chich. Doubtful. None of 
' the words spelt chich in Oxf. Diet, yield a likely origin, and there 
seems nothing helpful in O.E. C/. Dom. Devon, Cichet. So prob. 
the name is Keltic, meaning some thing or place of concave or 
hivelike shape. Cf. W. cychu, ' to cover, to hive.' Osyth was a 
virgin martyr, of doubtful date, ? 600-800. Said to have been 
granddaughter of Penda of Mercia and pupil of Abbess Mod- 

Chlddingstone (Eden Bridge). The ' chiding stone,' a sandstone 
boulder fr. which fractious wives used to be ' chided,' still stands 
at the rear of the village; O.E. cidan, to chide, pa. tense, chid, 


pa. pple. chidden. But for all that, this is prob. an example 
of popular etymology, and the real name will be O.E. Cyddan 
Stan, ' stone of Cydda ' ; there are 2 of this name in Kent men- 
tioned in Onom. Cf. Kiddington (Oxon), Dom. Chidintone; 
but the Kent name is not in Dom. 

Chievbley (Newbury). O.E. chart. Cifan lea, 1291 Chivele. ' Lea, 
meadow of Ci^a.' Not the same name as Cheveley (Cambs). 
Cf. Chevington, and see -ley. 

Chigwell (Ongar). O.E. chart Cingwella, later Cinghewella, Chi- 
wellia. ' Bang's well," O.E. cyning, 1-2 cyng, cing. Cf. CniNGroBD. 

Chiloott (Wells) and Chtloote (Ashby-DE-LA-Z.). Prob., as in 
Chilton and Chilwell, ' Gilda's cot'; the adj. chill is inad- 
 missible in all these cases, being recent. But Dom. Comw., 
Chilcoit, will be Old Keltic, or Corn, for 'neck of the wood'; 
with Com. chil, cf. G. caol, ' narrow,' and caolas, ' a strait, a 
kyle.' The Wells name could quite easily be Corn.; it is not in 
Dom. Of. Kllcot. 

Childeey (Wantage). Chart. Cillan rithe. Cilia rithe, Dom. Celrea, 
a. 1300 Celrea, CeLry. Cilia is presumably a personal name. 
Cf. B.C. 8. 1242 Cillan hrycg {i.e., ' ridge ') ; prob. Cille, sister of 
Hean, first abbot of Abingdon. The letter d often sufl&xes 
itself. Cf. Drummond (Sc). Rith is O.E. for ' stream,' cognate 
with L. rivus. Cf. Shottery. But Chtlderley (Cambs) is 
Cildra-ledh, ' children's ' (Sc. childer's) 'lea.' 

Child's Wigkham (Broadway, Worcester). 706 chart. Childes- 
wicwon, Wicwone, 972 chart. Vuiguuennan. The present name 
is a corruption ; the chart, name may contain W. gwig, ' a thicket, 
grove, forest,' or else the name of the tribe Huiccii. See Wor- 
cester; also see Wtkttamford. Child is O.E. did, 'a child,' 
not found as child till c. 1160, so that the copy of the 706 chart. 
must be late. Cild is also early found as a proper name. 

Chtt.t.tngham (Bedford). Sic 1595, and Chellington [Kings- 
bridge (Sussex), Crewkeme and Brewood (StafEs)]. Ki. and Cr. 
C. Dom. Cilletone. Br. C. Dom. Cillentone, a. 1200 Cilderton, 
a. 1400 Chilinton, ' Home, village, or town of Cille.' The names 
Cild, Cilia, Cille, and Cilli are all in Onom. But Sus. C. is c. 
1060 chart. CiUingtun (probably), or ' village of Cilling,' prob. 
patronymic fr. above. See -ham, -ing, and -ton. 

Chiltern. a. 800 Chilternsaetna, Dom. Cilterne (Somerset), a. 1125 
O.E. Chron. ann. 1009 Ciltem, c. 1200 Gervase Chiltre. Cf., 
too, chart Hen. I. a ' Ciltre.' Oxf. Diet, says origin unknown. 
The name is also applied to a kind of soil. The -ern is prob. 
O.E. erne, ' a house.' 

Chilton (5 in P.O.). C. Poldon, Bridgewater, Dom. Cildetone, 
Steventon C. 1015 chart. In loco ubi solicolse appellativo usu 
Cilda tun nominant, Dom. Cilletone, a. 1300 Chilton, Dom, 


Bucks Ciltone. Cilda, 1015, prob. is a man's name, as the 
proper gen. plu. of O.E. cild, ' child,' is cildra. But Skeat says 
that this, like Chilford (Cambs) means ' children's/ Yet KLilton, 
(Yorks), sic 1179, is Dom. Chilton, which makes Skeat's asser- 
tion doubtful. Cf. next. 

CtttTjVEBS Coton (Nimeaton). Dom. Celverdestoche (see -stock), 
a. 1200 Chelverdcote, a. 1300 Chilverdescote, Chelverescot. 
' Ceolweard's cottages,' coton being an O.E. pi. of cot. 

Chilwell (Nottingham). Dom. Cilleuuelle, Cid-, Chide welle. Cf. 
Dom. ' Cildewelle ' (Cheshire). Chil- prob. represents a man 
Cild, Cilia, or Cille; all these forms are found in Onom. The 
Eng. adj. chill is not found till 1513. See, too, above, and 
cf. Chilworth (Romsey and Guildford), Dom. Leicr., Chilurda, 
and 1238 Close E. Cheleworth (Cricklade), which all must be fr. 
a man Cille, or the like. But some think Chil- is same root as 
in Bapchtld. See -worth. 

Chine (in Blackgang Chine, etc., in S. and S.W.). See Chenies. 
The Oxf. Diet, gives no quot. before 1830. 

Chtngeord (Walthamstow). The early forms vary much — Dom. 
Chilgelford, 1242 Chingel-, also Cinge-, Cinghe-, Echingels-, 
Schingelf ord. This seems to be ' Shingle - ford,' N . singl, 
' water-worn gravel or pebbles,' M.E. chingle ; but plainly 
confused with ' King's ford.' Cf. Chigwell, and 1160 Pipe 
Chingeswuda (Eangswood, ? in Surrey). 

Cheststock, E. and W. (Somerset). Dom. Cinioch. Prob. Keltic. 
Possibly var. of Cannock, fr. W. cnwc, ' a hillock.' But also 
cf. G. cianog, ' a small piece of arable land.' 

Chinnob (Wallingf ord) . 1234 Close B. Chynhore, Chennor. 
' Bank, edge of Cina ' or ' Cyna,' gen. -an. Cf. Chinley (Stock- 
port) . See -or. 

Chippenham (Wilts, Bp's. Cleeve, Cambs). Wi. C. 878 O.E. Chron. 
Cippan hamm, c. 900 chart. C^ppenhamme, 1158-59 Chepeham, 
Bp. C. c. 812 chart. Cippanhamme, Ca. C. c. 1080 Inquis. Cam. 
Chipenham, Dom. Chipeham. ' Enclosure,' O.E. hamm, or 
' home,' O.E. ham, ' of Cippa,' -an, a rare name; Cippan cannot 
be = Chipping. Cf. Dom. Essex, Kippedana, the 2 Chipsteads, 
and CHipprNGHURST (Oxon), chart. Cibbanhyrst, ' Cibba's wood.' 

Chipping Norton, Ongar, Sodbuby, etc. a. 1300 Roll Norton 
Mercatoria. Chipping is var. of cheaping, found c. 1200 
cheping, ' a market, a market-place,' fr. O.E. ceap, * barter,' 
cipan, ' to sell,' same root as cheap, cheapen, etc. Cf. Chep- 
stow, and see Norton, etc. The mod. Swede has the 
same sound and meaning, though not the same spelling. 
He always speaks of Copenhagen as Chippenhavn, ' merchant's 
haven,' though he spells it Kjobenhavn or -hamn, whilst a 
name like Jonkoping, ' John's market,' he pronounces Yon- 


chipping. But Chipping (N. Lanes), Dom. Chipinden, is prob- 
' vale of Cipa ' or ' Ceapa,' one in Onom (see -den), and Chip- 
PiNaTON (Nthbld.) is oZd Cebbington, ' town of Ceabba/ gen. -ban, 
one in Onom. See -ing. 

Chtpstead (Red Hill and Sevenoaks) . Not in Dom. Prob. ' home- 
stead of Cyppa.' Cf. Chippenham and Dom. Norfk. Chiptona. 

Chirbury (Salop) . 913 O.E. Chron. Cyricbyrig — i.e., ' churchburgh ' 
or ' town.' See the interesting article Church in Oa;/. Z)ici. But 
by c. 1120 Hen. is Cereburih, 1236 Chirebir". See -bury. 

Chirk (Accrington and Oswestry). Ace. C. 1202 Chirche, or 
' church '; but Osw. C. a. 1300 Ciriee, c. 1350 Chirk, which may 
not represent O.E. for ' church/ as in Chirbury; but, as Chirk 
is on the R. Ceiriog, it may be a corrup. of it. In W. it is 
Eglwys y wsen, ' church of the moor.' 

Chiselhfrst. 1160Pi^eChiselherst, c. 1380Chesilhurst. 'Woody 
place on the shingle,' O.E. ceosel. See Chelsea and -hurst; and 
cf. Chesil Bank, Dorset. But Chiselboroxjgh (Stoke-under-ham) 
is 1236 Close B. Sidelberg, prob. ' burgh of Cecil.' The original 
seat of the Cecils was in Monmouth, where the name is pron. 
Seisyl; we see the same name in Isolde or Yseult of the medieval 
romances and in Chisholm (Sc). See -boro'. We also have 
1240 Close R. Chiselhampt'. 

Chisenbury (Pewsey). Dom. Cheseberie. Cf. Dom. Surrey Cisen- 
done. ' Burgh, town of Cisi,' one in Onom. Cissa is much 
commoner. See -bury. Great Chishall (1597 ChishiU), R.oy- 
ston, may be fr. the same name. 

Chislet (Canterbury). Chart, and Dom. Gstelet. Possibly O.N. 
Fr. castelet, chastelet, dimin, of chastel, mod. Er. chdtelet and 
cMteau, ' a little castle.' We have castelet in Eng. c. 1320 and 
chastelet in 1494; but the early change fr. a to i is scarcely 
explained. Prof. Weekley is quite doubtful. 

CHISWIC3K (London). Not in Dom. c. 1230 Chesewycke. O.E. cese, 
cyse wic, ' dweUing, hamlet where cheese was made.' Cf. 
BuTTERWicK and Cheswardine, and see -wick. 

Chitterne (Wilts), a. 675 Grant Cyterene forde. ? Dom. Chetre. 
Prob. ' Cyta's house,' O.E. erne. We find both a ' Cytan ford ' 
and a ' Cittan den ' in early charters. 

Chittlehamholt (Chulmleigh) and Chittlehampton (Umberleigh), 
both Devon. Dom. Citrametona (though in MS. Curametone). 
The first part must be the common O.E. name Cytel, Chitel, or 
Ketel ; the r in Dom. is due to the common interchange of 
liquids. Dom. also has Chetelescote. Holt is O.E. and Icel. for 
' a wood, a grove.' See Hampton. 

Cholderton (SaUsbury). Dom. Celdre-, Celdrintone, 1287 Close 
E. Childwarton. ' Town of Ceolweard,' var. ' Kilvert.' 



Chollerford, and -ton (N. Tyne). c. 410 Notit. Dign. Glurno, 
a. 700 Bav. Geogr. Celunno, 1232 chart. Chelreton. Cilurno 
suggests W. cilwrn, 'cauldron/ fr. the cavities in the rocky 
river-bed here; Sc. Rhys. But the disappearance of the n is 
curious. Cf. above. 

Cholmondeley (Cheshire). Pron. Chumly. Dom. Calmundelei. 
' Galmund's or ' Geolmund's, meadow.' Gf. Chelmondiston. 
See -ley. 

Cholsey (Berks). 1005 O.E. Ghron. Ceolesige^ Dom. Celsei, Sim, 
Dur. ann. 1006 Ceolesegia, c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Coleseige. ' Geola'a 
isle ' ; several Ceolas are known. See -ey. 

Choppington (Morpeth), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Cebbingtun. ' Geab- 
ba's village.' Gf. B.G.S. 282 Ceabban sol. It may be a patro- 
nymic. See -ing and -ton. 

Chorleton - CUM - Hardy (Manchester). 1296-97 Chorleton= 

Chorley (Preston). 'Meadow on the R. Ghor/ a name prob. 
Keltic; ? cognate with W. cor, 'a circle, a crib.' Cf. Dom. 
Worcr. ' Chure.' But Chorley (Lichfield) is sic a. 1400 and 
a. 1600 Chorley alias Charley. ' Meadow of Georl,' or ' of the 
carl or churl/ O.E. ceorl. 

Chrishall (Royston). Not in Dom. 1298 Cristeshale — i.e., 
' Ghrist'a nook.' Gf. Dom. Worcr. Christetone, and Christen 
Bank (Northumbld.). 

Christchurch. 1058 O.E. Ghron. Mt Christes cyrcean, a. 1109 
Mt Xrescircean, c. 1160 Gesta Steph. Cristiciria {sic). 

Christian Malford (Chippenham). 940 chart. Cristemalford, 
'Christ's Malford/ or 'ford of the tax or impost/ O.E. mdl, 
seen in the Sc. mailing. 

Chijdleigh (2 in Devon) . Not in Dom. ' Meadow of Gudd ' or 
' Cudda,' names in Onom. See -leigh. 

Chtjlmleigh (Devon). Dom. Calmonleuge, Exon. Dom. Chalmon- 
leuge, 1242 Glose R. Cha(u)meleg'. ' Meadow of Geolmund/ a 
very common name ; eo regularly becomes a, now slurred into 
u; and -leuge is scribe's error for -leage, dat. of leah. See -ley. 

Churohhtll (4 in P.G.). Kidderminster C. Dom. Circehille, Oxf. 
C. 1295 chart. Cercelle, later CherchehuUe, Dom. Bucks Cherche- 
helle, also Chirchefeld; in Dom. Surrey it is Cercefelde. Form 
1295 is only an early spelhng of ' church hill.' Gf. the forms 
under Christchurch. Churchdown (Gloustrsh.), now pron. 
Chosen, is already in Dom. Circesdune. 

Churcbinford (Honiton). Not in Dom. Perh. 935 chart. Chircel- 
ford. The liquids do interchange, but I rarely becomes n. The 
early spelhngs in the Oxf. Diet, do not encourage us to derive 


CEircel fr, circle ; but there is a Med. L. cercella, O.Fr. cercdle, 
' the teal duck/ which seems possible. 

Church Minshull (Middlewich). See Minshtjll Vernon. 

Chxjbohoveb (Rubgy). Dom. Wara, 1257 Waur(e), a. 1300 Church 
Waver, 1327 Chirche-Wavre. The -overs of Warwk., Browns- 
over, Cester-Over, etc., are all fr. O.E. wafre, wcefre, ' the aspen 
poplar.' See Wavertree, etc. 

Churn, R. (Cirencester). Prob. found in c. 150 Ptolemy Corinion 
and a. 700 Rav. Geogr. Cironium, names for Cirencester, 
which stands on this river; it is sometimes called the Corin. 
If the name is so old it cannot be O.E. cyrin, ' a churn,' and is 
prob. pre-Keltic. There is also a Churnet, trib. of R. Dove 
(Staiid.), 1284 Chirnete, which might be dimin. of O.E. cyrin, 
dm ; but Duignan is prob. right in connecting it with the other 
river. C/. Cerne. 

Churston Ferrers (Devon). Prob. 1167-68 Pipe Chirestona, 
' Town of Cire,' one Cyra in Onom. Of. Cheriton. On Ferrers, 
see Beer. 

Chute (Wilts) and Chute Standen (Andover). 1238 Close R. 
Cett, 1241 ib. Cet, ? which. Gf. 1248 chart. ' Forest of Chett,' 
1270 in Bosco de Cett. Kelt, chet, coit,W. coed, ' a wood.' See 

Chyandour (Penzance). Corn.= ' house on the water,' ti, chi, ' a 
house.' The G. tigh, *a house,' also commonly takes the ch 
sound. Cf.Ch.ysQ,\\&t&r,CoTn.chy sawstir, ' house on the Saxon 
or English land,' and Chyangwail, Lelant, ' house in the field,' 
gwel, gweal, rather than ' among the corn-stalks,' gwail. Also 
see Tywarnhaile. 

CiLSAN (on R. Towy). W. cil is 'the back,* then 'a retreat, a 
place of retreat, a comer.' Gf. G. cM and cuil. The -san is 
thought to be O.E. segne, L. sagina, Gk. a-ay-jvr], ' a seine (net).' 

Cindery I. (BrightUngsea) . 1539 Syndry, 1674 Sinder Isle. Prob. 
O.E. sunder ea, ' isle sundered or separated ' from the mainland. 
Gf. Sunderland; whilst Cinderford, For. of Dean, is 1281 
Sinderford. See -ey. 

Cirencester. Prob. c. 150 Ptolemy Corinion, a. 700 Rav. 
Geogr. Cironium, O.E. Ghron. 628 Cirenceastre, c. 893 Asser 
Cirrenceastre called ' Cair ceri ' in British, which is the south part 
of the Huiccii (see Worcester), 1155 Cirecestre, c. 1180 Ben. 
Peterb. Cirencestria, Cirecestria, 1298 Cicestre, which last is 
near the present pron.. Sister, Sizeter. In W. Caergeri, really 
the same name. Usually said to be ' Ciren's camp.' There is 
no Giren or Cyren in Onom., though we do find B.C. 8. 349 
Cyran leah — i.e., ' meadow of Cyra.' However, the root must be 
pre-Saxon, the name being ' camp on the Ciren' or ' Churn.* 
See -cester. 


CissBUBY (Worthing). Not in Dom. ' Burgh, fort of Cissa.' See 
Chichestee and -bury. 

Claines (Worcester), a, 1100 Cleinesse, a. 1200 Claines. This is 
certainly an abnormal name, but it can hardly be aught else 
but O.E. clone, cldne nces, ' clear, clean headland '; the orig. 
meaning of clean was ' clear." Of course, final -ness, q.v., is 
usually sounded ; but it could easily be slurred. 

Clandown (Radstock) and Clanfield (Hants and Oxon). Ox. 
C. Dom. Clenefelde, 1216-1307 Glanfeld, 1274-79 Clanefeld. 
Cf. Dom. Clanedun (Surrey) and Clandone (Bucks). AU fr. 
O.E. clcBne, cldne, ' clear, clean, free from dirt or weeds.' See 

Clapham (Westmld., London, and Beds). We. 0. Dom. Clapeham; 
Lon. C. a. 900 chart. Cloppaham, Clappenham, Dom. Clopeham; 
Bed. C. 1236 Clopham. Some think Lon. 0. is ' Home of the 
Osgod Glapa/ d. 1054, where Harthacnut drank himself to 
death ; but Skeat prefers to associate both the above, and also 
Claphams in Yorks and Lanes, with mid. Dan. klop, 'a stub, a 
stump,' prob. allied to clump : so ' house in the stumpy ground.' 
Similarly Clapton (Hungerford), 1316 Clopton, and Clapton 
(Glostrsh.) c. 1200 Cloptime ; whilst Dom. has a Clopcote (Berks). 
Cf. Clopton. Skeat does not seem to have noted the Dom, 
Westmld. form, which favours derivation fr. a man. Cf., too, 
Dom. Sffk. Cleptuna. 

Clarendon (Sahsbury). 1164 Hoveden Clarendonum, 1373 Claryn- 
done. The adj. clear is not found in Eng. a. 1297, and there is 
only one obscure Clare in Onom., so the origin of this name is 
doubtful. W. clavrr, 'surface, cover,' does not seem likely; 
' HiU of Clare ' is more so, O.E. dun, ' a hill, a fort.' Cf. next. 

CLAiBO (Yorks). Not in Dom., though now name of a wapentake. 
May be ' clear, conspicuous how ' O.N. haug-r, or moothill of its 
wapentake; only, clear, 3-5 cler, is not found in Eng. a. 1297. 
But there is also Clareton (Yorks), Dom. Claretone, which 
favours derivation fr. a man Clare. Cf. Clarendon, Greenho 
(Norfolk), and Thingoe. 

Clatford (Andover). Dom. Cladford. Doubtful. No name in 
Onom. like Clad. Perh. fr. O.E. elate, ' bur, burdock, cHvers.' 

Claughton-on -Brock (Garstang). Dom. Clactune, 1208 Clatton, 
1241 Close B. Clexton, 1288 Claghton. ' Vill&,ge of Clac,' several 
in Onom., whilst Brock is O.E. broc, ' a brook.' Cf. Claxton, 
Clawton, Holsworthy, and 1160-61 Pipe Clawurda (Notts and 
Derby); also Dom. Yorks Clactone, now Clayton West, and 
Cloctone now Cloughton. 

Claverdon (Stratford, Wwk.). Dom. Clavendone, 1151 Claver- 
don, 1326 Clardon. 'Clover hill'; O.E. clcefre. Cf. next, and 
see -don. 


Clavering (Newport, Essex). Dom. both Essex and Nfk. Clave- 
linga, 1241 Close B. Cluering, 1330 Claveryng. This cannot be 
the same as Claverlet (Wolverhmptn.) and Claverhouse 
(Sc), fr. O.E. clafre, clcefre, 4-7 claver, * clover/ It must be, by 
dissunilation, fr. a man Clavel, prob. he who came over with 
Wm. the Conqueror — ' place of the sons of Clavel.' See -ing. 

Claxton (Stockton, Yorks, and Norfk.). St. C. sic 1344, Yo. C. 
Dom. 3 times Claxtorp (see -thorpe), Nfk. C. Dom. Clakestona. 
' Town of Clacc ' or ' KlaTch-r,' a N. name. Cf. Clacton and 

Clay (Lincoln). Sice. 1180 Bened. Peterb. The earliest instance 
of the form clay, O.E. clde^, in the Oxf. Did. is a. 1300. 

Clayhanger (Devon, S. Somerset, Staffs, Essex). Dev. C. Dom. 
Clehangre, Glostr. C. Claenhangare; St. C. 1300 Cleyhunger, later 
Cleohongre; Ess. C. 1015 O.E. Chron. Clseighangra — i.e., ' clay 
slope.' The prob. meaning of O.E. Jiangra is ' slope,' fr. the 
ob. hang, or perh. ' wood on a slope.' See Oxf. Diet. HA]<rGER^. 
Cf. Birchanger, Hungerford, etc. In Glostr. it has now 
become Clinger, 1138 Cleangra. 

Clayton (8 in P.O.). More than one in Yorks Dom. Claitone. 
Clayton Griffith (Newcastle, Staffs) is Dom. Claitone, «.1300 
Clayton Griffyn. O.E. cZceg-Mw, 'town in the clay.' But Dow. 
Yorks also has a Clactone= Clayton West. See Claughton. 
The Griff yns were lords of the manor in the 13th cny. 

Clayworth (Retford). Dom. Clauorde. 1156 Clawurda, 1202 
Clawurth. ' Clayey farm.' Cf. above and -worth. The 
surname Cleworth is the same name. 

Cleasby (N. Riding, Yorks). D&m. Clesbi, 1202 Clasebi, 1298 
Cleseby. Prob. ' Dwelling of Clea/ or some such name, not 
found in Onom. See -by. Hardly fr. O.E. cleof, later cleo, ' a 
cliff, a CLEVE ' {q.v. in Oxf. Diet.). This last is the origin of 
Clee and Cleobtjry. 

Cleatlam (Barnard Castle), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Clethinga. Doubt- 
ful. The -am will be -ham, ' home.' 

Cleator (Whitehaven). Old Cletergh. O.N. klett-r, 'a, cliff, a 
crag,' and ergh, N. corrup. of G. airigh, 'a shieling, a hut.' 
Cf. Angles ARK. 

Cleddy R. (Milford Haven). 921 Clet5e mufan, c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. 
Glade mouth, c. 1130 Lib. Land. Clediv and Doncledif. Prob. 
O.W. cled, 'warm'; perh. W. cladd, 'a trench.' Cf. Clwyd. 
But Owen, 1603, spells it Clydagh. 

Clee Hills (Salop). Dom. Clee, Cleie. O.E. cleof, later cleo, ' a 
chff, a brae,' same word as Cleve-land. Cliff in O.E. is also 
clif, N. klif. Cf. Dom. Lines. Cleia, and Cleethorpes 
(Grimsby), not in Dom. 


Clenchwarton (K/s Lynn) . Not in Dom. 1234 Close R. Clenche- 
wartun. Doubtful. Hardly fr. Eng. to clench O.E. clincan, 
which as sb. is late. Cf. Clench Common (Marlboro'), which 
may be connected with 941 chart. Clinca leage, Tisted (Hants). 
Possibly Kelt., ? W. clyn, ' brake, thicket,' with 2nd syll. half 
lost, as in Trunch. See Warton. 

Clent Hills (Stourbridge). Sic Dom. Dan. and Sw. Jclint, Icel. 
klett-r, ' a hard, flinty rock,' found in Eng. as dint a. 1300 and 
as clent a. 1400. Cf. Glentworth, and Clint (Ripley, Yorks), 
not in Dom. ; also Dunclent, sic in Dom., near by. 

Cleobury Mortimbr (Salop). Dom. Cleberie, 1287 Cleburi 
Mortimer, ? 1298 Cluburi. ' Cliff -burgh ' or 'castle.' See 
Clee and -bury, and Mortimer. 

Clerkenwell (London). Sic E. E.Wills 14:/^. Very likely named 
' well of the clerks ' in the time of Henry I. There is a ' Clerche- 
welle ' (Kent), in 1158-59 Pipe. Stow, Survey, 1598, says, the 
London place ' took the name of the Parish Clerks in London 
who, of old time, were accustomed there yearly to assemble and 
to play some large history of Holy Scripture.' 

Clevedon (Somerset). 1321 Cliveden. ' Cliff -hke, brae-Hke hill.' 
See Clee, Cleveland, and and -don. Cleeve Prior (Eves- 
ham) is 888 chart. Clife, Dom. Clive. 1160-61 Pipe, Northants has 
a CHua. Cf. Bishop's Cleeve. 

Cleveland (N. Yorks). Sim. Dur. ann. 1093 Clivelande, 1209 
CHveland, 1461 Cle viand. ' CHff-land.' See Clee. Dom. has 
only Chve in Yorks, but this 12 times = North and South Cliff, etc. 

Clewer (Windsor and Cheddar). Win. C. Dom. Clivore, 1291 
Cliwar, Clyfwere, 1316 Clyware. Prob. O.E. cKf-wara, ' home 
of the cliff-dwellers.' Such cliff -men are referred to in B.C.S. 
1. 318 (Kent). Dom. Somst. has only a Clovewrde, 'farm of 
Clofa ' ; this can hardly be Clewer, Cheddar, but ? With it 
cf. Clearwell (For. of Dean), old Clowerwall, fr. dower, ' sluice, 
mill-dam,' found in 1483 clowre, and still in North dial, door, 
but further S. usually clow. See Oxf. Diet. s.v. 

Cliffe. Prob. that at Selby, c. 890 Alfred Baeda 772 Clife. O.E. 
cUf, ' a chff.' See also s.v. Cleveland. 

Clifford (4 in P.O.). Gloucester C. 922 chart. Clifforda, Dom. 
CHfort. ' Cliff -ford '—i.e., ' steep ford.' 

Clifton (14 in P.O.). Dom. Yorks Cliftun, 14 times, 
a. 1100 Hugo Candidus a ' Cliftune,' Rugby C. Dom. Cliptone 
{p an error). Clifton Camvtlle (Tamworth) is Dom. Clistone, 
another error, but 1100 Cliftun. 'Cliff town.' See above. 
The Camvilles were Nor. lords of the manor, who took their 
name fr. Canappeville, Eure, Normandy. Their name was also 
spelt Campville. 


Clipsham (Oakham) and Clipston (Mket. Harboro'). Dom. Clipe- 
stone, 1317 Clipston. ' Clip's home ' or ' village ' ; one Cli'p 
in Onom. Gf. Dom. CHpesbei, now Clixby (Norfk.). 

Clitheroe (Lanes), Sim. Dur. contin. ann. 1138 Clitherhou, 
1175-76 Cliderhous, 1230 CHderho, 1241 -erhow, 1501 CUderowe. 
Fr. early dial, dithers, mod. dial, clider, for clivers, , ' goose- 
grass/ and Hoe, O.E. hoh, ' a height.' \ 

Clive (Shrewsbury). Sic 1327. O.E. clif, 2-6 cliue, really a 
dat., ' a cliff.' 

Clopton (Glostrsh., Thrapston, Stratford, Wwk., Woodbridge [or 
Clapton]). Gl. C. Dom. Cloptune. Thr. C. c. 1080 Inquis 
Camh. Clopetuna, 1210 Cloptune. Str. C. 1016 Cloptune, Dom. 
Clotone. ' Town of Glopa ' c/., Clapton, also 1179-80 Ti'pe 
Clopton (Yorks). But c/. Clapham. 

Closworth (Sherborne). Not in Dom. 1252 chart. Cloveswurthe, 
1270 Clovesuude (i.e., ' wood '). Prob. ' farm of Ciovis or Chfa,' 
or some such name. The nearest in Onom. is Clofena. Cf. a 
' Closley,' 1285 in Salop, and Lowestoft; and see -worth. 

Cloughton. See Claughton. 

CLOviLLY (N. Devon). Dom. Clovelie. Doubtful; perh. Com. 
clog (G. cloch), ' a steep rock ' and velen, ' yellow.' There is also 
a Bratton Clovelly, near Okehampton. 

Clun (W. Salop). Dom. Clone, Clune. Now in W. Colunwy. 
[Cf. 1131 O.E. Chron. ' Prior of Clunni.] W. clyn, ' a brake, a 
thicket.' But cf. Clunie (Sc), and G. cluain, ' a meadow.' 
Clungunford, near by, will be W. clyn gywn, ' fair, clear thicket,' 
whilst Clunbury is Dom. Climeberie. See -bury; and Clttnton 
is Dom. Cluton. 

Clwyd R. (Denbighsh.). Dom. Cloith, Cloit. W. clwyd, ' warm,* 

also ' strong.' Cf. Clyde (Sc). 
Clydach (Glam. and Abergavenny). Gl. C. 1207-08 Cleudach. 

W. clwyd, ' warm, comfortable, sheltering.' Some say, ach is 

' river ' ; it is more prob. a suffix of place. Cf. Clarach, Aberyst- 


Clyst (Exeter and Topsham). Ex. C. 1001 O.E. Chron. Glistun, 
v.r. Chstun, Dom. CKstone, Glustone. Also Dow. Bucks, Wore, 
and Dorset Clistone, -tune. Hybrid. W. glwys, ' a hallowed 
place, a fair spot,' and -ton. 

CoALBROOKDALE (Salop) and Colebrook (Plympton). Dom. 
Colebroche, 1298 Colebroke. O.E. col, 'cool, cold,' does not 
suit well phonetically, so it may be fr. O.E. col, 2-8 cole, ' char- 
coal, coal'; — brook beside which charcoal was burned. Cf. 
Dom.Chesh. Colbourne, 1157P*i3eNorthbld.Colebr'., 1107-28 Lift. 
Winton. Colobrochestrel (Winchester), and Coleshill. See 


CoALEY (Frocester). Dom. Cpeleye, later Covel-, Couley. Prob. 
* Cofa's mead/ See -ley. 

COANWOOD (Carlisle). ' Wood of Goen or Goena/ several in Onom. 
Cf. B.C.S. 313 ' Cohhanleah/ date 804. 

CoATES (Peterboro', Cirencester). Pe. C. Dom. Cota, Cote. O.E. 
cot, cott ; M.E. cotes, ' cots, cottages.' 

CoBDEN Hill (Elstree). Old Copdene; also cf. ' Coppdene ' 1314 in 
Sussex, later Cob den, now extinct. ' Hill at the head of the 
(wooded) valley/ fr. O.E. cop, coppe, ' top, summit' (Oxf. Diet. 
gives no spelling of the sb. cop with a 6). See -den. 

CoBHAM. Surbiton C. Grant of a. 675 Chebe-, Chabbeham, Dom. 
Cebeha, 1315 Cobeham. ' Home of Geabba,' one in Onom. 
But Gravesend C. 939 chart. Cobba hamme, ' enclosure of Gobba.' 
Gf. CoBLEY (Alvechurch), a. 1200 Cobbeslee; and see -ham. 

CocKERMOUTH. c. 1310 Cokcrmue, 1317 Cokermuth. Can this 
river's name come fr. O.E. cocer, M.E. koJcer, cokre, ' a quiver ' ? 
If not, then fr. what ? There is also Cockebham (Garstang), 
Dom. Cocreha, 1206 Cokerheim, which must be fr. a man Cocker, 
a surname still found. In Eng. cocker is ' a prize-fighter, a 
wrangler/ not found c. 1275, or ' a hay-worker,' 1st in 1393. 
But in our place-names Cocker- is prob. the inflected form of 
the N. name Kok-r. The river name must remain doubtful. 
Gf. next and Coker, Somst., Dom. Cocre. 

CocKEBTON (Darlington), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Cocertune, 1183 
Cokirtona. ' Town of Gocker,' a name not in Onom., but see 
above, and cf. Cockebsand Abbey (Lancaster), 1213-15 Cocres- 
sand, 1236-'^ Kokersond; also 1225 Patent B. Cokerinton, a 

CocKFiELD (Bury St. Edmunds and Durham) . Bury C. chart. Cochan- 
feld. ' Field of Gocha ' or ' Gocca: Gf. B.G.8. 246 Coccan burh. 
Old forms needed for Dur. C. Gf. 1157 Pipe CochuUa (? Gloster.), 
and Dom. Wore. ' Cochesie.' In Pipe Rolls of Rich. I. we also 
have ' Cokefeld ' (Oxfd.) and * Cockesfeld ' (Norfk.), which seem 
to come fr. cock. See next. Gf. Coxjghton. 

CocKLEY Cley (Swaffham). Not in Dom. 1451 Cokely Clay. Gf. 
Dom. Cliesh. Code, and 1200 chart. Kokedale. ' Cock's 
meadow '; O.E. cocc, coc, kok, ' a barnyard cock.' Gf. next and 
Clay, O.E. cIost,, 4-6 cUy ; also Coxley. See -ley. 

CocKNAGE (Trentham). 1194 Cokenache. Ache is not a M.E. 
form of oak (see Oxf. Diet, s.v.), as Duignan thinks, but is for 
hatch, O.E. hoea{c), gen. hcecce, 3-7 hacche, bacche, so this is 
* hatch, half-door or wicket-gate of the cock,' O.E. coc; or, of a 
man Goc or Gocca, both forms are known. Gf. Stevenage. 
CocKBTJP (Glostr.), oZcZ Cocthrop, is ' Gocca's farm.' See thorpe. 

CocKSHOTTS Wood (Lanes). 1377-99 Cokeshoteslace, and Cock- 
SHUTT (Cakemore, Halesowen, and Ellesmere). Ca. C. 1440 


Kockshete. A cockshot is a broad way or glade through which 
game {cochs) might sJioot, so as to be caught in nets. There are 
many so named in Wore. 

CoDNOR (Derby). Dom. Cotenovre. 'Bank, border of Coda' or 
' Cota,' both on record. Cf. Codbakbow (Wwksh.), a. 1300 
Codbarwe, ' Coda's mound/ and Dom. Kent ' Codeha.' The 
n is the sign of the O.E. gen. See -or, -over. 

CoDSALL (Wolverhampton), a. 1200 Coddeshal, a. 1300 Codeshale. 
' Nook of Codda ' or ' Coda.' Cf. Codnor, and see -hall. 

CoEDPENMAEN (Pontypridd). W. for ' wood of the rocky headland 
or height.' Coed Rhath (Pembroke) 1324, Coyt rath is W. 
for ' wood on the mound or hill.' Coety (? Pembroke) is old 
Coetif, O.W. for ' dark wood,' W. dy. 

CoGGESHALL (Essex). Dom. Cogghessala, 1298 Coggeshale, 'nook 
of Coga or Cogga.' See Onom. Prob. not fr. M.E. cogge, 'a 
small ship.' Cf. 1183 Boldon BJc. Cogesalle (Durham). See 

CoQYROS (Cornwall). Said to be Corn, for ' cuckoo-moor.' Lit. it 
is ' cuckoo in the moor,' W. and Com. cog. 

Colchester. (? 940 chart. B.C.S. 750, CoUacestr), Dom. and 1160 
Pipe Colecestra. The Camulodunum of Tacitus — Camulos was 
a Kelt, deity. An inscription shows that the Empr. Claudius 
founded ' Colonia Victricensis ' here, and so it may have come 
to be called ' Colonia castra,' O.E. chart. Colenceaster, in W. 
Caercolun. So Colchester may mean ' colony camp ' or 'city.' 
Only it is on E,. Colne, and so quite possibly it means only 
' camp, castle on the Colne.' 

Cold Aston (Glostersh.). c. 955 chart. iEsctun — i.e., 'ash-tree 
town.' Dom. Escetone. Cf. Caldicot. 

Cold Coniston (Craven) . Dom. Congehestone, Coningeston ; 1202 
Calde Cuningeston= Cold Kingston. Cf. Conisborouqh. 

Cold Harbour (Boston, Grantham, Cambs, Glostrsh., Leith Hill). 
' Cold shelter,' an ironic name, says Leo of Halle, in Ger. Kalte- 
herburg. On harbour, which is lit. ' a place of shelter,' see Oxf. 
Diet. Cf. c. 1485 Skelton, ' some say the devil's dead and 
buried in Cold Harbour.' 

Colesboubne (Cheltenham), c. 800 chart. Colesburna, c. 802 ib. 
Collesburna — i.e., ' bum, brook of Colle ' or ' Cola,' a common 
O.E. name. Cf. Coleby (Lines), and Coseley, also Dom. 
Surrey Colesdone; Nfk. Colebei. Colbotjrn (Yorks) is in Dom. 
Corbume by dissimilation. There is a brook Cole (Wilts). 
CoLECOMBE (Sevenhampton) is fr. R. Coln. 

CoLESHiLL (Swindon, Warwksh., and FHnt). Sw.C. Dom. Coles- 
eUe, 1298 Coleshulle. War. C. 799 chart. Colles hyl, Dom. Coles- 
hille. Fi. C. c. 1188 Gir. Camb. KoleshuU, but said also to be 


old Counsylht. ' Hill of Colle ' or ' Cola.' But both the Berks 
and War. places are on a R. Cole, whose origin is hard to guess. 
It will not be O.E. cawel, cawl, 4 col, ' cole, cabbage '; nor does 
O.E. col, 'cool,' suit well phonetically; while col, 'charcoal/ 
does not seem likely. Cf. Coalbrookdale. 

Collin GB0T7E,NE Ducis and Kingston (Marlborough), Dom. 
Cohngeburne, 1298 Colyngborn. ' Bourne, bum, or brook of 
Colling,' a name in Onom., where also are Collanus and Collinc. 
It is a patronymic fr. Goll{a), a fairly common name. Cf. 
Dom. Yorks CoUngaworde, now Cullingworth, and Coneyswick 
(Wstrsh.), Dom. Colingwic. Ducis is L. for ' of the duke.' 

Collin GHAM (Newark). Dom. Cohngeham, a. 1100 Colingham. 
' Home of Colling.' See above and -ing. 

CoLMWOBTH (St. Neot's). Dom. Colmeworde, -borde (6 for v). 
'Farm of Colm.' Cf. Dom. Colmestan (Salop). In Scotland 
Colm is short for Columba. Here it may be for Colman. 
See -worth. 

CoLN R.. (Glostrsh.) and Colne R. (Herts). Gl. C. [c. 740 chart. 
Cunugl ae, 855 ib. Cunelga, 962 ib. Cungle] old Culna, Culne, 
Colum; He. C. 985 chaH. Colen, 893 O.E. Chron. Colne. Prob. 
pre-Keltic. A river would not be named fr. L. colonia, and W. 
collen, ' hazel, hazel-wood,' is scarcely likely. In view of the 
undoubted early forms of both rivers, confirmed by a Devon 
R. Coin, found so early as 670 chart. Culum, it is all but certain 
that the Cunugl forms must have been applied to the Glo'ster 
river through some Saxon's error. Phonetically they are hard 
to identify, and Cunugl is now represented by Knoyle. Coln 
St. Aldwyn's, Fairford (Glostr.), corrupt chart, form, dated 681 
Enneglan, prob. = Cuneglan, is fr. the hermit monk St. Ealdwine, 
prob. he who d. 1085, and was founder of Malvern Priory. 
Ealdwine was a favourite name with churchmen. See Onom. 

Colne (St. Ives, Hunts, and Lanes). Hu. C. is sic in Dom., and 
so prob. = above. La. C. is 1230 Calna, 1241 Close R. Kaun, 
1251 Caime, 1327 Cohi, so must be=CALNE. C/. Dom. Nhants. 

CoLNEY Hatch and Heath (St. Albans). O.E. chart. ColenoE 
i.e., ' isle on R. Colne, q.v. and -ey. Hatch means ' a wicket- 
gate.' See Aldboeough Hatch. 

CoLTON (Rugeley and 6 others). Dom. Coltune, -tone, and so later. 
Dom. Yorks gives Coltune, Coletun, or Colletun 15 times. Un- 
certain, but prob. O.E. col tun, ' charcoal (or coal) town.' Col- 
wiCH (Rugeley), 1166 Calewich, a. 1300 Cole-, Colwych, is also 
' coal- village.' Coal is O.E. col, 2-8 cole, 6- coal, but Oxf. Diet. 
gives no cale, and it may be an error. 

Combe (Coventry and Hungerford). Cov. C. old Cumb, Combe; 
Hun. C. Dom. Comba. O.E. cu7nb, ' a bowl, a valley, a coomb.' 


Of. W. cwm, ' hollow/ and Coomlees (Sc), also Dom. Wore, 
' Comble/ or ' meadow, lea, in the valley/ Combrooke, also 
in Warwk., is ' brook in the valley/ Combe Martin (N. Devon) 
is fr. a Martin of Tours, who received lands here fr. Wm. Rufus. 
We have a pi. form in Combs (Stockport and Stowmarket), 
the latter 1235 Cambes. 

Comberbach (Northwich), Combereord (Tamworth), and Comber- 
mere (Nantwich). a. 1200 Cumbreford. 1135 Cumbermere, 1240 
Cumbremer. One is tempted to derive Comber- fr. a Keltic root 
meaning ' confluence,' as in Cumbernauld (Sc.) and in Quimper 
or Kemper (Brittany). Cf. W. cymmer and G. comar with this 
meaning. There is a ' Roger de Combre ' in Cheshire a. 1200, 
and Comber- or Combre may be O.E. cumbra, gen. pi. of cumb, 
' a valley ' — at least in some cases. But Comberton and 
Comberworth almost force a derivation fr. Cumbra, a man's 
name, lit. ' a Welshman.' The -bach is O.E. bcec, O.Fr. bache, 
Nor.Fr. bake, M.E. bache {q.v. in Oxf. Diet.), 'the vale of a 
stream,' same root as beck. Cf. Batchworth, Saptdbach, and 
PoNTYCYMMER. Mere is Eng. and O.E. for ' lake.' 

Comberton (Pershore and Cambridge). Pe. C. 972 chart. Cum- 
brincgtune, Dom. Cumbri(n)tune, 1275 Cumbrintone. Ca. C. 
Dom. Cumbertone, 1210 Cumbretone. ' Town of Cumbra,' or 
' the Welshman,' or their descendants. Cf. Cumberworth and 
1157 Pipe Cumbremara (Staffd.); and see above and -ing. 

Comberworth (Lines) and Upper Cumberworth (Huddersfd.). 
1236 Close B. Comberworth. Cf. Earle Chart. 447 Cumbran 
weor3, Pershore. ' Farm of Cumbra,' or ' the Welshman.' Cf. 
above and Cumberland. 

Combwich (Bridgwater). Dom. Comich. O.E. cww6 mc, ' valley 
dwelling or hamlet ' ; wic regularly becomes wich in later Eng. 
Cf. Combridge (Uttoxeter), a. 1300 Combruge. 

Compton (16 in P.G.). 804 chart. Cumbden, Kent (-den and -ton 
interchange), 962 ib. Cumtun (Glostr.), 990 ib. Cumtune 
(? which), c. 1020 Cumtune (Guildford or Petersfield ?), Dom. 
Cun-, Contone (Warwk.), Contone (Wolvermpton.), Cantune (I. of 
Wight); 1298 Cumpton (? which), a. 1400 Comptone (Wolver- 
hampton). O.E. cumb tun, ' valley village.' Dom. has 32 
manors, always with n — Contone. Cf. Combe. 

Compton Beauchamp (Berks) is named fr. Guido de Bello Campo 
(in Fr. Beau Champ), Earl of Warwick, and Alicia his wife, who 
held lands here 1315-16. C. Scorpion (Shipston), Dom. Con- 
tone parva, 1279 Compton Scorfen, which last, thinks Duignan, 
may be * track, score over the fen,' but it is quite uncertain. 
Scorpion, at any rate, is popular etymology. C. Winyates, 
near by, is said to show an old form of ' vineyard.' It is a. 1300 
C. Wyniate, Wyndyates, c. 1540 C. Vyneyatis. ^ . 


CoNBEUN (Wales). Thought to preserve the name of the early 
British Kling Cunohellinus. 

CoNDATE (Northwich). Early forms, see Cound. Old Keltic = 
' confluence/ fr. con, ' together/ and dJie, ' set/ Cf. Cond6, 
(France), in O.E. Chron. Cundoth, and Kind St., mod. name of 
the Roman road here. Also see Watson, Place-Names Ross, 
s.v. Contin. The streams Dane and Croco join here. Cf. Con- 
DOVER and Cunuffe. Congreve (Penkridge) is Dom. Come- 
grave, a. 1300 Cune-, Cumgrave, where the Con- is uncertain, 
but it may be fr. O.E. cumb, ' valley,' so often in Dom. as Con- 

CoNDERTON (Tewkesbury) . 875 chart. Cantuaretun, 1327 Conterton. 
Very interesting proof of a settlement of Kent men here ; for the 
name in O.E. means ' Kent -dwellers' town,' as in Canterbury. 
But E.. CoKDER (Lancaster), 1228 Gondouere, is, of course = 
CoNDOVER. W. and H. absurdly suggest a derivation fr. Gunn- 
hildr ! 

CoNDicoTE (Stow-on-Wold). Dom. Condi-, Connicote, 1169 Cumdi- 
cote. Hybrid; cond. O.Kelt, for 'confluence,' see Condate, 
and cf. Ft. Conde; and O.E. cot, ' cottage.' Baddeley prefers to 
derive fr. a man. There is no Conda, and only one Cunda in 

CoNDOVER (Shrewsbury). Dom. Conodoure, 1228 Cunedour, 1234 
Cunesdour, 1238 Cone-, Cundover. O.W. for ' the joining of 
the streams.' See Condate and Dover. Candover is prob. 
the same name; Conder E,. certainly is. 

CoNEYSTHORPE (Malton). Dom. Coningestorp. 'King's village.' 
O.N. honung-r, ' king,' an interesting corrup. See Coningsby 
and -thorpe. But Coneybury and Coneybtjrrow Hill 
(Wore.) and Conbygar (Gloster.) are fr. cony, M.E. for ' rabbit,' 
while Coneys- or Conningswick (also in Wore.) is Dom. Coling- 
wic, 1275 CoUingwike, ' abode of Colling,' or ' the sons of Coll.' 
Cf. CoLLTNQHAM, and see -wick. Coneygar is for cony-garth. See 
Oxf. Diet. s.v. 

CoNGERSTONE (Athcrstoue) . ' Stone of Congar,' not in Duignan. 
But cf. Dom. Norfk. Congrethorp', and Congresbtjry ; also see 

CoNGLETON (E. Cheshire). Dom. Cogeltone. One would expect 
the jBrst half to be the name of a man, but there is none likely 
in Onom. There is a Conall, son of Comgal, K. of Dabriada 563, 
which names might suggest an origin ; but more old forms are 
needed. Cf. Coln (Glostr.), 962 Cungle; also cogill, found 
c. 1400, now dial, coggle, ' a water -worn or cobble-stone.' 

Congresbury (Weston-super-Mare). Exon. Dom. Cungresberia, 
O.E. chart. Congaresbyrig, which is ' burgh, town of St. Con- 
garus,' who is buried here. The monastery of ' Cungresbyri ' 


was granted by K. Alfred to Asser. Little seems known about 
the saint himself. In 1155 Pipe it is Cungresbi. See -by. 

CoNiNQSBY (Boston). Dom. Cuningesbi, 1298 Cunynggesby. 
' DweUing of the ELing.' O.N. konung-r, Dan. konge. See -by. 
Cf. CoNNiNQSBTTRGH (Sc), CoNiNGTON (Cambs.), B.C.S. ill. 630 
Cunningtun, Dom. Cunitone, 1210 Conintone, 1290 Conington, 
1426 Conitone, Skeat thinks, may perh. be fr. a man, Cuna, 
gen. Cunan. Cf. Connington (Hunts), 1236 Close R. Conninton, 
Cunyton, and Cold Coniston. Conisbuegh (Rotherham), 
1240 Close R. Cunigeburg, is clearly = Coningsby. See -burgh. 

CoNisBOROUGH (Rotherham). Dom. Coningesburg, -bore, c. 1145 
Geqffr. Monm. ' Kaerconan, now Cunungeburg,' 1202 Kuning- 
bere. ' King's burgh.' See above and -burgh. 

CoNisGLiFFE (Darlington), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. CingcescUfe, 1202 
Cuniggesclive super Teisam. The name represented in the first 
half is perh, doubtful. It may be Cynegyth or Cynesige (Kinsige) . 
Prob. it is for King. Cf. Coningsby. On cliffe, see Clee. 

CoNONLEY (Keighley). Dom. Cutnelai. Doubtful. Perh. corrup. 
of Cutan leak, ' Cuta's meadow.' Cuta and Cutha are both in 
Onom. See -ley. 

CoNSETT (Co. Durham). 1183 Boldon Bk. Conekesheued. Inter- 
esting corruption. Heued is M.E. for O.E, heafod, ' head, height,' 
and this must be ' the height of ' some quite unknown man. 
There is one Cynech in Onom! 

CoNSTANTiNE (Padstow). Fr. Constantinus, King and martyr, a 
convert of St. Petrock. He died 590. 

Conway (N. Wales). Prob. c. ^%Q Ant. Itin. Conovio, and a. 700 
Rav. Geogr. Canubio (the river), a. 1196 Gir. Camb. Cunewe, 
Aberkonewe, -coneu; 1295 Aberconewey, still the proper name 
of the town. The E,. in W. is Conwi, ' chief river,' fr. Keltic 
con, ' together,' and gwy, ' river,' referring to the main stream, 
being joined by tributaries. Conway (Sc.) is not the same 
word. , 

CooKHAM (Maidenhead), a. 971 will Coccham, Dom. Cocheham, 
1238 Cokh', 1241 Cocham, also Cucham. The chief evidence 
points to O.E. coc-ham, 'cook's home'; but Cocham and the 
like point to O.E. cocc, ' a cock,' ' cock's home.' Cookridge 
(Yorks) is Dom. Cucheric, ? ' cook's ' or ' cock's.' Cook Hill 
(Inkberrow) is a. 1300 Cochulle, and Cooksey (Bromsgrove) is 
Dom. Cochesei, a. 1300 Cokesey. The present phonetic evidence 
is all in favour of cook. Cf. Cuxham. 

CooKLEY (Eadderminster). 964 cAar^ Culnan clif, 1066 Cullecliffe, 
1275 ColecHf . The charter name must be ' Culna's cliff.' The 
corrup. to -ley, ' meadow,' is rare. We have it the other way 
round in Trottersoliffe. 


CooLESTG (Rochester). 805 c^orit. Cinges Culand, or 'King's Cow- 
land/ but in other charters it is 774 Colling, 778 Oulinga, and 
805 Culingas, as if a patronymic. The name has got mixed. 
There are two named Coling and two named Culling in Onom. 
This latter personal name still exists. Cf. Cowling. 

CoPDOGK (Ipswich) . Gf. 900 in Thorpe Diplom. 145 On Sa coppedan 
ac. Copdock is ' copped' — i.e., pollarded ' oak ' — O.E. ac, very 
rarely found now as ock. Oxf. Diet, gives only 3-5 oJc. It also 
gives only O.E. quots. for this sense of copped, which is fr. cop sb., 
O.E. cop, copp, ' head, top.' But Dam. Surrey has a Copedorne, 
which is 1160-01 Pipe Coppedethorn. Cf. Copythobne and the 
surname Braddock. 

CoPMANTHOBPE (York). Dom. Copemantorp. 'Village of Cop- 
man,' N. for 'Chapman, merchant.' One in Onom. Cf. 1242 
' Close R. Copmaneford, now Coppingford (Hunts). See -thorpe. 

CoPPENHALL (Stafford and W. Cheshire). Dom. both Copehale, and 
later Copen-, Coppenhale. ' Nook of Coppa ' or ' Copa,' the 
mod. name Cope. Cf. Copgrove (Yorks), Dom. Copegrave ; and 
CoPNOE, (Portsmouth), Dom. Copenore, O.E. Copanora, ' Copa's 
bank.' See -haU and -or. 

CopPLESTONE (Devon). Cf. Dom. Sffk. Copletuna. Prob. ' Town ' 
or ' stone of Cuthbeald,' common in Onom. ; cf. the surname 
Cupples. See -ton. 

CoPYTHORNE (Southampton). Not in Dom., but cf. K.C.D. v. 240, 
To San coppedan fome ; also Dom. Surrey Copedorne and 
Copededorne, 1160-61 Pipe Coppedethorn, ' the pollarded thorn- 
tree.' See Copdock. But if this name be late, it will be fr. O.Fr. 
cop-, coupp-, colpeiz, ' a blow, a stroke, a copse ' ; in 5-6 copie, 
copy ; but in mod. Eng. coppice, ' a wood or thicket of small 
trees or underwood.' The earUest quot. in Oxf. Diet, is 1538, 
but copy is found in 1486 in Nottingham Rec. iii. 254. 

Coquet R. (Northumbld.). c. 800 Hist. St. Cuthb. Cocwuda, a. 1130 
Sim. Dur. Coqued. Cf. c. 1250 Matt. Paris Koket insula. 
Cocc-wvda is O.E. fr. ' cock's wood.' 

CoBBRiDGE (Hexham), c. 380 Ant. Itin. Corstopitum, a. 1130 
Sim. Dur. Corebricge, 1150 Corbrig, 1157 Corebrigge. Corstopit- 
-um is prob. G. corr stobaeh, ' hill -spur full of stumps ' {stob), 
with Brythonic p for b, and t common scribal error for c, G. 
corr is lit. ' a snout, a bill, a horn ' ; W. cor is ' a circle, a crib.' 

Corby (Carhsle, Grantham, Kettering). Car. C. 1120 Chorkeby, 
1222 Korkebi— i.e., ' dwelHng by the oat-field.' N. korki. Cf. 
CoRKicKLE. But Gr. C. is Dom. Corbi, and Ke. C. Carbi, 
' dwelling of Cor ' or ' Car.' One in Onom. See -by. 

CoRFB (Taunton) and Coree Castle (Wareham). Corfe c. 1180 
Ben. Peterb. Chorf. C. Castle, 975 E.O. Chron. Corfes Geat (gate), 
c. 1160 Gest. Steph. Corfli castellum, 1234 Corf, 1393 Letter 


Notre Chastelle de Corf. Prob. ' a cutting ' in the Purbeck 
hills, in which the castle stands, fr. O.E. ceorfan^ ' to cut/ 
Of. Dom. Corf an (Salop), 1160 Pipe Corfha, and Gorton. 

CoBKiOKLE (Whitehaven). Prob. N. korki-keld, 'oat-field well.' 
Of. Cockley Beck, also Cumbld. old Korkahth, O.N. Uith, ' a 
hill-slope/ and Corby. But there is a Keekle beck near White- 
haven, and this raises uncertainty. 

CoRLEY (Coventry and Salop). Cov. C. Dom. ComeUe, 1327 Corn- 
leye, a. 1400 Corley. Sal. C. Dom. and later Cornhe. ' Corn- 
growing meadow.' See -ley. We have a reverse change in 
Cornbrough (E. Riding), Dom. Corlebroc, a form of somewhat 
doubtful meaning. 

CoBNHiLL (London, Sunderland, on Tweed). Lo. C. 1160-61 Pi'pe 
CornheUe, 1167-68 ih. Cornhille, 1234 Close R. Cornhull, where 
all the endings = ' hill.' But Su. C. is 1183 CornehaU, 1322 Corn- 
hale = -hall, q.v. 

Cornwall. 1047 O.E. Chron. Comwalon (inflected), Dom. Com- 
valge, c. 1110 Orderic Comu Britanniae, id est Cornwallia, 1189 
Cornubia, c. 1205 Layam. Cornwaile, -wale. Cf. Cornouaille 
{Bom. Rose Cornewaile), Brittany. Earle says, ' Place of the 
Walas or strangers of Kernyw.' Cf. Wales. Others derive fr. 
O.Fr. corn, L. comu, ' a horn,' fr. the shape of Cornwall. 

CoRNWOOD (Ivybridge). Local pron. Kemood. Dom. Cornehude. 
Looks like O.E. corn wudu, ' corn wood '; but wherefore such a 
name ? No Corn or the Hke in Onom. Cf. Corn worthy, ' corn 
farm ' (Totnes), and Corndean (Winchcombe), 1189 Corndene. 
But, because of a Come and a Cornbrook, also in Glostrsh., 
Baddeley thinks Corn must be an old stream name, and says cf, 
Abercorn. But that Sc. name is in Bede ^bbercurnig. 

CoRRiNGHAM (Stanford-le-Hope and Gainsboro'). St. C. Dom,. 
Coringe-, 1242 Curingeham. Ga. C. Dom. Currincham. Patro- 
nymic. ' Home of the sons of "" some unrecorded Cur a or Cora. 
There is one Cyra in Onom. See -ing. 

Corse Lawn (Tewkesbury). 1179 Cors. W. cors, 'a fen,' and 
llan, 'enclosure, then church.' Cf. Carse (Sc). There seems 
no authority for Duignan's assertion that corse is a M.E. form of 

Corsley (Frome) and Corston (Bristol). 941 chart. Corsantune, 
Dom. Corstune, ' mead ' and ' village of Corsa. See -ley. 

CoRTON Denham (Sherborne). Dom. Corfetone, 1235 Close B. 
Corfton and Cortun. See Corfe. Denham is ' home in the 
dean ' or ' (wooded) vale.' 

CoRWEN (E. Merioneth). Possibly W. cor faen, 'circle of stone/ 
or, as T. Morgan says, ' stone in a circle.' But, as hkely, W. cor 
gwen, ' white, beautiful circle,' or ' choir,' or ' church.' Cf. 


Bangor. There is a ' Corf an ' in Salop Dom., but this must be 
the Corf ham of 1160 Pipe Salop. 

CosELEY (Bilston). 14th to 17th cny. Colse-, Couls-, Colsley, later 
Cossley. Prob. ' meadow of Col ' or ' Cola.' Cf. Colesboubne, 
and see -ley. 

Cosgeove (Stony Stratford) . 1238 Close R. Couesgrave, ' grave/ 
O.E. grcBJ, ' of Cuja.' Cf. Coveney. The endings -grave and 
-grove often interchange. But Cosby (Leicester), Cosford 
(Rugby), and Cosham (Hants), 1241 Cosseby, a. 1200 Cosseford, 
and Dom. Cose-, Cosseham, are fr. an unrecorded man, Cosa or 
Cosse. See -ham. 

CosHESTON (Pembroke). 1603 Owen Costeinston. 'Town of Con- 
stantine.' K. Constantine is 926 O.E. Chron. Cosstantin. 

CossrNGTON (Bridgwater). 1237 Close R. Cusinton. 'Village of 
Cusa,' gen. -an. 3 in Onom. Cf. Cosby. See -ing. 

CoTHERiDGE (Worcester). 963 c^arf.. Coddan hrycce, hrycge, Dom. 
Codrie, a. 1300 Coderugge. 'Ridge,' O.E. hrycge, hrycce, 'of 
Codda ' or ' Coda.' One each in Onom. In same shire is 
OoTTERLDGB, 1275 Coderugge. 

CoTHERSTONE (DarUngtou). a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Cuthbertestun. ' St. 
Cuthbert's town,'' an interesting corrup. The great Cudberct or 
Cuthbert of Mekose flourished c. 700. Cf. a. 1110 ' Cotherstoke ' 
(Oundle). But Cotherston (N. Yorks) is Dom. Codrestune, -ton, 
' town of Codra.' Cf. B.C.S. 1282 Codranford. 

CoTON (Cambridge, 2 Warwk., StafEs, Shrewsbury). Cam. C. 1211 
and 1291 Cotes, 1272 Cotun, 1296 Coton. War, C. Dom. and 
1287 Cotes, 1327 Cottone. Staf. C. Dom. Cote. Skeat thinks 
prob. O.E. cotum, dat. pi. of cot, ' cottage.' But coton, -un, are 
regular, and cotes irregular nom. plurals. Cf. Cotton and 
Cotham, Notts, Dom. Cotun, Cotes. 

COTSWOLD Hills. 780 chart. Monte quem nominant in colse mons 
Hwicciorum, c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Montana de Codesuualt, 1231 
Coteswold, 1300 Rolls Parlmt. Coteswalde, a. 1500 Cottasowlde, 
a. 1553 Udall Cotssold. The present spelling may be, as Oxf. 
Diet, thinks, popular etymology ; but the name prob. is ' Code's, 
Cota's, or Cotta's wood.' All 3 names are in Onom. O.E. wald, 
weald, ' a wood,' is the origin of both weald and wold. Cf. next 
and CuTSDEAN, a yet older name. 

CoTTERED (Buntingford). Dom. Chodi'ei, 1236 Close R. Codreye, 
Coudr'. ' River, stream, brook of Coda,' O.E. rith, ' stream.' 
Cf. Rye, Rydb, Childrey, and Cotgrave, Notts, Dom. Godegrave. 

CoTTESBROOKE (Northampton). ' CoUa's or Cota's brook.' Cf. 
above, ' Coteshala,' and ' Coteslai ' (Bucks) in Dom., and Cot- 
TENHAM (Cambridge), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Cotenham, 1283 
Cotenhame. This last might mean 'cottar's home.' Dom. Yorks 
Cotesmore is now Kedmoor, so t here will be error for c, ' moor 
of Coca.' 


CoTTiNGHAM (Hull). Prob. O.E. Chron. and Sim. Dur. re ann. 800, 
Cettingaham, Dom. Cotingeham, 1135 O.E. Chron. Cotingham. 
Patronymic. ' Home of the descendants of Cotta or Cota.' Cf. 
above, next, and also Cottingham (Market Harborough) and 
Cottingley (Bingley). Cottingwith (E. Riding) is Dom. Cote- 
wid, ' Cota's wood.' 

Cotton (Chesh., Derby, and Stowmarket). Ch. C. Dom. Cotintone, 
St. 0. 1479 Colton (a mistake), a. 1490 Cotton. Some perh. 
O.E. coton, loc. plur. of cot, cota, ' a cot, a cottage.' But 
Dom.'s form is ' Cota's town.' See above, and cf. Cotok. 
Dom. Yorks has Cottun 5 times, representing Cottam, Crosby 
Cote, etc. 

CouGHTON (Alcester and Ross, Hereford). Al. C. Dom. Coctune, 
a. 1200 Cocton. Either fr. a man Cocca or Coche, see Cock- 
field, or fr. O.E. cocc, coc, ' a cock.' See Cockley. For oc 
becoming ough, cf. Broughton, 1128 Broctuna. 

CouND (Shrewsbury). Dom. Cundet, 1240 Close B. Cunitte. ' Con- 
fluence,' See CoNDATE and next. 

CouNDON (Bp.. Auckland and Coventry). Bp. A. C. 1183 Condona, 
Coundon. Cov. C. Dom. Condone, Condelme, 1257 Cundulme, 
1327 Cundholme. Cond or cound is O.Kelt, for ' confluence 
of two streams.' Cf. Cond ate, Condover, and Cound. The 
-don is ' hill,' whilst -elme, -ulme, etc., represent O.E. holm, 
' meadow by a river.' Cf. the early forms of Durham. 

Courage (Berks). O.E. chart. Cusan ricge, hricge, ' Cusa's ridge '; 
Dom. Coserige; 1147 Cuserugia; 1316 Coserugge; 1428 Currygge. 
The mod. form is ' a daring respelling after the Norman manner ' 
(Skeat). It should properly be Curridge. 

Courteenhall (Nhampton.). Dom. Cortenhale, -halo; 1235 Close 
B. Corten-, Curtenhal. ' Nook, corner of Curda,' the only 
name in Onom., and it but once. See -hall. The abnormal 
-een- seems a pure freak. Cf. 932 chart. Cyrdan heal (Meon, 
Hants) . 

Coveney (Ely). Chart. Coveneye, -neie, Coueneia. Skeat is sure 
this is ' Isle of Cufa,' gen. Cufan. Cf. Dom. Surrey, Covenha. 
Only Coven (Wolverhampton) is Dom. Cove, a. 1200 Covene, 
which must be O.E. cofa, gen. cofan, 'a cove, cave, repository.' 
See -ey. 

CovENT Garden (London). ,The convent garden belonging from 
c. 1220 to the abbots of Westminster. Convent is always spelt 
covent a. 1550. 

Coventry, c. 1043 chart. Cousentree, 1053 O.E. Chron. Cofantreo, 
1066 ib. Couentre, Dom. Couentreu, Sim. Dur. ann. 1057 
Covantreo, a. 1142 Wm. Malmes. Coventreia. Cofan treo {w) is 
O.E. for ' tree by the cove, cave, or chamber,' or else ' tree of 



Cofa,' Cf. CovENEY and Covenham (Louth). The word con- 
vent, M.E. cement, is impossible here. It is not found in Eng. 
a. 1225. 

CovERDALB (Yorks). Sic 1202. Cf. 1203 ' Couerlee ' or Coverley. 
Cover- here is difficult. The Eng. cover is fr. O.Fr., and the 
word is not found in Eng. tiU c. 1275; whilst in the sense of 
' covert or shelter for hunted animals ' it is not found till 1719. 
There is a W. cyfair, a land measure, two-thirds of an acre, 
found in Eng. in 1709 as cover. Possibly Cover- represents 
some unidentified personal name, as in Covebham (N. Yorks), 
Dom. Covreha'. 

CowBEECH (Hailsham, Sussex). Not in Dom. This seems the 
same name as Cowbach, now called Clatterbach, near Clent 
(Wore), where St. Kenelm^s chapel was. ? a. 1200 Cu-bache, 
c. 1305 Coubache, 1494 Cowbacch. See Oxf. Diet., s.v. bache, 
which means ' the vale of a stream or rivulet.' Cf. Batchwobth 
and CoMBERBACH. With the first syU. cf. Cowick (O.E. wic, 
' dwelling, house '), Snaith (Yorks), 1241 Cuwic. 

CowBRiDGE (Glam.). Eng. translation of W. Pontyfon, where /ow 
is by assimilation for mon, O.W. for ' cow.' Said to have been 
called after a cow whose horns stuck in the arch of the bridge 
here so firmly that it had to be shot on the spot. It is 1645 
Pontyfuwch, with the same meaning. So far T. Morgan. But 
there is also a Cowbridge (Boston), c. 1280 Cubrygge, which may 
be the origin of the W. place, as the same family of WiUiams, 
alias Cromwell, held lands in both places in 16th cny. See 
Thompson, Hist. Boston, 616. But Cowthorp (S. Yorks) is 
Dom. Coletorp, ' village of Cola,' and similarly Cowsdown 
(Upton Snodbury) is c. 1108 Colleduna, 1275 Coulesdon. 

CowES (I. of W.). Dates only fr. 1540. It must be a pi. form of 
cove, O.E. cofa, coua, ' an inner chamber,' only found with the 
meaning ' cove, inlet,' after 1590. The form cowe is called Sc, 
and the meaning, ' cave, den,' Sc. and North. The name then 
is ' inlets.' 

CowLAM (Driffield). Dom. 4 times Colnun, once Coletun. Colnun 
is prob. an O.E. loc. ' at the tops or summits.' Cf. O.N. koll-r, 
' top, summit,' and Howsham, a loc. too. 

Cowley (Gnosall and W. Drayton). Gno. C. Dom. Covelau, a. 
1200 Coule. W. Dr. C. Dom. Couelei, 'cow-meadow,' O.E. 
cuu, cu, a. 1300 cou. See -ley. 

Cowling (SMpton and Suffolk). Skip. C. Dom. Collinghe, 1202 
Collinge. Suf. C. 1459 Cowlynge. Patronymic, like Cooling, 
' place of the sons of Cola or GoU.' See -ing. 

CoxLEY (Wells). Not in Dom. 1231 Cockesleg. 'Meadow of 
Cocca,' in Onom., or else ' cock's meadow.' See Cockley, and 
cf. Dom. Chesh. Cocheshalle. See -ley. 


Crackenthorpe (Westrald.) . Old Kreiginthorpe. ' Village of ' ? 
There is no name in Onom. like Greaga, but in Lib. Vit. Dunelm. 
there is a Craca, gen. -can; also cf. Crayford. See -thorpe. 

Cracow or -oe Hill (Craven). 1202 Craho. 'Crow how' or 
'mound.' O.E. cmt^e, 'acrow.' C/. Crowthorne, and see -how. 

Craddock (Cullompton). Not in Dom. Corruption of Caradoc. 
Cf. Cramond (Sc). 

Cradley (Stourbridge and Heref dsh.) and Cradley Heath (Staffs) 
St. C. Dom. Cradeleie, a. 1200 Crad(e)lega, 1275 Cradeley. He. C. 
Dom. Credleia. ' Meadow of Crada ' or ' Creda,' or ' Creoda.' 
The two latter only in Onom. See -ley. 

Crakehall (Bedale). Dom. Crachele. Prob. 'nook of Craca.' 
One such is named in Liber Vitce Dunelm. See -haU (-ele is for 
-hele or -hale). Dom. also has a Crachetorp in E. Riding, whilst 
Dom. Crecala is said to be Crakehill in Topcliffe. 

Cramlington (Northumbld.). c. 1141 Cranlintune. Doubtful. 
Perh. O.E. cran-hlinn-tun — i.e., ' village by the torrent or Hnn 
frequented by cranes.' Cf. Linton. 

Cranage (Congleton). Prob. for an O.E. cranawic, 'crane's 
dwelling.' Cf. Swanage, O.E. Swanawic. There is a Crans- 
wick (Driffield), Dom. Cranzvic {z= ts), and a. 1241 Close B. 
Crendon (Bucks). 

Cranborne (Salisbury), 1241 Craneburn, and Cranbourne (V7ind- 
sor). Sic 1485. ' Crane's (or heron's) bum or brook.' See 
above and Bourne. The crane, now extinct, was once abun- 
dant in Britain. 

Cranbrook (Kent). It was a haunt of cranes. Cranbrook Castle 
(Dartmoor) is said to be corrup. of Cranburh, fr. O.E. burh, burg, 
' fort, castle, burgh.' Cf. Cranebrook (Lichfield), 1300 Crone 
brouke, Dom. Norfk. Cranaworda, and Cranham (Pains wick), 
1190 Pipe Cronham. 

Crank (St. Helen's), Crank Hill (Wednesbury), Crank Wood 
(Derby). See Oxf. Diet, crank 56^, ' a crook, bend, winding, a 
crooked path or channel.' Not found in Eng. till 1552. Duig- 
nan identifies this with a number of obscure names in Cronk, 
several Cronk Hills in Salop, etc. But crank is never spelt with 
in Eng., and Cronk is prob. a nasalized form of crook sb, O.N. 
hrok-r. See Oxf. Diet., s.v. 6 and 11. 

Cransley (Kettering). 956 cAar^ Cranslea. See Cranbrook. 

Crantock (Newquay). Fr. St. Carantocus, a Welsh saint who 
lived c. 450, and who also crossed to Ireland. Cf. Cradock. 

Craswall (Heref d.). 1237 Cressewell= Cresswell. 

Craven (Yorks) and Craven Arms (Salop). Yor. C. Dom. Crave- 
scire (shire). 1202 Cravene. O.N. kra fen, ' nook in the fen.* 


Fen is also O.E. fen, and is found fr. 2-4 as ven or venn{e). The 
name must therefore indicate a dry spot in the midst of marshes. 

Crawley (Winchester). All names in Craw- are fr. O.E. crawe, ' a 
crow.' Cf. Dom. Leicr.^ Crawsho. 

Crawtston (Brecon). Perh., says Anwyl, the name of the Keltic 
goddess of storage. 

Crayford (W. Kent). Chart. Creganford, Creacan-, Creagan-ford. 
' Ford of Creaga,' a name not found in Onorfi. Still, as Oxf. Diet. 
says, this name has nothing to do with creek, and still less with 
crayfish ! Craycomb (Fladbury), however, is 1275 Craucombe, 
Crowecombe, fr. O.E. crawe, ' a crow.' See -combe. 

Crayke (Easingwold). Dom. Creic, 1197 Rolls Crech; 1236 Creek, 
Crek. See Creech. However, this, instead of being W. crug, 
' stack, heap,' may be G. crioch, gen. criche, ' boundary, frontier, 
landmark.' Only, if so, it is very rare to find a Gaelic name 
so far south. Dom. Norfk., Kreic, must be the same. 

Crediton. 905 in Eadmer Ecclesia Cridiensis; c. 1097 Flor. Wore. 
Cridiatunensis ; c. 1540 Leland Crideton. Also found as Kyrton. 
' Town on R. Creedy ' — 739 chart. Cridia, Dom. Oidic, Credie, 
by some said to be fr. Crida or Creoda, grandfather of Penda, 
K. of Mercia, or fr. Crioda, Creoda, first K. of Mercia, d. 593. 
But it is rare to find a river called after a man. Cf. CredenhiU 
(Hereford) and Dom. Bucks, Credendone, plainly fr. a man 
Creda. The river name may be connected with W. cryd, O.W. 
crit, ' to shake.' 

Creech (Wareham), a. 1130 cJiart. Crucha; also Creech Hill 
(Somst) . 702 chart. Crich hulle. O.W. cruc, W. crug, G. cruach, 
'a stack, heap, pile.' Cf. Crich, Crickhowell, Cricexade. 
Thus Creech Hill is a tautology. Dom. Somst. has Crice, CJruce, 
and often Cruche ; in Norf k., Kreic, Kxeich. 

Creech Michael (Somerset) . Chart, of 682, ' The hill which is 
called in British speech Cructan, but by us (English) Crycbeorh.' 
Cructan is ' heap, pile, hill on the R. Tone,' while Crycbeorh is 
' Stack-burgh.' 1167-68 Pipe, Norf k., has a Crichetot ( = toft) . 


Creighton (Uttoxeter). 1241 Cratton, so perh. O.E. crcet, crat tun, 
' cart enclosure ' or ' village.' More old forms needed. 

Cressage (Much Wenlock). Dom. Cristesache, 1540 Cressege. 
Not 'crest ' (only found in Eng. fr. 1325), but ' Christ's edge ' or 
border,' O.E. ecg, 1205 agge. It is at the foot of Wenlock Edge. 
Cf. 1494 Fahyan, ' in the egge of Walys.' 

Crbsswell (Norbld., Stafford, and Mansfield). Nor. C. 1235 
Kereswell. Sta. Q. Dom. Cressvale, a. 1300 Cresswalle. This 
ending is certainly 'well' or 'spring,' O.E. wella, often in 
M.E. wale ; and Cress- is O.E. cerse, ' watercress.' Cf. Dom. 
Bucks, Cresselai, ' cress-meadow,' and Craswall. 


Crewe. Dom. Crev, Creuhalle (Crewe Hall). O.W. creu, crau, 
Mod. W. crewyn, Com. crow, ' a pen, sty, hovel.' 

Cbewkerne (Yeovil). Not in Dom.; perh. 1160-61 Pipe, Devon 
Creueq'r. O.E. cruc-erne, ' cross-house,' house with the cross. 
Pipes form may refer to the Fr . family of Crevecceur, often referred 
to in England. Cf. Crevequer, c. 1330 chart, Kent and Lines. 

Criccieth (Portmadoc) . Prob. W. crug caeih, 'narrow hill.' Gj. next. 

Crioh (Matlock Bath) , Dom. Crice, and Crick (Rugby and Chep- 
stow) . Ru. C. Dom. Crec. W. crug, ' a heap, stack, mound, hill.' 
Cf. Creech and Crickhowell and Pbnkridge. Duignan 
would derive this group of words fr. G. and Ir. crioch, gen. criche, 
' boundary, Umit, frontier/ as in the Sc. Creich. But this is 
not found in W., and the evidence given under Creech Michael 
and Crickhowell seems practically conclusive; though cf. 
Crayke. There are a Crickapit and a Crickley in Cornwall. 

Crickhowell (Abergavenny), c. 1188 Gir. Gamb. Cruco-hel. In 
W. Crughywel, ' Conspicuous hill,' fr. O.W. cruc, W. crug, ' a 
heap, a stack,' and hywel, ' conspicuous.' Hewell Grange 
(Warwick) always found sic, may be the same word. Baddeley 
thinks Crickley (Birdlip), old Cruklea, contains O.W. cruc. 

Cricklade (Wilts). 905 O.E. Chron. Crecca-gelade, Cricgelad; 
c. 1097 Flor. Wore. Criccielad; c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Crikelade, 
Cricalade; c. 1160 Gest. Steph. Crichelada. Gelad is O.E. for 
' passage,' same root as lead and lode; but the first half is doubt- 
ful. The Eng. creeJc is not found till c. 1250 crike, and Oxf. 
Diet, does not favour it here. M'Clure conjectures W. craig, 
' a rock,' or crv^c, ' a mound ' ; the latter is quite possible. Cf. 
Creech and next. There is a Craca, but no nearer man's name, 
in Onom. 1160-61 Pipe, Surrey, has a Crichefeld. 

Cricklas (Caermarthen). c. 1188 Gir. Gamb. Cruclas. O.W. cruc 
glas (Mod. W. crug), ' bluish or greenish mound or stack.' Cf. 

Cricklewood (Middlesex). 1525 Crekyll Woddes, 1553 Crekle 
Woods. Doubtful; older forms needed. Prob. fr. a man 
Grecel, otherwise unknown. Gf. 1241 Close R. KJrikeleston. 

Crocken Hill and Crockham TTttt. (Kent). Prob. ' pot-shaped ' 
hill, fr. W. crochan, O.Ir. crocan, G. crogan, O.E. crocca, -an, ' a 
crock, a pot, an earthenware dish.' Cf. a. 1000 ' Crocford ' in 
K.C.D., V. 17. The -ham may be a quite late corrup. ; old forms 
needed. JDow. has only Croctune. 

Crockern Torr (Dartmoor), c. 1630 Crocken Torr. See Crocken 
Hill. Torr is a ' tower-like rock or hill,' W. tor, Corn, twr, tor. 

Crockerton (Warminster). Not in Dom. ' Town of the potter '; 
Crocker is first found c. 1315 in Shoreham. Gf. ' Crokerbec,' 
Egremont, Cumberland. 


Crockford Water (Lymington). a. 1000 chart. Crocford, ?thi8 
one. Prob. hybrid. W. crug, O.W. cruc, 'a tumulus, a low 
hill'; cf. Cruckbarrow Hill (Worcester), 1275 Cruckberew, 
Crokeborow, a double tautology. See Barrow. It can hardly 
be fr. crook, O.N. kroJc-r, as in Le Croc du Hurte, Channel Is. 

Cromer (Norfolk). Not in Dom. 1351 Crowemere. 'Crow(O.E. 
crawa) mere ' or ' lake.' Cf. Bomer Pool (near Shrewsbury) — 
i.e., ' bull lake,' and Cranmer. 

Cromford (Derby), Dom. Crunforde (m and n easily interchange), 
andCROMHALL(Glouc.). Dom. Cromhal. O.E.crom6,crwm6,'bent, 
crooked, curved,' cognate with W. crwm, cram, G. and Ir. crom, 
O.G. cromb, with same meaning. Cf. Croome d'Abitot, Pershore, 
972 Cromb, 1275 Crombe Dabitoth, ' Crook of the D'Abitots,' 
found in Dam., who took their name fr. St. Jean d'Abbetot, E. 
of Havre. Earl's Croome, near by, is 969 Cromban, Cromman, 
Dom. Crumbe. There is also a Crambe (Yorks), Dom. Crambom, 
-bon, which prob. is a loc. for ' at the crooks,' fr. an unrecorded 
O.E. cramb, cromb, now represented by crome, cromb, 'hook, 
crook,' first found a. 1400. 

Cromwell (Newark) and Cromwellbo'ttom (Yorks). Ne. C. Dom. 
CrunweU, 1223 CrumbweU, 1298 CromweUe, c. 1340 Crumwell. 
Prob. ' curved or crooked well,' or ' brook,' as in Cromford ; but 
Crum may be a man's name ; it is so now. Cf. . Cromhall 
(Charfield), Dom. Cromale, -hal, and 1179-80 Fi'pc Yorks, Crum- 
wurda. Bottom is O.E. botm, ' the lowest part of anything,' 
found fr. c. 1325, meaning ' low-lying land, an alluvial hollow/ 
Cf. Ramsbottom, etc. 

CRONDALL(Farnham). Dom. Crundele, 1242Crundel. SeeCRUNDALE. 

Cronton (Prescot). Cf. Dom. Bucks, Cronstone, ' Village of Cron,' 
a name not in Onom. Cronware (Pembroke) is 1603 Owen 
Cromewere, and in c. 1130 Lib. Land. Lann cronnguem, perh. W. 
llan crwm gwern, ' church on the crooked moor.' 
Crookham (Berks, Hants, and Northumberland). Berks C. O.E. 
chart. Croh-hamme; Dom. Crocheham; a. 1300 Crokham. 
' Saffron enclosure '; croh being the O.E. form of the L. crocus, 
whilst the ending here is hamme, and not the commoner ham, 
' home.' Cf. Crowle. But Crooks House (Yorks) is Dom. 
Croches, which will be O.N. Jcrok-r, ' a crook, a bend,' with Eng. 
plur. The ending -hes has afterwards got turned into -house. 

Croome (three on Severn near Pershore). 969 chart. Cromman, 
Croman, Cromban, all datives, 972 ib. Cromb, 1038 ib. Hylcrom- 
ban (now Hill Croome), Dom. and 1241 Crumbe, Hilcrumbe. 
O.E. cromba, ' a crook, a bend,' cognate with O.G. crumbadh, as 
in Ajstgrum (Sc.) and W. crwm, crom, ' crooked.' 

Cropredy (Oxon). Dom. Cropelie, 1109 Cropperia, ? 1275 Cro- 
prithi, 1291 Cropperye, 1330 Cropperdy, 1405 Croprydy, 1460 


Cropredy. Prob. ' Croppa's stream/ O.E. rith, as in Rye and 
Ryde ; but on Crop- cf. next. 

Cropthorne (Pershore). 780 Croppon-, Croppethorne, 841Crop- 
panthonij Dom. Cropetom. Crop sb. is found as meaning ' the 
head or top of a tree/ a. 1300. But the early charter forms show 
that Croppa must be a man. Cf. next. Cropwell (Notts) Dom. 
Crophelle, -bille, is fr. N. kropp-r, ' a hump or bunch, a hump- 
shaped hill.' 

Cropton (Pickering). Dom. Croptun. so also in Dom. Suffolk. 
' Village of Croppa.' • See above. 

Crosby (5 in P.G.). Dom. Crosebi (Cheshire), 1189 Pipe Grossebi 
(Cumberland) . Doin. Yorks has Crox(e)bi, Crocsbi, and Croches- 
bi, representing more than one Crosby. ' Dwelling by the cross,' 
O.E. cros, 3-4 croiz, 4-7 croce ; or, at any rate in Yorks, ' dwelling 
of Croc{cy, a fairly common name. Cf. Croxby; and see -by. 

Crostwight (Norfolk). Dom. Crostueit, c. 1460 Crostweyt. ' Cross- 
place ' or ' farm with the cross.' This name gives a rare corrup. 
of -thwaite. Cf. Crosthwaite (Kendal), 1201 Crostweit; and 
see -thwaite, which is very rarely found except in the North-West. 

Crouch End and Htt.t. (London). O.E. cruc, 2-3 cruche, 3-5 
crouch{e), 'a cross.' R. Crouch, Essex, may not be the same. 

Croughton (Brackley) . Not in Dom. Curiously, this means much 
the same as Crostwight, ' cross town '; O.E. cruc, M.E. cruche, 
croucTie, ' a cross.' 

Crowborough (Leek and Tunbridge W.). Neither in Demi. Lee 
C. a. 1300 Crowbarwe. Prob. ' crow's wood,' O.E. crawe, and 
beam, dat. harwe. Cf. -borough. 

Crowland or Croyland (Peterborough). 806 chart. Croylandie; 
Sim. Dur. arm. 1075 Crulant; c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Cnilande, 1238 
Croilland. Doubtful; the first syll. may be O.E. croh, ' safiron.' 
Cf. Crowle. 

Crowle (Worcester and Doncaster). Wore. C. 836 chart. Croglea, 
840 ib. Crohlea, Dom. Croelai, Crohlea, 1275 Crowele, O.E. croh- 
ledh, ' safEron meadow.' Crowley is, of course, the same name. 
Duignan prefers the meaning ' crocus meadow/ and compares a 
' Richard de CroccusweU ' found in 1332. O.E. croh is just L. 
crocus in an Eng. dress. Cf. Crookham and Croydon. 

Crowthorn (Berks). Cf. K.C.D., iv. 103, 'Crawan thorn,' Hants. 
' Crow's thorn,' thorn-tree frequented by crows, and used as a 
boundarj'- mark. Cf., too, Crowmarsh, Wallingford, Dom. 
Cravmares (O.E. mersc, merisc, but here rather O.Fr. mareis, 
-ais, ' a marsh '), 1242 Crawmers. 

Croxby (Lincoln), c. 1180 Ben. Peterb. Croxebi. ' Crocc's dwell- 
ing'; two so named in Onom. Cf. Croxall (Lichfield), 773 
chart. Crokeshalle, Dom. Crocheshalle, and Crosby. 


Cboxton (4 in P.G.). Eccleshall C. Dom. Crochestone, Chesh. C. 
Dom. Crostone, Cam. C. Dom. Crochestone, 1302 Croxtone, 
Thetford C. chart. Crochestune, 1240 Croxton, 1303 Crokeston> 
c. 1460 Croxeston. Also 1179-80 Pipe Lanes, Crokeston. ' Vil- 
lage, town of Croc,' a man; 3 in Onom. Cf. above. 

Croydon (London). 809 Monasterium quod dicitur Crogedena; 
Dom. Croindene, 1288 Contin. Gervase Croyndona. It lies on 
the edge of the chalk, and so is often said to mean ' chalk hill ' ; 
cf. Oxf. Diet. s.v. Cray and crayer. Yet form 809 must mean 
' dean,' (wooded) vaUey of the' safEron,' O.E. croh. Cf. Crowle. 
But Croydon (Royston) is Dom. Crauuedene 1238 Craweden, 
1316 Croudene, 1428 Craudene, 'Dean, wooded vale of the 
crow,' O.E. crawe. 

Crudgington (Wellington, Salop). Dom. Crugetune. Prob. 
' town, village of Cruga,' gen. -gan, an unknown man. For dg, 
cf. bryg and bridge, Maggie and Madge. There is a surname 
Grudgings. See -ing. 

Crudwell (Malmesbury). Dom. Credwelle. Perh. 'crypt-well,' 
A.Pr. crudde, M.E. crowd, ' a crypt, a vault.' See Oxf. Diet., 
crowd sb.'^, not given there till 1399 ; so it may be fr. a man Crud. 
Cf. B.C.S. 536 Crudes silba (' wood '). 

Crttg Mawr (Pembroke), a. 1196 Gir. Camb. ' Crug Maur — i.e., 
Collis magnus,' ' big hill,' ' stackhke hill.' 

Crukeri Castle (Radnor). Older Oruk-keri. Prob. a. 810 Nennius 
Caer Ceri, ' Castle of Ceri.' But Cruk- must be W. cmg, ' a 
heap, a stack.' 

Crumlin (Pontypool). W. crom llyn, ' crooked or concave pool.' 

Crundale (R. Wye, Kent). O.E. crundel, crondel, still in South. 
dial., ' a cutting shaped like an open V, made by a little 
stream, a ravine.' Cf. B.C.S. 906 Abbancrundel, also 3 farms 
in Worcestershire called Crundel or Crundles, and Crondall. 
Baddeley says Crundel (Kemble), 1280 Crondles, means ' a 

Crutchley (Northampton and Monmouth). Not in Dom. 
' Meadow with the cross,' O.E. cruc, 2-3 cruche. Cf. Crouch 
End and Croughton, and Crutch Hill (Worcestersh.), a. 1200 
Cruche, 1275 Cruch, Cruce. 

Cub(b)ington (Leamington). Dom. Cobintone, Cubintone, a. 1300 
Cobyngton, Cumbyngton. ' Village of Cuba.' See -ing. 
CuBBER- or Cobberley (Cheltenham), Dom. Coberleie, later 
Cuthbrightley, is ' Cuthbert's mead.' 

CucKAMSLEY or -LOW (Berks). 1006 O.E. Ckron. Cwichelmes laewe, 
c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. CMchelmes laue, 1297 Quichelmeslewe. 
' Burial-mound ' or 'hill ' (O.E. hl^w) of Cwichelm '; either he 
who was K. of Wessex, d. 636, or an earlier pagan king of this 
name, d. 593. See -low. 


CuCKFiELD (Hajrward's Heath). 1092 Kukefield^ 1121 Cucufeld. 
Hardly fr. vb. cucJc= cacare, not found a. 1440, though we have 
cucking-stool in 1308; nor likely to be fr. the cuckoo, which in 
O.E. was geac, Sc, gowk, though it is found as early as c. 1240 
cuccu. Analogy, as well as other reasons, points to ' field of 
Cuca'; cf. B.O.S. 936 Cucan healas. The 1121 speUing cer- 
tainly suggests the bird; if so, it is much the earHest instance 
known. Of. next. Cooksland (Stafford) is Dom. Cuchesland, 
which Duig-nan takes to be ' land of Cuca ' or ' Cue' Cf. Guxham. 

CucKNEY (Mansfield). Dom. Cuchenai, 1278Cuckenay; and Norton 
CucKNEY (Yorks). 1202 Yorks Fines Cucuneia. Prob. ' Cuca'a 
isle ' ; see above and -ey. To derive fr. cuccu ' cuckoo ' is for- 
bidden by the n, sign of the O.E. gen. ; whilst to make it O.E. 
oet cucan e^e, ' at the running stream,' cwicu, cucu, ' living, 
quick,' is not in accord with analogy. 

CuDDESDON (Oxford). 956 chart. Cujjenes dime; a. 1200 Codesdona. 
' Cuthen's dean ' or ' wooded valley.' Cuthen seems to be a 
contraction of the name Cyneihegn or Gyihegn ; 4 in Onom. 
But cf. ' Cudandene,' 95S cJiart., on Stour (Staffs). There are 
several named Cudd, Cudda, or Cuddi in Onom. ; also cf. Cuts- 
dean. See -den and -don. 

CuDWORTH (Bamsley). Not in Z)om. ' C^z^tidt's place or farm.' Cf. 
Cudeley, Worcester) (974 chart. Cudinclea, Dom. Cudelei, orig. a 
patronymic, see -ing; also Dom. Cornw. Cudiford. Dom. Yorks 
Cuzeworde is Cusworth. 

CuxcHETH (Wigan and Cmbld.). Cum. C. c. 1141 Culquith; also 
Culchet. Wig. C. 1200-1 Culchet, Kulchet, 1300 Culchyt, 1311 
Culcheth. Far older is 793 Mercian chart. Celchyth, which seems 
the same name. Prob. ' strait ' or ' passage in the wood,' W. cul, 
' a strait ' (G. caol, a ' kyle '), and coed, pi. coydd, ' a wood.' 

CuLGAiTH (Penrith). This surely must be G. cid gaoith, 'at the 
back of the wind,' or fr. G. cii,il, ' a nook ' ; whilst cul in W. 
means ' a strait, a narrow place.' 

CuLHAM (Abingdon). 821 chart. Culanhom, ? 940 Culenhema, 1216 
Culham. ' Enclosure of Cula.' Cf. Culworth; and see -ham. 

CuLLERCOATS (Newcastle). First syll, doubtful. It may be 
'dove cots,' O.E. culfre, 'a, dove.' If a man's name it 
may be Ceolheard, a common O.E. name, or Ceolweard, also 
common, and found once as Ealvert. Cf. Killirby (Durham), 
sic 1183 in Boldon Bk., but 1197 Culverdebi, plainly ' Ceol- 
weard's dwelling ' ; also Dom. Norfk., Culuertestuna, and c. 1200 
Culdertun, Egremont, Cumberland. There is a Culkerton 
(Tetbury), Dom. Culcortone; if not fr. Ceolheard, then fr. some 
unrecorded name. The -coats is ' cots.' See Coates. 

CuLMSTOCK (Cullompton). Dom. Culmestoche. ' Culm's, Cylm's or 
Cylma's place ' ; all these forms are found in Onom. See Stoke. 


CuLWORTH (Banbury). 1298 Culeworthe. ' Cwto's farm.' There 
is only one Cula in Onom., but cf. Culham. See -worth. 

Cumberland. 945 O.E. Cliron. Cumbraland, c. 960 chart. Cumbras 
{i.e., ' men of Cumbria '), a. 142 Wm. Mahnes. Cumberland, 
1461 Lib. Pluscard. Cummirlandia. Now usually held to be 
' land of the Cumbri ' or Cymry, med. L. Combroges, ' fellow- 
countrymen.' Of course, Cymry is now the common name for 
the Welsh, whose Brythonic kingdom spread right away up to 
Strathclyde until the 10th cny. Cf. Comberbach and Dom. 
Worcester ' Cubrinture,' Yorks Cu'brewrde, now Cumberworth. 

Ctjmdivoce: (Dalston, Cumbld.). a. lOSOCombeSeyfoch. Combe is, 
O.E. cumb, Ht. ' a bowl,' ' a coomb, a valley,' cognate with or 
loaned fr. W. cwm, ' hollow ' ; the second part may be W. diffaith, 
' wild, uncultivated, uninhabited.' The Sc. divot, ' a turf,' 
always has t, and is not known a. 1536. But -theyfoch may 
well represent a man's name, as in B.C.S. 1237 Theofecan hyl. 
Only there is a Devoke Water, S. of Eskdale, in this same 
county. C/.CuMWHiNTON and ' Cumbehop,' c. 1200ci^ar^ Whalley. 

CuMNOR (Oxford). O.E. chart. Colmanora, Cumanora, Cumenoran; 
Dom. Comenore. ' Colman's edge or bank,' O.E. ora ; the liquid 
I easily disappears. Cf. Cowdenknowes (Sc). 

CuMWJULNTON and Cumwhitton (Carlisle) . Old forms needed, but 
perh. both Kelt., with Eng. -ton. The former seems to be W. 
cvrni gwyn, ' clear, bright hollow.' However, Lawhitton (Corn- 
wall) is ' long, white town.' 

CuNLiFFE (Whalley, Lanes). 1278 Gundeclyf, 1283 Cundeclive, 
c. 1300 ConHve, 1317 CimhfEe. Doubtful. W. and H.'s deriva- 
tion fr. Gunnhild-r is httle less likely here than in Conder. 
Prob. hybrid, Kelt, conde, cunde, ' confluence,' see Condate, 
and O.E. cUf, ' a cliff or cleve.' Cf. Cleveland, and Lillies- 
LEAE (Sc), 1186 LillescUf, or ' LiUa's cliff.' 

CinsrsDiNE (Durham). Sic c. 1200 chart. Prob. 'Dean (wooded) 
vaUey of Cuna '; 2 in Onom. Cf. Cunsall (Leek), Dom. Cunes- 
hala, and Cundall (York), Dom. Cundel. 

Curd WORTH (Birmingham). Dom. Credeworde, a. 1200 Crud-, 
Croddeworth, 1327 Cruddeworth. 'Farm of Creoda'; meta- 
thesis of r is common. Cf. Kersoe (Worcestersh.), 780 Criddesho, 
1275 Crydesho. 

Curry Mallet and Rivel (Taunton). Dom. and 1155 Curi (see 
North Curry). W. cyri, ' a cauldron-shaped valley,' 0. coire ; 
cf. Cyri, and Sc. Corrie and Cur.rie. Mallet denotes the name 
of the family to which this place once belonged. Cf. Shepton 
Mallet, and for Eivel cf. Rievaux. 

CuRY (Falmouth). 1219 Patent R. Egloscuri (' church of Cury '); 
1445 Cury towne; also Corantyn. From St. Corentinus, a saint 
of Quimper, Brittany. 


CuTSDEAN (Broadway, Worcester) . 974 chart, and Dom. Codestune, 
1275 Cotestone, a. 1500 Cotesdon, a. 1600 Cuddesdon. This, 
then, is not ' Dean," but ' town of Code or Cota,' perh. the same 
man as gave name to the Cotswolds. Akeady in 730 we find 
B.C. 8. 236, set CodesweUan. 

CuxHAM (Wallingford). O.E. c^ar^ Cuceshamm. 'Enclosure of 
Cue' Cf. CucKEiELD and Cuxwold (Lines), 1235 Cukewald; 
also B.G.S. 936 Cucan healas (see -hall). See -ham. 

CwMHiR (Radnor), c. 1188 Gir. Camb. W. cumi hir, ' long valley 
or hoUow.' Cf. CuMDivocK. 

Cwm-llaw-Enog (Chirk). W.= ' valley of Enog's hand.' Enog 
was a W. chief who, it is said, had his hand cut oJEE for being found 
on the E. side of OfEa's Dyke. 

Cych R. (betw. Pembroke and Caermarthen) . a. 1300 Cuch. 
W. cwch, pi. cychod, ' a boat.' 

Cyffdy (Llanrwst). W. for ' dark, black stump.' Cf. Cyffylliog 
(Ruthin), and Cufiern (Haverford W.), old Coferun. 

Cy2^on R. (Glam.) seems to be built Hke, and to mean the same as, 
the R. Conway (W. con gwy) — i.e., ' chief river,' compared with 
the httle Dare, Con, as in L., means ' together,' and -on is a 
common ending for ' river,' as in af-on itself, in C arron (Sc), etc. 

Cyri (Merioneth). Name of several ' cauldron-shaped hollows,' 
with tarns, same as G. coire, 'a Corrie ' (8c.). Cf. Taliesin, 
' the cauldron of Cyridwen,' and Curry. 

Cytiau-'r-Gwyddelod (Holyhead). W.= 'cots of the Irish.' It 
is a mountain, said to be the scene of a battle, c. 600, between the 
Owyddel (or Goidels, or Gaels) and the Cymri, or Welsh. 

Dacre (Penrith), sic 1353, and Dacre Banks (Leeds). Bede 
Dacore (R. and monastery). Dom. Yorks, Dacre. Possibly 
med. L. {e.g., in Dom.) dicra, c. 1300 dacrum, O.Fr. dacre, dakere, 
M.E. dyker, mod. E. dicker, corrup. of L. decuria. This number 
10 was the customary unit of exchange, esp. in hides; but was 
it ever apphed to land measurement ? 

Dagenham (Barking). 693 cJmrt. Deccan-haam; c. 1150 chart. 
Dechenham. ' Daecca's enclosure ' or ' pasture ' ; only one 
Dcecca in Onom. See -ham. But Dagnall (Oxon) is a. 1400 
Dagenhale. See -hall. 

Daglingworth (Cirencester). Feud. Aids Dageling-; also 1240 
a Dagelingstrete. 'Farm of the sons of Dceghild,' or ' Dceg- 
weald,' nearest names in Onom. See -worth. 

Dalden or Dawden (Sunderland), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Daldene, 
O.E. ddl-denu, 'allotment, portion, field, deal,' 'by the dean 
or deep, wooded vale.' See -den. 

Dalston (Carlisle). 1189 Daleston, Dalstonn. ' Town, village in 
the valley or dale.' O.E. doel, O.N. dal. Possibly Dale may be 


here, as it is still, a personal name ; though it is not in Onom, and 
would hardly be in use so early. Of. Dalby (N. Yorks), Dom. 
Dalbi and Dalham (Newmarket), sic in Dom. Dale (Pembroke) 
is found in 1307 as La Dale — i.e., with the Fr. art., ' the dale.' 

Dalton (5 in P.O.). Fumess D. Dom. Daltun. Cf. a ' Daltone ' 
in Dom. Cheshire. ' Town, village on the allotment," see 
Dalden; in northern cases, ' village in the dale," N. dal. 

Danby Wiske (Northallerton) . Dom. and 1202 Danebi, or ' Dane's 
dwelling.-' Cf. Tenby and Danemarche, Jersey; and see -by. 
On Wiske, see Appleton Wiske. But Danethorpb (Notts), 
Dom. Dordentorp, 1637 Dernthorp, is 'village of Deorna.' The 
phonetic changes are all explainable. 

Dane orDAVENR.(Chesh.) ; hence Davenham (sic 12 18) and Daven- 
port (Chesh.). Dom. Devenehamand Deneport,a. llSOSim. Dur. 
Devenport. Perh. W. dain, ' pure, pleasing, beautiful,' or else 
dwfn, ' deep.' Cf. Debenham. Duignan suggests G. deann, 
impetuous, swift,' but that would rather yield Dann or Denn. 

Darent R. See Dartford. 

Darlaston (Wednesbury and Stone). St. D. 954 Deorlavestun, 
Derlavestone, 1004 ib. Deorlafestun, Dom. Dorlavestone. Wed. 
D. a. 1200 Derlavestone. ' Town of Deorlaf.' Cf. Darliston 
(Whitchurch) and Darlton (Notts), Dom. Derluveton. 

Darley (Leeds) and Darley Abbey and Dale (Derbysh.). Der. 
D. Dom. Dereleie. Dar- is prob. from Deor or Deora, names in 
Onom., and phonetically possible. Darton (Yorks) is Dom. 
Dertune. In O.E. deor means ' any wild animal,' then ' a deer,' 
then used as a personal name, ' a man Hke a deer.' See -ley. 

Darlington, a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Dearningtun, Dearthingtun ; but 
1183 Boldon Bk. Derlingtona. A name which has changed. 
There is no trace in Onom. of the Sim. Dur. forms, and only one 
Deorling or Derling. As it stands, the name is ' village of the 
darlings,' O.E. deorling, a dimin. of ' dear.' ' Dearthingtun ' may 
possibly represent Darrington. Cf. Derlintun in 1156 Pipe 
Notts, in Dom. Dallingtune and now Dalington. We have 
Darlingscot, Shipston-on-Stour, a. 1300 Darlingscote. 

Darn ATT, (SheiGfield). O.E. derne heal, ' hidden, out of the way, 
dark nook.' Cf. Damhall Pool (Cheshire), Dernford (Cambs), 
and Darnick (Sc.) ; also see -hall. 

Darrington (Pontefract). Dom. Darnintone, Darnitone, 1204 
Darthingtone, 1208 Dardhinton. * Town, village of Deorna ' 
(one in Onom.), or possibly ' of Deorwen, or -wine.' See -ing. 

Dartford (Kent), a. 1200 Derenteford, Darentford. 'Ford on 
R. Darent,' which is prob. a var. of Derwent; it is 940 chart. 
Daeriiita. Cf. Darwen. 

Dartmouth (on R. Dart). Exon. Dom. Derta, a. 1130 Sim. Dur. 
Derte, 1250 Layam. Derte mujj. Doubtful; certainly not fr. 


Eng. dirt. Perh. W. dorth, ' limit, covering/ or O.E. dard^, ' a 
dart, a spear,' though our Eng. dart comes to us through O.Fr. 
dart. Dartmoor is 1228 Close B. Dertemor. 

Darwen R. and town (Lanes), a. 1130 8im. Dur. Dyrwente, 1311 
Derwent. W. dwr gwen, ' white, clear stream.' Cf. Darent, 
Derwent, and G. dobhar, ' water, river.' 

Dassett (2, Kineton, Warwick). Dom. Derceto, -tone, a. 1200 
Afne Dercet, a. 1400 Chepyng and Great Derset. O.E. deor, 
' deer,' and set, ' a place where animals are kept, a stall, fold.' 
See Avon, Chipping, Darley, and r on p. 83. 

Datchet (Windsor). Dom. Daceta, 1238 Dachet. A puzzling name ; 
but all solutions fail phonetically except ^Dacca's cot,' O.E. cete, 
' cot, hut.' Cf. Datchworth (Stevenage), 769 chart. Decewrthe, 
Dom. Daceuuorde, B.C.S. 81 Dseccanham, and Watchet. The 
O.E. cc normally becomes tch. 

Dauntsey (Chippenham). Dom. Dantesie. Cf. 940 chart. Daun- 
tesbourne (Wilts). ' Isle of Daunt.' See -ey. 

Davenham and -port. See Dane. 

Daventry (Weedon). Dom. Daventrei, a. 1124 Dauentre, c. 1200 
Gervase Davintria. The present pron. is Daintry, which would 
suggest an O.E, Dcefan treo, ' tree of Dcefa ' ; cf. Oswestry. 
However, no Dc^fa or Dave is in Onom., though cf. 1179-80 Pipe 
Yorks Dauebi ; whilst John Dawe, who gave name to Dawshill 
(Powick), was living there in 1275. In the absence of good 
evidence for an ,0.E. origin, a W. origin is not altogether to be 
dismissed, though a W. name would be very unhkely here. It may 
be 'the two -summits,' fr. W. dau, 'two,' and entrych, 'summit,' 
as D. stands on a hill, and there is another a mile away. It 
may be c. 380 Ant. Itin. Devnana. 

Dawush (S. Devon). O.E. chart. Doflisc, Dom. Dovles, a. 1500 
Doflysch. Doubtful. The first syll. may be W. du, O.W. dub. 
Corn, dew, ' black,' or dwfn, ' deep.' Cf. Dewlish and Dow- 
LAis, also R. Divelish (Dorset), which is chart. DeueHsc, Defiisch, 
Deulisc, DefeHch, and Dom. Devon, MonHsh. All these are orig. 
river -names. The river at Dawhsh is now the Dalch. So the 
second syll. is prob. W. glais, ' stream, river,' rather than llys, 
' court, hall,' or glwys, ' hallowed place, a fair spot.' 

Dead WATER (N. Tyne) . Perh. 1249 Dedy. Doubtful. We find ' a 
standing poole or dead water,' as early as 1601 Holland's Pliny. 

Deal. Not in Dom. 1160 Pipe Dela; later Dale, Dele, Dola. 
O.E. dcBl, 3-6 del, 4,-1 dele, ' a division, a section, a part,' a 
' deal,' cognate with dale, s6^, ' a portion or share of land,' 
and with dole, O.E. ddl. 

Dean, E. and W. (Eastbourne). Asser Dene. O.E. denu, ' a 
dean, a dell, a deep, wooded vale.' See also Forest or Dean. 

Debden (Saffron Walden). Dom. Deppedana, 1228 Close R. 
Depeden — i.e., ' deep, wooded valley.' See Dean. 


Debenham (Framlingham, Suffk.). Dom. Depben-, Depbeham. 
' Home on the E.. Deben/ which may be W. dwfn ' deep.' Cf. 

Dee R. (Cheshire), c. 150 Ptolemy Deva, 1480 Dee; but a. 1196 
Gir. Camb. Deverdoeu, Deverdoe, which is just the mod. W. 
name Dwfr Dwy. W dwfr or dwr (O.W. deifr), is ' river, stream/ 
and dwy is ' two/ feminine. But cf. Dee (Sc), also B>. Divie, 
trib. of Findhorn, Moraysh. (Tewkesbury) . 804 Grant Deor -hyrst(e) ; Dom. Dere- 
hest, a. 1200 Walter Map Durherst. Dhr, dior in O.E. means 
' any kind of beast ' ; hyrst is ' forest.' See -hurst. 

Deganwy, Diganwy, or Dwyganwy (N. Wales), a. 1145 Orderic 
Dag(e)aunoth; Ann. Cambr. ann. 822 Arx Deganhui. Difficult. 
By some connected with Ptolemy's Dekantai ; by Rhys Jones* 
with the Irish Ogam form Deccetes, found in (?) sixth-century 
inscriptions in Devon, Anglesea, and Ireland. In the Patent R. 
c. 1245 it is often Gannok, which suggests a similar origin to 

Dbighton. See Ditton. 

Dblph (Yorks, Rochdale, N. Staffs) and the Delves (Wednesbury) . 
A ' digging ' (for iron ore or the like). O.E. dcelfan, delfan, ' to 
dig, delve.' Cf. Dilhorne. 

Den AB Y Main (Rotherham) . Dom . Degenebi, Denegebi . ' Dwelling 
of,' it is uncertain who ; perh. Degn or TJiegn — i.e., ' thane, lord,' 
names in Onow. C/. Dagenham ; and see -by. Main meaning 
' main ' or ' chief vein of mineral,' seems a quite recent usage. 

Denbigh, c. 1350 charts. Den-, Dynbiegh, -eigh, 1485 Dynbigh. 
W. Dinbych. In W. din bych would mean, ' hill or fort of the 
wretched being.' This would be absurd. Prob. it is, as pron. 
in Eng., Den-by, 'dwelling of the Dane '; we have Denby more 
than once in Yorks, Dom. Denebi, fr. O.E. Dene, 'Danes,' and 
Dene- or Den-mearc, ' Denmark.' Thus it would be the same 
name as Danby and Tenby. See -by. But T. Morgan favours 
W. din bach, ' little hill,' which it is. This certainly accounts 
better for the final guttural -gh or -ch. 

Denchworth (Wantage). O.E. cJmrt. Dences wyrthe, Deneces 
wurthe, Denices wurth ; Dom. Denchesworde. ' Farm of Dence,' 
Sb name otherwise unfaiown; though Onom. has Denisc, or 'the 
Dane.' See -worth. 

Denham (Uxbridge and Eye, Suffk.). Ux. D. Dom. Daneha. 
Eye D. Dom. Denham. Prob. 'home of the Dane.' Cf. 
Denton and Den-mark. 

Denny Bottom (Tunbridge Wells). Cf. Denny (Sc.) 1510 Dany, 
and Dom. Bucks, Danitone. Denny is a dimin. of den or dean, 
' a narrow, wooded valley.' See -den. - 

* Cited by M'Olure, p. 94. 


Denston(e) (Uttoxeter and Newmarket). Utt. D. Dom. Dene- 
stone, ' village of Dene,' 3 in Onom., meaning, of course, ' the 
Dane/ Cf. above. But New. D. is Dom. Danardestuna, 
* town of Deneheard.' Cf. B.C.S. 480 Deneheardes hegersewe. 

Denton (8 in P.G.). 801 chart. Deantone (Sussex). Dom. 
Yorks and Lines Dentune, ' village by the Dean, or deep, 
wooded vale/ Cf. Denford (Berks), Dom. Daneford, where 
O.E. dcen, a word cognate with den and dean, means esp. ' a 
woodland pasture for swine/ Few Eng. names in Den- or Dane- 
show any connexion with the Danes ; but cf. Denbigh, and above. 

Depteobd. Sic. 1521, but c. 1386 Chaucer Depford; not in Dom. 
' Deep (O.E. deop) ford ' on the E-avensboume, or rather, the 
creek at its mouth. There is -another at Sunderland. Cf. 
Defford (Pershore, 972 chart.), Deopford, Dom. Depeforde, also 
in Dom. Wilts. 

Derby. 917 O.E. Chron. Deoraby, 1049 Deorby, 1598 Darbi- 
shiere. In W. Dwrgwent. ' Beasts' dwelling.' O.E. deor, 
dior, Icel. dyr, ' a beast '; and see -by. Derby was a Danish 
name ; NorthweorSig was the O.E. one. For its ending, cf. 

Dbbeham (Norfolk). Dom. Dere-, Derham. c. 1460 Dyram, so 
= Dyrham and Debby, ' beasts' home.' 

Debsingham (King's Lynn). Dom. Dersincham, 1234 Patent R. 
Dersingham ; ' home of the Der sings.' Cf. Sandbingham. 

Debwent R. (Cumbld. and Yorks), also Debwentwateb, sic 
1298. The two rivers get a little mixed in early records — c. 
380 Ant. Itin., and c. 700 Rav. Geogr. Derventione, Bede 
Dorowensio, Deruuentis jQuvius, c. 850 O.E. vers. Deorwenta, 
o. 1130 Sim. Dur. Dyrwenta, 1229 Patent R. Derewent (Yorks). 
W. dwr, dwfr gwen, ' white, clear stream.' Cf. Dabent and 
Darwen. For suffixing of t, cf. Leven and Levant. 

Desboboitgh (Mket. Harboro'). Dom. Deis-, Diesburg, c. 1260 
Rot. Hund. Dosteberge. Very puzzling; no name in Onom. 
seems to suit any of these forms; but it may be Deorswith (see 
Dosthill). 'Dais,' raised table in a hall, is O.Fr. deis, and 
not known in Eng. till 1259, so very unhkely here; but cf. 
Diss. See -burgh. 

Deuddwb (Wales). W. dau dwr, ' two streams.' 

Deveeill — Kingston Devebill (Bath), Longbbidge Devebill, 
and Bbixton Devebill (Warminster). Dom. Devrel, 1245 
Patent R. Deverel (Wilts). Prob. hybrid. Devr- will be 
O.Kelt, for ' stream,' W. dwfr (see Andover and Doveb) ; 
whilst -el is prob. Eng. for hill, or else -hale, ' nook.' See -hall. 
Cf. Derridge, Kingswood, old Deveridge. Possibly Devrel is 
Nor. for Devereux or d'Evreux. 


Devil's Water (Hexham). 1610 Speed Do vols fl. Thought to 
be comip. of G. dubh glas, 'dark, peaty stream '= Douglas. 
This is very doubtful. 

Devizes. 1157 Pipe Divisis, c. 1160 Gest. Steph. Divisa, 1228 Close 
R. ad Divisas. This is corrupt L., and prob. means ' place at 
the division or border ' (? that between Saxon and Kelt). 

Devon. 878 O.E. Chron. Defenascir; Exon. Dom. Duuenant, 
1189 Devonia; 1402 Devenshir, c. 1630 Risdon, 'Devonshire, 
now by a vulgar speech Denshire.' In O.W. Dyvnaint, which 
seems to be O.W. dub, W. du nant, ' dark ravine or valley or 
stream.' The Sc. Devon, c. 1210 Dovan, has a similar origin, 
G. dubh an, 'dark river.' But Rhys identifies both with the 
Damnonii, who orig. inhabited Devonshire, the m here being 
aspirated into mh or v. There is also a R. Devon, Notts. 

Devonport. Dates from 1689. a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Devenport is 
Davenport. See above. 

Dewchurch, Little (Hereford). 1234 Close R. Deweschirch, 
' Church of Dewi,' W. for St. David. Cf. Dewiston, near St. 
David's, Llandewi, and Dewsbury; also Dowthorpe (Yorks), 
Dom. Dwetorp, 1202 Duuestorp. 

Dewlish (Dorchester). Chart. DioHsc, 1230 Close R. Deuehz, 1238 
Patent R. Deuehs. Must be same as Dawlish and as Dewlas 
R. See DowLAis. 

Dewsbury (Yorks). Dom. Deusbereia, -berie, 1202 Deubire. 
' David's burgh.' See Dewchurch and -bury. 

DiCKLEBOROUGH (Scole, Norfk.). Dom. Dicclesburc, 1232 Close R. 
Dikelebury. Prob. ' burgh of Dicuil,' a Keltic name. See 

DiDCOT (Oxford). Not in Dom. a. 1300 Doudecote, also Dud- 
cote; and DiDCOTE (Beckford), 1177 Pipe Dudicota. Cf. B.C.S. 
iii. 101. Dyddan hamm, ib. 486 Dydinc cotan (dat.). ' Cot, 
cottage of Dydda or Dudda.' Cf. Dudley and Diddington 
(Warwk.), 1188 Didindon. 

DiDMARTON (Tetbury). 972 chart. Dydimeretune, Dom. Ded- 
mertone. Feud. Aids Dudmerton. Perh. ' village of Dudemcer,' 
as in 1015 chart. To Dudemseres hele (' nook '), Chilton (Berks). 
But it may be ' mere- or lake-town of Dydda ' or ' Dudda/ the 
latter a very common name. Cf. Dummer. 

DiGBETH (Birmingham, Coventry, and Northfield, Wore). 
Duignan thinks this may be corrup. of dike path; dike, O.E. 
die, being either ' ditch ' or 'embankment.' But there are no 
old forms, and this is doubtful. 

Dilhorne (Stoke-on-Trent). Dom. and till 1300 Dulverne. 
Duignan thinks, O.E. dulf-, delfern, ' place of digging or delv- 
ing.' Cf. Delph. However, in Dom. Bucks we have ' Dile- 
herst,' and Dilham (Norfk.) is sic c. 1150, fr. a man Dela or Dila. 


DiLSTON (Hexham), a. 1300 chart. Divelin, which looks like W. 
ty Felyn, 'house of Velyn/ Of. Helvellyn and Stibling 
(So.) c. 1250 Estrivelin. But — surely very improbably— Sir 
H. Maxwell thinks this name is D'Eyville's town' {see Scala- 
cronica MS., fo. 211) ; whilst M'Clure thinks the Dils- is a. 
corrup. of Dubglas, ' dark stream.' 

DiNAS (Glamorgan). W. and Corn., ' a castle/ fr. din, ' hill/ then 
' hill-fort.' Cf. Pendennis. 

Din AS Emrys (small hill near Snowdon). 1190 Gir. Camb. says 
this means ' promontory of Ambrosius,' a celebrated bard of 
the 5th cny. 

Dm AS PowYS (Cardiff). 1223 Patent R. Dinant powis. ' Hill ' or 

' fort of PowYS.' Cf. above. 
DiNEFWR Castle (Caermarthen). c. 1196 Gir. Camb. Dynevur, 

1246 Patent R. Dynavor. W. din y ffwyr, ' castle of the onset 

or assault.' 
DiNGEBREiN (Cornwall). Com. din GerairU, 'fort of K. Geraint, 

husband of Enid, who fell at Langport, 522. Cf. St. Gebrans. 

DiNMOBE (Hereford). W. din mawr, ' big hill.' It is a village on 
the top of a high hill. C/. Dunmore (Sc). 

DiNNiNGTON (Newcastle-on-T. and Rotherham). Ro. D. Dom. 
Dunnitone, Dunintone, ' town of Dun, Duna, or Duning,' all in 
Onom. See -ing. 

Dm-ORWIG (Caernarvon). Old Dinorddwig — i.e., 'fort of the 
Ordovices/ a tribe of central Wales. See Tacit. Agric. 18. 
But in charters of Edw. III. it is Dynnorbin. Rhys derives 
Ordovices fr. O.W. ord, W. gordd, ' a hammer.' 

Dtnton (Aylesbury and SaUsbury). Sa. D. Duntone. 1179-80 
Pipe Yorks. Dinton, ' village of Dynne or Dyne,' a common 
name in Onom. See -ton. But Dinsdale (N. Yorks) is Dom. 
Digneshale, prob. ' Degn's nook {cf. Denary) ; though Over 
Dinsdale is Dom. Dimeshala, fr. Deorna, or perh. Deoring, 
Diring, names in Onom. See -hall. 

Diss (Norfolk). Dom. Dice. Doubtful. ? O.Fr. deis, found in 
Eng. c. 1259 as deis, ' a dais or high-table.' Diseworth (Derby) 
and Disley (Stockport) imply an unrecorded man Disa. Cf. 
Desborough and next. 

DissiNGTON (Northumbld.) . ? The Digentum in Hexham Chrons. 
Should be ' town of Dissa ' or the hke ; but there is no such name 
in Onom. Still we have Dishforth, Thirsk, Dom. Disforde, 
and the places above, suggesting such a name. 

DiTTON (Widnes, Bridgnorth, and Sui'rey) and Fen Ditton 
(Cambs). Cam. D. c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Dictune, Dittune. 
Dom. Surrey and Bucks Ditone, -tune; also c. 1170 and 1213 
charts. Dicton, ? which, and c. 1005 chart. Dictune, Kent, 



'Town, enclosure, with the ditch/ O.E. die. Cf. Ditchford 
(Warwk.), Dom. Dicforde. The names Deighton and Dighton 
have the same origin as Ditton. N. Yorks is Dom. Dictune, 
and Deightonby is Dictenebi, a somewhat rare hybrid. 

DooooMBE (Newton Abbot). Not in Dom. 1174 Documba, 1322 
Dockumbe; also corrupted into Dockham. O.E. docce-cumbe, 
' dock-valley/ valley in which the docken weed abounded. 

DoDCOTT (Nantwich). 1135 Dodecotte. Cf. a. 1300 ' Dodeford/ 
Northants. ' The cot or cottage of Dodd, Doda, or Dodda,' a 
very common name in Onom. C/. Didcot and Dodwell, Strat- 
ford (Warwk.), close to the Doddanford of 985 chart. 

DoDrNQTON (Yate and Bridgwater). Ya. D. Dom. Dodintone, 
1170 Duddinton; and Doddington (5 in P.G.), March D. Dom. 
Dodinton, 1302 Doddyngtone. ' Village of Dodda ' or ' Dudda,' 
gen. -an. Cf. Dom. Bucks and Salop, Dodintone. But 
DoDiNGTBEE (Leicester) is perh. fr. dod, ' to cUp or top/ found 
a. 1225 dodd; cf. 1440 Prompt. Parv., ' doddyn trees or herbys 
. . . decomo.' This tree was the meeting-place of the hundred. 
Cf. Maijningteeb. See -ing. 

DoQSTHOBPE (Peterboro'). Not in Dom. c. 1100 Grant Dodes- 
thorpe. Interesting corruption; ' farm of Dodd.' See Dodcott 
and -thorpe. 

DoLEBUBY Camp (Mendips). 'Burgh, fortified place of Dola'; 
one such in Onom. It is the site of a pre-Roman fort. See 

DoLGELLY. W. dol gelU, ' meadow with the grove or copse,' gelli 
beiug var. of the commoner celli. 

Dolly Meadows (Bath). W. Dol. pi. dolau (pron. dolay), ' a 
meadow.' Cf. G. dal. Thus the name is a tautology. 

DoLTON (Devon). Dom. Dueltona. 1235 Patent R. Dughelton. 
'Town of Dougal' (see Duggleby), only here the h has 
' echpsed ' the g. Cf. the surname Doulton. 

Don Er. and Doncastbr. Prob. c. 380 Ant. Itin. Dono and 
Bede U. xiv Campodunum, c. 850 O.E. vers. Donafeld; Nennius 
Cair Daun; Dom. Doncastre, 1158-59 Pipe Dane Castre, 1202 
Fines Danecastre, 1206 Donecastre. It cannot be the same as 
Don (Sc). Perh. W. dwn, G. donn, ' brown.' See -caster. 

DoNNiNGTON (Salop, Gloucs., and Berks). Sa. D. Dom. Donitone. 
Gl. D. 1176 Pipe Dunnington. Be. D. 1316 Dunyngton. 
' Village of the sons of Dunn.' Cf. B.C.S. iii. 601 on Dunning- 
lande. Cf. Dunnington ; and see -ing. 

DoNYATT (Ilminster). 1234 Patent R. Dunyed. O.E. dun ^eat, 
' hill of the gate, opening or pass.' Yat or yat{t)e has been the 
S.W. dial, form of gate since the 16th cnv. Cf. Symond's 


DoRCHESTEB, (Dorset). c. 380 Ant. Itin. Diirno(no)varia, 939 
chart, villa regalis quae dicitur Doracestria, c. 1100 Flor. 
Wore. Dorsetania, 1387 Dorchestre. Durno-varia is prob. 
Kelt, for ' fist-plays/ there having been a Rom. amphitheatre 
here ; W. dwrn, Ir. dorn, ' fist ' ; and Corn, gware for L. varia, ' a 
play.' Asser, ann. 875, speaks of the district {paga), called in 
British Dumgueir (in MS. -eis), but in Saxon Thomsseta {or 
Domsaeta), now Dorset. In the present name there is nothing 
■which represents varia, so that it really seems to mean ' fist 
camp.' Cf. Cardurnock; and see -Chester. 

Dorchester (Oxon). (? Durcinate in a. 700 Bav, Oeogr.) c. 689 
Theodore Villa Dorcacsestrensis, Bede Dorcic, O.E. Chron. 635 
and 891 Dorcic-, Dorcesceaster, 905 in Eadmer Dorkeceastre, 
Dom. Dorchecestre. This seems either to mean ' camp of Dorc,' 
an unknown man, or, more doubtfully, ' dark camp,' O.E. 
deorc, 3 dorc, ' dark.' Also see Dorset. 

DoRDON (Tamworth). 1285 Derdon. Perh. 'hill of the deer/ 
O.E. dear. Cf. Dassett; and see -don. 

DoRE R. (S. Wales), c. 1130 Lib. Land. Door ; and Dore (Here- 
ford and Sheffield). Shef. D. O.E. Chron. 827 Dore, ib. 942 
Dor. W. dwr, ' water, stream ' ; G. dobhar. Cf. Appledore, 
Dour (Yorks), and Durra (Comw.). But Plummer derives the 
towns fr. O.E. duru, dor, ' a door, an opening.' 

Dorset, a. 900 Asser Thornsseta, Domsseta, Dom. Dorsete, c. 
1097 Flor. W. Dorsetania. Dornsseta should mean ' seat, 
settlement among the thorns'; but cf. Dorchester; while 
some connect with Ptolemy's Durotriges, who dwelt about here. 
Cf. Somerset. Dom. Essex has a Dorseda. 

DoRSiNGTON (Stratford-on-A.). Dom. Dorsintune, and Dorstone 
(Hereford), a. 1300 Dorsinton. ' Village of the Dorsings,' or 
? ' sons of Deorsige.' Cf. Dersingham. See -ing. 

DosTHHiL (Tamworth). Dom. Dercelai. a. 1200 Dertehulla, 
Derchethull, a. 1400 Derst-, Dorsethull. The ending is clear. 
In Dom. -lai is fr. -ley, ' meadow,' q.v. ; and hull is the regular 
Mid. form of ' hill.' Derchet or Derst prob. represents a man 
Deorswith ; 2 in Onom. But cf. also Dom. Bucks Dusteb'ge and 

Douglas (I. of Man). Local pron. DooHsh. Moore says, Manx 
dub glais, ' dark stream.' Cf. Douglas (Sc.) and Dowlais, 
pron. Dowhsh. One of K. Arthur's battles, in Nennius, was at 
' Duglas.' c. 1205 Layamon has a ' Duglas water ' too. 

Dove R. (Derby) andDovEY or DyfiR. (S. Wales and Machynlleth). 
Der.D. 890 chart.T)\x.ia., a. 1300 Duve Douve. Mach.D. 1428 Dyvi. 
All fr. O.W. dubr,'W.dwfr, dwr, ' water, stream.' Duignan thinks 
Dove the ' diving ' river, O.E. dufan. Its tribs. certainly dive 


underground. Doveedige (Uttoxeter) is Dom. Dubrige, c. 
1300 Doubrig, ' bridge on R. Dove.' 

Dover (also near Leigh, Lanes), c. 380 Ant. Itin. Portus Dubris; 
a. 716 chart. Dufras, 1048 O.E. Chron. Dofre, a. 1100 Wm Poit. 
Doueria, c. 1097 Flor. W. Doru-, Doro-bernia; 1160 Doura, 
Dovre; c. 1205 Layam. Doure, c. 1276 Douere. The Kent D. 
is on R. Douver, W. dwfr., ' stream/ still correctly pron. in 
Fr ., Dou vre(8) . Cf. above, and Dovebdale, Droitwich, 706 cfiart. 
Dourdale, 817 ib. Doferdsel; also Dom. Wilts Dobreha. There 
are also a R. Doverle (Berkeley) and a Dover Beck, 1225 
Doverbec (Notts), and a Douvres on the N. coast of France. 

Dovercourt (Harwich). Dom. Druurecurt (first r an error). 
' Court on the river,' W. dwfr. See above. Court, O.F. cort, 
curt, L. cohors, -tern, ' court, poultry-yard, yard,' is not in Oxf. 
Diet, till 1297. It means ' a clear space enclosed by a wall,' 
then ' a large building in a yard, a castle.' 

DowLAis (Glam.). Pron. Dowlish. Disputable; perh. O.W. <kiu, 
mod. W. dou glais, ' two streams '; but prob. = Douglas. The 
Dewlas, trib. of Nthn. Dovey, is sic 1428 and locally pron. 
Diflas, clearly ' dark (W. du) stream.' Dowlish Waee (Ilminster) 
should be the same. Cf. Dawlish. The Little and Great 
DowABD Hills, lower Wye, were old Dougarth, which is O.W. for 
' two garths,' or ' enclosures.' 

DowNHAM (Cambs and Norfolk). Cam. D. K.C.D. iv. 209 Dun- 
ham. Nor. D. 1461 Dounham. O.E. dun-ham, ' hill-dwell- 
ing.' Cf. neict. Downholme (Richmond, Yorks) is in Dom. 
simply Dune. See -hohn. 

Downs, The (off Kent), a. 1460 Gregory's Chron. The Downys, 
1520 The Downes. Perh. so called from the doum or hill, O.E. 
dun, opposite the E. end of the North Downs. 

DowNTON (SaUsbury). c. 1160 Duntuna — i.e., 'hill-town' or Hilton. 

Dowthorpe (Yorks). Dom. Dwetorp. Prob. 'village of Duua' 
or ' Duha/ names in Onom. See -thorpe. 

Doxey (Stafford). Dom. Dochesig, c. 1200 Dokesei, 'Isle of 
Docca,' or 'the duck,' O.E. docce. Cf. Duxford. In Dom. 
Salop there is'Dehocsele or ' Docca' b nook.' See -ey and -hall. 

Drakenedge (Warwksh.). 1251 Drakenegg. O.E. dracan ecg, 
' devil's or dragon's edge ' or ' brink.' Cf. Drakelow (Derbysh.) 
and Wolverley, former 942 ' set Dracan hlawen ' (see -low), 
also Drakestone (Gloucs.). 

Draughton (Skipton). Dom. Dractone. Doubtful. Possibly it 
is 'town of the devil,' O.E. draca. Cf. above. Possibly = 

Draycott (Berks, Blockley, Dunchurch, Stoke-on-T.). Ber. D. 
Dom. Draicote; Bl. D. 1275 Draycote ; St. D. a. 1300 Dra- and 


Draycote. This must go with Drayton, an even commoner 
name with older recorded forms. Draycott would seem to mean 
'dry cot'; O.E. dryge., drige, 2 dreie, 4 draye, dreye, 'dry/ 
Possibly it is fr. O.E. drcege, 'a drag-net, a dray'; but then, 
why so ? Certainly Skeat's derivation fr. an O.E. drceg, sup- 
posed to mean 'a place of shelter, a retreat' (c/. mod. dray, 
' a squirrel's nest '), seems rather laboured. But the matter is 
not yet settled. Dom. Devon has a Draheford, ? ' ford for a 
dray.' Cf. Drig. 
Drayton (9 in P.G.). Chart, DTsegtnn, Dom. Draitone, 1210 Dray- 
ton (Cambs). 810 chart. Draiton (N. Notts), 960 chart. Drasegtun, 
and Dom. Draitone (Berks), a. 1100 Draeitun, a. 1200 Draiton 
(Stratford, Warwicksh.). Dom. Dray-. Draitone (Penkridge and 
Tamworth). Dom. Drattone (Bucks). Prob. 'dry town'; but 
the early forms make O.E. drcege ' a dray,' at least a possible 
origin. Skeat derives the place in Cambs and Berks fr. the O.E. 
drceg, referred to s.v. Draycott. The ' Cair Draithon ' of c. 
800 Nennius has been identified with one of the Draytons, 
which is doubtful. 

Driffield (Bridlington and Cricklade). Br. D. c. 1050 O.E. Chron. 
705 DrifEelda, Dom. Drifeld, -felt, 1202 Driffeld. Cr. D. Dom. 
Drifelle (common Dom. var.). 'Dry field,' O.E. drige, 3 drigge, 
drie, ' dry.' Duignan says Driffold (Sutton Colfield), is drift 
fold, ' fold into which cattle were driven.' Of. next. 

Drig (W. Cumbld.). O.E. drige, ' dry '; drceg, ' a place of shelter. 
Of. above. 

Drighlinqton (Bradford). Dom. Dreslintone, -ingtone. The s in 
Dom. is to avoid the guttural gh ; such Dom. hates. Prob. 
' viUage of the descendants of Dryhtweald,' or perh. ' Drycghelm ' 
(once in Onom.). Cf. Dom. Gloucs. Dricledone. See -ing. 

Dringhob (Holdemess). Dom. Dringolme; and Dringhouses 
(York). Not in Dom. N. dreng, ' a free servant of the king 
endowed with lands.' They were found all over, N. of the 
Humber and Ribble. The ending -hoe is here a corrup. of 
-holm, q.v., through the liquidity or vanishing tendency of 
I and w, influenced by Hoe, ' height ' ; whilst holm is ' river- 

Droitwich. 716 chart. In wico emptoris salis quem nos Saltwich 
vocamus, 888 ih. Saltwic, 1017 Sealtwic, 1049 O.E. Chron. Wic, 
Dom. Wich 24 times, Wic once, 1347 le Dryghtwych, 1469 
Dertwyche. But D. is not Ptolemy's Salinai. Wich is simply 
O.E. ivic, ' dwelling, village.' See' -wich. True, here and in 
Cheshire and the neighbouring districts it is the ending of most 
salt-producing towns; but there is no O.E. authority for saying 
that wic or wich has anything to do with salt. Many — even 
Skeat — derive this wich fr. O.N. vih, ' a bay, a small (salt) 
creek ' ; hence, it is said, the transition is easy to ' salt or brine 


spring/ But that wich could come fr. vik in 716 in Worcestersh. 
seems simply impossible. Droit- (Fr. droit, ' right, privilege ') 
was prefixed by sanction of Edw. III., who gave the inhabitants 
the right to manufacture salt here a. 1293. The right had to be 
restricted in other places owing to the great waste of timber 
in making salt. But Edw. the Confessor already had £52 a 
year from the salt works. Cf. ' The Droits of Admiralty.' 

Dromonby (N. B/iding). Dom. Dragmalebi, twice. A remarkable 
corrup. ' Dwelling of Dragmel,' one in Onom. We here see 
how any one liquid can become another, even I become n. 
See -by. 

Dronmeld (Shefl&eld). Not in Dom. 'Field of the drone-bees'; 
O.E. dran, 3-6 dron. 

Droxford (Bps. Waltham). 939 chart. Drocenesforda ; not in 
Dom. ' Ford of Drocen,' not in Onom., but cf. Drakenedge. 

Druid (Corwen) may be for W. derwydd, ' a Druid.' T. Morgan 
omits it. But Druid Heath (Warwk.) is c. 1400 Dru-, Dre- 
wood, fr. a family of Dru, or rather Druce, prob. taking their name 
fr. Dreux, Normandy. 

Drypool (Hull). Dom. Drid-, Dritpol, Dripold, ' dirty pool/ 
Icel. drit, ' durt.' 

DuDBRiDGE (Stroud). 1302 Dodebrygge; and Duddo (Norham); 
1183 Dudehowe. Named fr. some man Dudd, Duda, or Dudda, 
names very common in O.E., esp. in Mercia. Cf. Dudley and 
Duddeston (Birmingham), 1100 Duddestone. The -o is -howe, 
' a mound,' q.v. 

DuDDON (Tarporley) and Duddon R. (Cumbld.). Latter thought 
to be c. 709 Eddi Regio Dimutinga, a name of uncertain 
origin. But Tar. D. may be W. du din, ' dark, black hill ' ; 
though cf. next. 

Dudley. Dom. Dudelei, 1275 Duddleye, ' meadow of Dudd, 
Dudo, or Dodo,' ? the duke in Mercia, and founder of Tewkesbury 
Abbey, 715. Cf. Didcot and Dudbridge; and see -ley. 

DuEFiELD (Derby). Not in Dom. c. 1180 Ben. Peierb. Dufelda, 
' dove field.' O.E. *dufe, c. 1200 duue, c. 1300 duu. If this 
derivation be correct, we have here one of the earliest recorded 
examples of the Eng. word dove. Cf. Doveskar, Wensleydale, 
1202 Duuesker, and Doveridge, Dom. Dubrige. 

DuGGLEBY (Yorks). Dom. Dighelbi, Difgehbi. ' Dwelhng of 
Dougal,' in Ir. and G. Dubkgall, or ' dark stranger,' the Ir. name 
for the Danes. This Danish Kelt prob. came from Ireland. 
There are other traces of such settlers. Cf. Dolton; and 
see -by. 

DuLLiNGHAM (Newmarket). Dom. Dullingeham; also old Dilin- 
tone. ' Home of the Dillings.' Cf. Dillington (Hunts) and 


Dilham (Norfk.) — i.e., ' home of Dill/ still a personal name, of 
which Billing is the patronymic. 

DuiiVEBTON (Somerset). Dom. Dolvertun. The name here seems 
unknown. There seems trace of a N. Tolf-r or Tolrius. 

DuLWiCH, sic 1606. Not in Dom. (There are coins with Dulwic 
on them, supposed to be a man's name.) Possibly ' Dola's 
dwelling '; one Dola in Onom. The adj. dull is not in Eng. a. 
1430. Cf. Dom. Derby, Duluestune. 

DuMBLETON (Evesham). Sic 1327, but 930 chart. Dumolan, 
-llan, 995 Dumbletain, Dom. Dunbentone. The forms are 
corrupt. Skeat suggested ^ Domioulf's town,' but this is 

DuMMER (Basingstoke). Dom. Dumere. Prob. ^ Duda'a mere' or 
Make.' Cf. Dom. Dodimere (Sussex) and Dedmarton, also 

Dim CHURCH (Rugby). Dom. Donecerce. c. 1200 Dunchirch, 1444 
Dunkyrke. ' Church on the hill,' O.E. dun, though possibly 
fr. a man Donn or Dunn. The 1444 -kyrke is interesting, as 
showing the lingering of Dan. influence, just as in Dunkirk, 
N. France. 

DuNGENESS (Kent). 1052 O.E. Chron. Na;ss — i.e., 'nose, cape, 
naze.' Dunge- is prob. Dan. dynge, ' a heap, a pile (of dung),' 
mod. Icel. dyngja, ' heap, dung,' O.E. dung. Cf. Dinganess, 

DuNGLEDDY (Glamorgan), c. 1130 Lib. Land. Dou Clediv, 1603 
Doyglethe, * the dark (W. du) Cleddy R..' 

Dunham (6 in P.G.). Sic 1150 chart. K.C.D. iv. 209. Dom. 
Notts, Duneham. Norfolk D. c. 1460 Donham. O.E. dun-ham, 
' hiU-dwelling.' 

Dunheved (Launceston) . Dom. Dunhevet, c. 1140 Downehevede, 
Dunehevede, 1250 Dunhefd. Com. din hafod, ' hill of the sum- 
mer residence ' ; no doubt confused with O.E. heafod ; Dan. hoved, 
* the head.' 

DmsTMORE (Leckhampstead). Not in Dom. Chart, dunn mere, 
which is O.E. for ' dim-coloured, brownish lake.' Perh. re- 
modelled on DuNMORE (Sc), ' big hill.' 

DuNMOW (Essex). Dom. Dom(m)auua, 1160 Pipe Dumawa, c. 1386 
Donmowe. Perh. tautology. W. din, ' a hill,' and O.E. muga 
' a heap, a mow, a pile of hay ' ; found 3-7 mowe. 

DuNNiNGTON (York). Dom. Domni-, Donniton, also Dodinton; 
1202 Dunnigton. There are several men named Dunning in 
Onom., but the name here is doubtful. Cf. Doddington. 

Dunstable. Not in Dom. \\2^ O.E. Chron. Dunestaple, c. 1200 
Gervase Dunstapele, 1433 Dunstaple. ' Hill of the market '; it 


lies at the foot of Dunstable Downs. O.E. dun-stapel. Of. 
Barnstaple. Dunsley (Yorks) is Dom. Dunesle, ' meadow on 
the hill.' 

DuNSTALL. Common var. 6i TuisrsTALL. 

DimsTER (Somerset). Not in Dom. Prob. 1231 Patent B. Dintre, 
which looks like W. din tre, ' hill with the house.' But 1243 ib. 
Dunesterr, which may be an Eng. remodelhng; O.E. dun steor- 
ra{n), ' hill of the star.' The common Sc. ending -ster, O.N. 
sta'^r, ' dwellmg/ is not very likely here. 

DuNTiSBOURNE (Cirencestcr) . Dom. Tantesbourne, 1102 Dontes-, 
1221 Duntesborne. ? ' Stream of.' Baddeley gives up the 
impHed name as hopeless. Onom. has a Dunniht and a Thront, 
which seem at least possible. See -bourne. 

DuNTON (3 in P.G.). Dom. Norfk. Dontuna. Cf. 672 chart. Dun- 
tun, ? near Winchester, and Dom. Duntune, Salop. ' Town at 
the hill '; O.E. dun, which also means ' a fort.' 

DmrwiCH (once in Suffolk, now submerged). BedeDomnoc, Dom- 
moc, c. 1 175 Fantosme Dunewiz. Doubtful. Some derive fr . W. 
dwfn, ' deep.' Cf. Dymock. See -wich. 

DuBDANS, The (Epsom). Sic 1658. Said to be M.E. durden, ' a 
coppice ' ; but there seems no trace of this in Oxf. Diet., where the 
only durdan is a var. of dirdum, ' uproar, tumult,' a Sc. and 
North, dial, word found c. 1440 in York Myst. as durdan. This 
name is prob. Dom. Dordnhoes, ? ' hill of Dorda '; the nearest 
name in Onom. is Durand. See Hoe. The plur. s often 
suffixes itself. 

Dtjrdae. (Carhsle) . Kelt, for ' stream with the thicket ' ; G. dobhar, 
W. dwr, and G. daire; or else fr. G. darach, ' an oak.' The same 
Dur- is seen in Durbeck or Doverbeck (Notts), 1225 Doverbec, 
prob. a tautology, and in Durbridge (Worcs.). CJ. Dover and 


Durham. Founded O.E. Chron. ann. 995, but no name is given 
there, c. 1070 Wm. Jumieges Castrum quod propria lingua 
Dunelmum nuncuparunt ; 1075-1128 Dunholme ; c. 1175 Fantosme 
Durealme ; 1295 Dwreysm ; c. 1470 Henry Duram ; 1535 Stewart 
Durhame. A name which has changed more than once. Dunelm 
or -eahne is orig. Kelt, dun ealm, 'hill of the elms,' an early 
loan-word. But Dunholme is O.E., meaning ' fort by the holm 
or river-meadow ' ; whilst Durham should mean ' wild-beasts' 
home or lair,' O.E. deor ham, same root as deer ; Icel. dyr ; 
Sw. diur, ' a wild beast.' That the n should have become r is. 
but one other proof of the liquiditj'^ of the liquids. Gf. Dereham 
and Dyrham. 

Dtjrlstone Head (Dorset) . Not in Dom. ' Perforated rock ' ; O.E. 
thyrel, ' a hole,' same root as nos-<n7. The name is perh. a 
translation of Tillywhim near by. The Head is full of holes. 


DuRNFORD (Amesbury) . Dom. Darnef ord. .E. derne, dyrne, ' secret, 
hidden, obscure/ Cf. Darnall and Darnick (Sc). Dornford 
(Wootton, Oxon) is the same; 1236 Patent R. Derneford. 

DuRRiNGTON (Salisbury and Worthing). Sa. T>. Dom. Derintone, 
Wo. D. Dom. Derentune. Prob. O.E. Deoran tun, 'town of 
Deora.' Onom. also has Deorwen or Derwine. Cf. Dtjrsley 
(Glouc), 1153 Duresle, also Derselega, where the name is doubt- 
ful. DuRRANCE (Upton Warren) is prob. called after a Robt. 
Duran, known to be living in an adjoining manor in 1275. 

DusTON (Northampton). Dom. Dustone. Prob. ^ Dudd's town.' 
Gf. Dom. Dudestan (Chesh.) and Dudley and Ditmmer. 

Button (Warrington). Sic 1302, but 1102 Dotona. Perh. ' town 
of Dutta.' Cf. 940 chart. Duttan hamme (Wiley, Wilts). But 
perh. fr. O.E. dufe, ' a dove '; perh. here become a proper name. 


DuxFORD (Cambridge). Dom. Dochesuuorde, 1211 Dokesworth, 
1284 Dukesworth, c. 1660 Fuller Dokesworth. The -ford is quite 
a mod. corrup. ' I^arm of Due' says Skeat, and not ' of the 
ducks,' O.E. duca, though Due is an unknown personal name. 
Cf. DoxEY. See -worth. But Duxford (Berks) is Dom. 
Dudochesforde, ' Ford of Dudoc ' ; 10 such in Onom. 

DwRBACH (Pembrokesh.). W.= 'little stream.' Durbeck or Dover 
Beck (Notts), 1225 Doverbec, might be the same name, but is 
more likely a tautology; W. dwr= Eng. becJc, 'stream.' 

DwYFOR and Dwyffach (Criccieth). Prob., says Anwyl, 'great 
and little goddess,' L. diva; W. mawr, 'big,' and bach, 'little,' 
in both names aspirated. 

Dyffryn (Merioneth), old Dyffrynt. W. dyfr-hynt, ' water ' or 
' river way,' and so ' vale.' 

Dym- or DiMCHURCH (New Romney, Kent). Not in Dom. M'Clure 
compares O.E. dimhus and dimhof, ' hiding or dark place.' 

Dymock (Glouc). Dom. Dimoch, 1167-68 Pipe Dlmoc, 1223 
Dimmoc. Doubtful. It looks hke an O.W. dimin. of W. din, 
dyn, 'hill' or 'fort'; m and n constantly interchange. Cf. 
Dum- or Dunbarton, and DuisrwiOH. 

Dyrham (Chippenham) . Said to be O.E. Chron. 577, also 950 chart., 
Deorham — i.e., * wild beasts' lair or home.' Cf. Durham. But 
Dom. Wilts has a Dobreham, which may be the Chron. place, and 
so a hybrid — O.Keltic dobr ; W. dwfr, 'river'; and O.E. ham, 
' home.' Cf. Dover. 

Dyserth (Flint) . 1245 Patent R. Dissard. W. form of L. desertum, 
' a desert place,' then ' a hermit's cell,' 'a house for receiving pil- 
grims,' ' a church,' and so the same as the Deserts and Dysarts 
of Ireland and Scotland. There is a ' Desertelawa ' (hill), 1156, 
in Pipe Derby. 


Dyvi R. (Merioneth), c. 1188 Oir. Camb. Ostium Devi. Prob. 
another instance of river-worship, the name prob. meaning 
' goddess.' Cf. Dwyfor. 

Eagle Stone (Baston Edge). Local tradition says, fr. the Saxon 
archer god Egil or JEgle. Cf. AYiiESBURY and Eglesboubne. 

Eakeing (Newark). Dom. Aigrun, Ec(h)eringhe, 1229 Close R. 
Ekering'. 1278-1428 Aykering. This seems to be O.N. eik- 
runn, 'runlet, little stream with the oaks.' Cf. Aigbubth. 
Oxf. Diet, gives run, sb. 9, with this meaning as North, dial., 
and has no quot. a. 1581. But the verb run in its earher 
usages' seems to have come to us chiefly through Scandi- 
navian sources. See Did. s.v. run vb. The later forms seem to 
be N. eikar eng, in M.E. ing, ' meadow of the oaks.' 

Ealing (London) . 1245 Patent B. Gilling ; later Yeling, Yealing, and 
ZeaUng {Z for Y). Evidently the same patronymic as in Gil- 
LiNGHAM. For the falling away of g, cf. L^chesteb, Ipswich, 
etc., also Yabmouth. Onom. has both Gilo and Gillus ; fr. either 
Gilling may have come. See -ing. There are also Dom. Berks 
Elinge, and 1161-62 Pi'pe Eling, Hants. These, however, are 
prob. patronymics fr. Ela, a man's name found in Beowulf. 

Eamont or Eamot Bridge (Penrith). 926 chart. Eamotum, M'Clure 
says, O.E. ea-{ge)mot, in 926 in a loc. plur., meaning ' river con- 
fluence ' or ' meet '; the form -mont prob. showing the influence 
of N. munn-r, ' a river-mouth.' Possibly the same name as 

Eabby (Colne). Dom. Eurebi. Prob. ' dwelling of Eofor.' Eofor- 
maer of Drifl&eld is found also as Euremarus. Cf. Everley. 
See -by. 

Eabdington. See Erdinqton. 

Eabdiston (Tenbury), Eabdisland, and Eabdisley (Herefordsh.). 
Ten. E. 957 chart. Eardufestun, Dom. Ardolvestone, a. 1100 
chart. Eardulfestune. ' Town, land, and meadow of Eardwulf.' 
See -ley and -ton. 

Earith. See Ebith. 

Earlswood (Birmingham, etc.). Bir. E. in c. 1274 chart, is 'the 
Earl of Warwick's wood.' 

Early (Reading). Dom. Erlei, 1316 Erie, Erlee, 1428 Arle. Skeat 
conjectures ' Earna's lea,' or 'meadow of the eagle,' O.E. earn, 
and compares Abley. Cf. Dom. Bucks Erlai, and Eabnley 
(Sussex), B.G.S. i. 331 Eameleagh. 

Earsham (Bungay). Not in Dom. 1157 Pipe Eresham. 'Home of 
Ere,' one in Onom: Cf. Abbeton. 

Easington (4 in P.G.). Thame E. Dom. Essedene. Castle Eden E. 
a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Esingtun, 1183 Esyntona. ' Town, village of 
Ese or Eene,' both very common in Onom. The -ing, q.v., may 


either represent the O.E. gen. -an, or be the sign of a patronymic. 
Cf. Dom. Bucks Esenberge. For interchange of -den, -don, 
-ton, see these endings. 

Easingwold (Yorks) . Dom. Eisicewalt, Eisincewald, 1230 Close R. 
Esingewald. Prob. patronymic. ' Wold, wood of the sons of,' 
some man with name in Is- {cf. Eastoft). Wold is O.E. wold, 
weald. Of. Easinqhope (Wore), 1275 Esighope, ' vaUey of the 
sons of Is or Esi,' and above. See -ing. 

East Beckham (Norfolk). Dom. Becham, 1458 Est bekham. May 
not be ' home on the beck ' or 'brook,' see Bacup; but perh. 
fr. a man, as in Beokenham. 

Eastbourne. Dom. Borne, 1114 O.E. Chron. Bume, c. 1450 
Fortescue Borne, 1730 Eastborn or Eborn. Bume or bourne is 
just early Eng. for ' brook,' the Sc. burn. Eastbubn (Driffield) 
is actually Augustbume in Dom. See Atjst. 

Eastoote (Pinner). Of. 958 cTiart. ' Eostacote ' on Stour, Staffs — 
i.e., ' east cot ' or ' cottage '; also 1179-80 Pipe Westcotun and 
Oustcotun (Yorks). 

Easterton (Market Lavington). 'Eastern village.' Cf. Dom. 
Surrey Estreha and Eastby. 

Eastfield (Northampton). 963 O.E. Chron. ^Estfeld. East- 
usually is ' east ' ; but Eastbrook (Sutton Coldfield) is a. 1200 
Essebrook, which is prob. ' ash-tree brook.' O.E. cesc, 3 asse, 
5 esche ; esse for ' ash ' is found in Dom. Easttngton, 2 in Glouc, 
1119 Estinthone, is prob. O.E. eastan tun, 'at the East village.' 
See -ing. 

Eastoft (Goole). Prob. 1119 chart. Istofte, which looks like Dan. 
is-toft, ' ice ' or ' icy field.' There is one man Iso in Onom., and 
many names in Is-, Isgod, Ishere, Iswulf, etc., and the Is- may 
be a contraction of any of them. Dom. has only Ese-, Estorp, 

Easton (12 in P.O.). O.E. Chron. 656 ^stun, 1137 Estun (North- 
ampton), 796 chart. Eastun (Berks). Dom. Estune (E. Riding, 
Yorks), Estone (Bucks). ' East town.' 

Eastbington (Brough, Yorks). Dom. Estrincton, Perh. 'town 
of Eastorwine,' and it may be a patronymic. See -ing. 

Eastry (Dover). 788 chart. In regione Eastrgena, 805 chart- 
Easterege, a. 1000 Eastrege. The first haK will mean ' Eastern ' ; 
M'Clure connects the second with the continental tribe of the 
Rugii. But in O.E. the ending -ige usually means * island.' Cf. 
Atjsterfield. Eastbea, or Estbea (Cambs), is prob. B.C. 8. 
iii. 438, Estrey, or ' eastern isle. Cf. Westry farm, March, and 

Eastwood (Nottingham). Dom. Estewic, error for -twit, 1166-7 
Pipe Est Twait, 1225 Estwaite, and often so. This is now no 
region for -thwaite (see p. 59), hence the change. 


Eathorpe (Leamington). 1327 Ethorpe. ' Village on the running 
water/ O.E. kb, O.N. oa. This is one of the southmost instances 
of -thorpe, q.v. Cf. Edalb, and Dom. Glouc. Aiforde. 

Eaton Constantine (Shrewsbury). Dom. Etone. 

Eaton Hastings (Farringdon). O.E. chart. Eatun, c. 1300 Eton. 

Eaton Socon (Bedford). 1155 Eitune, 1581 Eaton Sooken. 
Eaton Water and Wood (Staffs). Dom. Eitone, Etone. 
Eaton (Notts) Dom. Etune, Ettone, Attune. ,0.E. ea-tun, 
'river-town.' Socn is a district held by tenure of vocage — i.e., 
for certain, determined service; O.E. soc, 'privilege of holding 
a court in a district.' There are 8 Eatons in P.O. Cf. Eton. 

Ebberston (Snainton, Yorks). Dom. Edbriztune, 1166-67 Pipe 
Edbrihteston. ' Town of Eadbeorht/ a very common O.E. name. 
Cf. Dom. Salop Etbretelie. But with Ebberly (Torrington) cf. 
Dom. Hereford, Elburgelega, ' meadow of (the lady) Elhurga.' 

Ebbesbotjrne (SaUsbury). 672 chart. Ebblesburnon, Dom. Ebles- 
borne. 'Elba's brook' or 'bum,' O.E. hurn{e). Eabba and 
Eabe are common in Onom., and there is also one Ebhella. The 
liquid I would easily disappear. Cf. Ebley (Glouc), 1317 
Ebbaleye, and Epsom. 

Ebbseleet (Thanet) . O.E. Chron. 449 Eopwinesfleot, Ypwinesfleot ; 
also Wippedsfleot. Not in Dom. O.E. fleot, Icel. fljot is ' a 
stream ' or perh. ' a creek,' same root &s fleet. See Fleet. The 
first part must represent the name of some early Jutish settler. 
Ebbs- may be a contraction of Ypwines- or Eopwines-. There 
was once a channel between Thanet and Kent, and this is at the 
south-east mouth of it. Cf. Ipplepen. 

Ebchester (Co. Durham). Perh. a. 700 Bav. Geogr. Ebio. 
' Camp of ?.' See -Chester. 

EccHiNSWELL (NcwbuTy). Dom. Eccleswelle. Eccles, as in next, 
is prob. L. ecclesia, W. eglwys, and so this name may mean 
' church weU.' It is a curious corrup., and shows how any one 
liquid may run into another, though I very rarely becomes n. 
There is one Echun in Onom. 

EccLES (Lanes, Attleborough, Maidstone) and Eccleseield (Shef- 
field). Lane. E. sic c. 1100. Sh. E. Dom. Eclesfelt, 1179 Eccles- 
feld. Either L. ecclesia, W. eglwys, ' a church,' or rare case of 
a personal name in gen. used for a place, without suffix, ' (village 
of) ^cel ' or ' JScle,' a known O.E. name. Cf. Beccles, Beedon, 
and Brailes. It is hard to be certain which alternative is right ; 
both are contrary to the usual. E.g., why should the name ^cel 
so often be used alone, when ahnost no other is ? 

EccLESHALL (Stafford). Dom. Ecleshelle, 1298 Eccleshale, 1459 
Eggleshal. ' Nook, corner, beside the church,' or ' of JSceZ ' 
(see above). See -hall. Cf. Eccleshill (S. Yorks), Dom. 
Egleshil, and Eooleston (Lanes), Dom. Eglestun. 


Eccup (Leeds). Dom. Echope. 'Shut-in valley of Ecca.' Of. 
Bactjp, and see -hope. 

EcKiNGTON (Pershore and SheflSeld) . Pe . E . 972 chart. Eccyncgtune, 
Dom. Aichintune, a. 1400 Ekington, Ekynton, Shef . E. ? Dom. 
Ecinton. ' Town of the sons of Ecca.' Of. next and Grant a. 675 
' Eccantrewe ' in Surrey. See -ing and -ton. 

EcTON (Northampton). Dom. Ecdone, 1298 Eketon. ' Ecca's 
town.^ Ecca is a very common name in Onom. ; -don and -ton 
commonly interchange. 

Edale (N. Derbysh.). Dom. Aidele. ' Dale/ N. dal-r, ' with the 
running stream.' O.E. ea, O.N. da. Cf. Eathoepe and 
Edzell (Sc), 1204 Edale; and see -dale. 

Eddington (Heme Bay). Dom. Eddintone. ' Town of (the sons 
of) Ede ' or ' Eada.' Cf. next and Dom. (Bucks) Eddingraue. 
See -ing. 

Eddisbury (Cheshire). 914 O.E. Ghron. Eadesbyrig, 'Eada's or 
Ede's burgh.' Cf. Dom. (Bucks) Eddinberge. See -bury. 

Eddlethorp (Yorks). Dom. Eduardestorp. ' Village of Edward,' 
Liquid r has changed to Hquid I. Cf. Eddlesborough (Dun- 
stable) — ^not in Dom. However, in another place in Dom. it 
is Gedwalestorp ; prob. error. 

Eddystone Lighthouse (Plymouth). ' Stone or rock of Eadda 
or Mddi.' 

Eden R. (Cumberland and Kent). Cum. E. prob. c. 120 Ptolemy 
Ituna, a. 1130 Sim. Dur. lodene and duas Geodene == Castle 
Eden and Little Eden (Hartlepool) ; latter also occurs as Suth 
Yoden. The early forms of Eden Water, a Sc. tributary of the 
Tweed, are seen in those of Ednam (Sc). ; c. 1100 Aednaham, 
1116 Edyngahum, c. 1120 Ednaham, c. 1220 Edenham. These 
forms are perplexing, and it is hard to come to a verdict. The 
first part possibly contains a Kelt, root meaning ' corn,' W. yd, 
Ir. etha, so perh. ' river flowing through corn-lands/ On en or 
an for 'river,' cf. p. 11. Cf. Itchen. 

Edenhall (Langwathby) . 1158-59 Pipe Edenhale. ' Nook by the 
Eden.' See above and -hall. 

Edensob (Bakewell). Dom. Ednesoure. As this is on the R. 

Derwent, it prob. means ' bank, edge of Mdan ' or ' Aidan.' 

' See -or and -over. But Eden, see above, may have been another 

name of the Derwent. We get the same name in Baddesley 

Ensor, a. 1300 Ednesovre, 1327 Endeshover. 

Edgbaston (Birmingham) . Dom . Celboldstone ( ' Ceolbeald's town') , 
1150 Egboldeston, a. 1200 Egbaldeston, Eggebaldeston. 
' Ecgbeald's village.' We cannot now explain the change of 
name. But O.E. ecg- by rule becomes edg: e.g., edge is O.E. 


Edgeware (London). Not in Dom. c. 1160 Eggeswere, c. 1500 
Egges-ware. Perh. fr. an O.E. Ecgeswer, ' at the edge of the 
wear/ ecg, 2 egge, ' edge/ and wer, locer, ' a fence, an enclosure 
for fish/ Doni,. also uses wara for 'an outlying portion of a 
manor/ which Round makes cognate with wer, ' a fence/ 
But the first part may be fr. a man ^ga, in Onom. Cf. 
Dom. Norfk. Egemere and Edgwokth (Cirencester), Dom. 
Egesuuorde, Egeiswurde, ' farm of j^ga ' or ' Ecg.' 

Edgton (Aston-on-Clun, Salop). Cf. 1179-80 Pipe Roll Eggeton 
(Yorks) . Either ' Mga's town/ or ' village at the edge.' See above. 

Edinqley (Southwell). Not in Dom., but sic 1302. Cf. 1005 
chart, in Bugdale, Egseanlsea. ' Eda's lea ' or ' meadow.' Cf. 
Eddingthorpe and Edingale (Tamworth), Dom. Ednimghalle, 
a. 1200 Eadinghall, Edenynghal(e), which may be a patronymic, 
but is prob. derived fr. Eadhun. 

E(d)dingthoiipe (N. Walsham). Not in Dom. 1429 Edithorp. 
' Eada's village.' Many of this name in Onom. See -thorpe. 

Edington (Wilts). 957 chart. Ethandun, Dom. Edintone. [879 
O.E. Chron. Ethandun, cf. Ashington.] ' Town of Eda, Eada, 
Etha, or Eata ' ; all these forms in Onom. See -ing. But 
Athelney E. is Dom. Edwinetone, 1199 Edintone. 

Edlingham (Ahiwiek). a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Eadulfingham, Eadwul- 
fincham. A patronymic. ' Home of the descendants of Eadwulf,' 
a common O.E. name. Similar is Edlington (Horncastle) . 
Dom. EUintone, Eilintone, c. 1275 Testa de Neville Edelington. 

Effingham (Leatherhead) . Not in Dom. O.E. Effingeham, pat- 
ronymic; 'home of the descendants of Effa or Eafa' {cf. 
Bede III. 24). 

Egerton (Ashford, Kent, and Bolton). Not in Dom. ' Eadgar's 
town.' Cf. Agardesley (Staffs), c. 1004 chart. Eadgares leye. 

Eqham (Surrey). G^raw^of a.675, andDom.Egeham. 'Homeof ^g^a.' 
Cf. Edgewabe, and Egbrough (Yorks), Dom. Egburg, Acheburg. 

Eglesboubne or Ecclesburne (Derbysh.). Not in Dom. Said 
to be, like Eagle Stone, fr. the archer Egil ; though the first 
syll. may be for ' church,' see Eccles. A man's name is prob. 
in Egglestone (DarHngton), Dom. Eghistun (h error for I), 
and in 1342 ' Eglesfeld,' (Westmrld.). 

Eglingham (Alnwick), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Ecgwulfingham, 1197 
Eggleningeham. ' Home of the descendants of Ecgwulf,' a 
common name in Onom. See -ing. 

Egloshayle (The Lizard). Sic 1536. Corn, eglos hayle, ' church 
on the tidal river.' Eglos is in W. eglwys, G. eaglais, L. ecclesia, 
Gk. eKKXrjcrta. 

Egloskebry (Launceston) . Corn, eglos, 'church,' see above, and 
it is doubtful what; perh. the Corn, for ' fort,' W. caer, or perh. 


(? Corn, and) W. ceri, ' medlar trees/ In Dom. Cornw. we have 
Eglosberrie, prob. fr. St. Baire of Cork, friend of Brendan and 

Eqlwys Newydd (Cardiff), now usually called Whitchurch, c. 
1540 Egglis Newith, which is phonetic W. for ' new church/ 
The usual W. for church is llan. 

Egremont (Pembroke and Whitehaven). Wh. E. a. 1200 Egener- 
mot, which is clearly O.N. for ' meeting-place, court of Egen/ 
the -er being the N. gen. Cf. Ennerdale. But it is 1218 
Egremunde, 1246 Egremund, where the ending is O.N. munn-r 
for mund-r, 'mouth, ri ver -mouth ' ; perh. influenced by O.E. 
munt, L. mons, -Us, ' hill, mountain.' 

EiRL (mountains, Caernarvonsh.). W.=' rivals.' 

Eldon (Bps. Auckland), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Elledun. Prob. 
' ^Zto's or EIWq hill,' O.E. dun. 

Eldwick (Bingley). Dom. Helguic, Helwic. O.E. halig wic, ' holy 
dwelling,' holy is 3-4 heli, hely. Cf. O.N. heilag-r, Sw. helig, 
and Elloughton ; and see -wick. 

Elford (Tamworth) . 1004 chart. Ellef ord, Dom . Elef ord . ' Ford of 
^lla ' or ' Elle/ common O.E. name. Cf. Dom. Essex Elefforda. 

Elham (Canterbury), c. 1000 Ulaham, O.E. for 'owl village.' 
Not in Dom. 

EtiKTNqton, South (Louth). Dom. Alchinton, 1233 Suthelkinton, 
1359 Elkyngton. Prob. ' town, village of Ealhhun,' fairly 
common in Onom., and found also as Alchun. But it may be 
' of the sons of Elc' Cf. next and -ing. 

Elkstone (Cheltenham and Leek). Chel. E. Dom. Elchestane, 
1177 Pipe Elkestan. Leek E. 1227 Elkesdon. Elc may be a 
man's name, otherwise unknown. Cf. above; Baddeley says 
Ealch for Ealh-, which also may be. But these are prob. 
' stone ' and ' hill of the elk,' O.E. elcli, elh, then not recorded 
till 1486 elke. See -don and -ton. 

Elland (HaUfax). Dom. Elant, Elont. This seems to be a var, 
of island. It stands on the R. Calder, but was it ever an 
island ? Island is O.E. inland, iland, pllond, yllond, 4-5 eland. 
But Ellel (Lanes.) is Dom. Ellhale, prob. ' Ella's nook.' See -hall. 

Ellastone (Ashbourne) . Dom. Edelachestone, Elachestone, a. 1200 
Adelakestone, Athel-, Ethelaxton, ' village of jMthelac' There is 
also 1166-67 Pipe Adelacheston (Bucks and Beds). See -ton, 
which often interchanges with -stone. 

Ellenborough (Maryport). Old Alneburg, and (prob.) Aynburg. 
' Burgh, town on the R. Ellen or' But Ellenhall 
(Eccleshall) is Dom. Linehalle (an error), a. 1200 ElHnhale, 
' nook of Elle.' Cf. Ellesham. And in O.E. charters we find 
both an Ellenbeorh and an Ellesbeorh. But Ellenthorp 


(W. Riding) is Elwinetorp and Halwidetorp {d error for n) in 
JDom — i.e., ' village of Ealhwine or Aluuinus', same name as 
Alcuin. Cf. Elvington. 

Elleeby (Holderness). Dom. Aluerdebi, Alwerdebi, 1179-80 Pipe 
Alwardebi. 'DwelHng of Ealdweard.' Cf. Aulerthorpe; and 
see -by. 

Elleedine (Wellington, Salop). Dom. Ellevrdine, 1233 Close R. 
Ele- and Ailwarthin. ' Ella'a farm.' The ending -vrdine or 
-wardine (q.v.) is common in this region. 

Ellebker (South Cave, Yorks). Dom. Alrecher. Prob. O.N. olr 
or elrir kjarr, ' alder copse.' Cf. Ellebton and Carswell, also 
Elleebtjbn (E. Biding), Dom. Elreburne. 

Elleeton (on Swale). Sic 1203, but Dom. Alreton, twice, Elre- 
ton(e), 5 times. Perh. = Aldeetots, and some cases of 
Alleeton, 'town among the alders,' O.E. alor, aler, 5 ellyr, 
O.N. olr, elrir. But it may as likely be fr. the common O.E. 
name Ealhhere, or else, JElfherej as in Alleeston. Elleeby 
(Holderness), Dom. Alwerdebi, Aluerdebi, -wardebi, Elwordebi, 
' dweUing of Ealhweard/ must be of different origin. 

Ellesham or Ailsham Peioey (Lines). Dom. Elesham, 1233 
Ellesham. 'Home of u^lli, Mia, or Ella.' Cf. 808 chart. 
^lesbeorge, (Somerset). 

Ellesmeee (Oswestry) . Sic in Dom. ' Lake of Ella ' \ see above. 

ELLrNGHAM, Gt. (Attleboro') . Dom. sic and Elincgham, and 
Ellington (Hunts and Morpeth), Hu. E. Dom. EHntune, may 
aU be patronymics; 'home, town of JSlla's descendants.' But 
Ellingdon (Swindon) is the Ellandune or ' Ella's fort,' of the 
great Mercian defeat by K. Egbert in 825 ; ELLLffGHAM (Bungay) 
is Dom. Elmingheha, ' home of the sons of Elm, or Elmund, or 
Ealhmund'; and Ellinthoepe (S. Yorks) is Dom. Adelingestorp. 
See Adelingfleet. Also see -ing and -thorpe. 

Elloughton (Brough. Yorks). Dom. Elgendon, The Elgen- is 
doubtful, more old forms needed. It is not impossible it may 
represent hallow, 'a saint,' O.E. halga, -an, 3 Orm, plur. alhen, 
4 alwes. Cf. O.N. heilag-r, Sw. helig, ' holy,' and Eldwick. 
See -don and -ton. 

Elm (Cambridge and Frome). Cam. E. a. 1154 O.E. Chron. 956 
^Im, 1346 Elm. O.E. elm, Dan. celm, aim, ' an elm-tree.' 
Cf. Ash, Poplae, etc. Elmbeidge (Glostr.) is c. 1210 El- 
brugge, but c. 1200 Telbrugge also Thellbruge ' bridge made 
of deals.' O.E. yel, ]>ell. The change arose through Thel- 
being taken as Th'el- or ' The elm ' bridge. There is a ' Thel- 
brycg ' (Sandford, Devon) in 930 chart. On the other hand, 
Elmbridge (Droitwich) is Dom. Elmerige, a .1300 Elmrugge, and 
-brugge, which is orig. ' elm -ridge,' O.E. hrycg. 


Elmers End (Beckenham) . Elmer is a late form of MlJmcBr, a very 
common O.E. name. But Elmore (Gloster) is 1177 Pipe 
Elmour, 1221 Elneovere. ' Elm-tree bank/ C/. Hasler, etc., 
and see -over. 

Elmett. See Barwick-in-Elmet. 

Elmham (Norfolk) . ? 1038 chart. iElmham. ? O.E. - ' house built 
of elm-wood." Of. Elmdon (Birmingham), Dom. Elmedone. 

Elmsbridge (Surrey). Dom. Amelebrige, often; 1230 Close R. 
Emelesbrug. ' Bridge of Mmele/ perh. he was prsefectus in 
Sussex in 772 {B.G.S. 208). We have a similar corrup. in Elm- 
stone (Kent), 1243 Patent R. Eylmerston — i.e. / town oiAylmer/ 
very common in O.E. as Mlfmoer. 

Elmsett (Ipswich). Dom. Elmeseta, c. 1210 Jocelin Elmset. The 
meaning is a little doubtful. Seat, O.N. soeti, is not found in 
Eng. till c. 1200, and with the meaning ' place of abode ' not 
till c. 1275. But the ending -set or -scet, as in Somerset, is 
very old; and so the meaning here is prob. 'dwelling of a 
family called Elm.' Trees' names often became personal 
names. However, Elmstone Hardwick (Cheltenham) is 889 
chart., Alchmundingtun, Dom. Almondeston, ' dwelHng of Ealh- 
mund.' See -ing. 

Elslack (Skipton). Dom. Eleslac. 'uElla's slack,' O.N. slakki, 
' a small shallow dell or valley, a hoUow or dip in the ground.' 
Cf. Beeslack, Penicuik (Sc). 

Elston (Newark) . Dom. Eluestune,c. 1190 Elvestona,1302 Eyliston. 
Of. B.C.S. 936 ^Ifestun. ' Town of jElf.' Cf. Alveston and 
Dom. Dorset ^Elfatune. O.E. celf, O.N. alf-r is ' an elf, a fairy.' 

Elstow (Bedford). Dom. Elnestou, c. 1160 Ahiestowe, c. 1200 
Gervase Helenstoe, 1233 Patent R. Alnestowa, 1327-1632 Ehies- 
towe. Perh. ' St. Helen's place,' O.E. stow. Cf. Morwenstow. 
The Helen is said to be Helena, mother of Constantine the 
Great. But it may well be ^Ealhhun's,Mlhun's, or Ealhwine'a 
place.' These are all known names. But older forms are 

Elstree (St. Albans). 1287 Idolvestre; later Idelestree, Ilstrye 
— i.e., ' Eadwulf's tree.' Cf. Oswestry, etc. The form Eagles- 
tree is a stupid invention. 

Elswick (Preston and Newcastle). Pr. E. Dom. Edelelsuuic. 
Doubtful.  Perh. ' Mhel's dwelling.' See -wick. 

Elsworth (W. Cambs). Chart. ElesworS, Dom. Elesworde, 1316 
Ellesworthe. Local pron. Elser. 'Ella's farm.' Cf. Elles- 
HAM. In O.E. charters we also have ' Ellewurthie,' now the 
personal name Elworthy. See -worth, -worthy. 

Elterburn (Nthbld.), old Elthebum, and Elterwater (Amble- 
side). Doubtful. There is one man Eltor mentioned in Dom.  



Elthajvi (Greenwich). Sic 1577, but Dom. Ealdham, which is O.E. 
for ' old home or house/ Another Eltham in the N. is found 
sic in 1314. Cf. Elton. 

Eltisley (St. Neot's). Not in Dom. 1251 Eltesle, 1302 Elteslee. 
The nearest name in Onom. is one Eltan or Elstan, a monk. 
Skeat conjectures ^Mlfgeat's, lea/ but more evidence is needed. 

Elton (4 in P.G.). Dom. Derby Eltune, Hants Eltetone. 
Stockton E. a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Eltun; Nottingham E. Dom. 
Ailtone, c. 1190 Elletona. On analogy of Eltham one would 
incline to O.E. eald tun, 'old town.' But Elletona suggests 
derivation f r. a man Ella ; whilst Mutschmann is prob. right in 
deriving Ailtone f r. Mgel, late var. of Mihel or Ethel, ' the noble- 
born.' Gf. Ellesham, etc. 

Elvtngton (York). Dom. Alvintone, ^ Ealdwine'a^ or ' Ealhwine'a 
town.' Gf. Ellenthobp. 

Ely. Bede iv. 19 Elge, q.v., O.E. versn. Elige, Elia lond; 936 O.E. 
Ghron. Elig, Die Heilige Engl. Ehgabirig, a. 1153 Liber Eliensis 
Ely. AngUce id est, a copia anguillarum quae in eisdem 
capiuntur paUudibus. O.E. el-i^e, 'eel-island.' Cf. Elie (Sc). 
But Skeat thinks that Elge represents el-ge, ge being a very 
rare and early O.E. word for ' region, district ' ; Ger. gau. See -ey. 

Ember B<. (Hampton Court). Prob. same root as Embeb sb^, 
Oxf. Diet., which is fr. O.E. ymb, ' about, round,' and ryne, 
' course, running.' 

Emborrow (Bath). Not in Dom. Prob. a. 1142 Wm. Malmesb. 
Eatumberg, 1270 chart. Eteneberga, ' Barrow, mound of Eata 
{Eatan, Eathun),' a name common in Onom. It is an interesting 
corruption. Gf. Barrowby, etc. 

Embsay (Skipton). Dom. Embesie, 1202 Emeseia. ' Island of Embe.' 
One monk of this name is found in Lib. Vit. Dunelm. See -ay. 

Emlyn (Caermarthen) . c. 1188 Gir. Gamb. Emelin. Must surely 
have some connexion with W. ymlyn, emlyn, ' to follow, to 
adhere ' ; or perh. emyl, ' border, edge ' ; but the origin is quite 
doubtful. A castle was built here by Sir Rhys ap Thomas, in 
time of Hen. VIII. ; hence it is often called Newcastle Emlyn, 
because built on the site of a previous castle. Gf. 1603 Owen. 
' Emlyn Yskych . . . wherein newe Castle standeth.' 

Emmer Green (Reading). Gf. Dom. Bucks Imere. Perh. O.E. 
ed-mere, ' lake beside the stream.' Gf. Eton and Hammer. 

Emmet (Northumbld. and Yorks). Perh. 926 O.E. Ghron. Eamo- 
tum is that in Norbld. ; chart. Emmet-roda (Yorks), M'Clure 
says Eamotum is loc. pi., of ea-{ge)mot, ' river confluence.' 

Emneth (Wisbech). Not in Dom. O.E. emnet, 'a plain,' fr. 
emn or efn or efen, ' even, flat, level,' with denominative suffix 
as in thicket, etc. The present th had prob. its origin with a 


Norm, scribe, €f. Granth for Grant (s.v. Cambridge), Thames 
for Tames, etc. 

Empingham (Stamford). Sic in Chron. Petrob., 1166 Pipe Empin- 
geha. ' Home of the Empings/ an O.E. tribe. Cf. Impington 
(Cambs), chart. Impintun, 1210 Empintone. Empshott (Hants) 
is Dom. Hibesete, ' seat, dweUing of Hiba.' ? for Himba or 
Hima, one in Onom. Cf. Aldee-shot. 

Emscote (Warwick), a. 1200 Edulfascote, a. 1300 Edelvecote, and 
Edehnescote. Two names here, ' Edulf's or Eadwulf'a ' and 
' Eadhelm's cottage.' 

Emswell (Yorks). Dom. Helmeswelle, Elmeswell. ' Well of Helm 
or Helmu.' Of. Emsworth (Havant), 1231 Close B. Elmeworth. 
Only Roll Rich. I. Emeswelle, Enewelle (Herts) is now Amwell. 
Emley (Yorks) is Dom. Ameleie, -lai, which, like Amwell, is 
fr. a man Amma. 

Enborne (Berks), c. 1300 Enedburn, and Enford (Pewsey), Dom. 
and chart. Enedforde. Fr. O.E. ened, L. anas, -tis, ' a duck.' 
See -bourne. 

Enderby (Leicester), Dom. Endrebie, 1229 Close R. Endredebi. 
' Dwelling of Endred ' or ' Mndred,' a name not in Onom. See 

ExDON (Stoke-on-T.), Dom. Enedun, a. 1300 Hene-, Enedun, and 
Eneield (London), Dom. Enefelde, later Enfeld, Endfield, may 
be ' duck's hill ' and * field ' too. See above, and cf. 1161-62 
Pipe (Cumbld.) Endehal, ' duck's nook.' But they may be fr. 
a man JSna, ^Eni, Eana, or Eni, all forms found in Onom. 
For Endmoor (Kendal) we need old forms. It might be fr. O.E. 
ende, ' the end,' which in O.E. also means ' a quarter, a division,' 
and later, ' a boundary.' 

England. Freeman says, first in 991 Treaty K. JEthelred Engla- 
land; 1258 Henry III. Engleneloande. In 975, 986, and 1002 
the country is called Angel-cyn; and older is the name Saxonia. 
' Land of the Engels or Angles,' who came over fr. East of the R. 
Elbe, where there is a Schleswig district still called Angeln, 
Cf. Freeman, Nor. Conq. i. 538 (3rd edit.). 

Englefield (Reading) . 871 O.E. Chron. Englef eld, Dom. Englef el, 
InglefeUe. ' Field of the Angles.' Cf. above, and Engleton 
(Warwksh.), sic a. 1200. 

Ennerdalb (W. Cumberland), a. 1200 Egenerdal, * dale of Egen,' 
gen. case. Cf. Egremont and Eynsham. 

Entwistle (Salford). c. 1400 Entwisell. Perh. 'confluence of 
Ena.' See Enfebld and Twizel. 

Envillb (Stourbridge). Dom. Efnefeld, a. 1200 Efne-, Evenes-, 
Evene feld, ' Even field.' Cf., however, Evenwood, which 
with this, may be fr, a man, though in this case prob. not. 


' Even ' in O.E. is ebn, emn, efn, efen. The -ville must be a 
quite mod. ' refinement/ 

Enys Dodman (Land's End). * Island of ' prob. some unknown 
saint. BIr. H. Jenner spells it Dodnan, and would identify 
with Donan, perh. he after whom the Breton churches at 
Landonan and St. Thonan are called. This is very dubious. 
Cf. The Dodman, Fowey. Corn, enys is W. ynys, G. innis, 
' island.' Cf. Ince. 

Epping (London). Dow. and 1229 CZose iS.Eppinges. Patronymic. 
' Place of the descendants of Eppa,' a name of which there are 
several examples in Onom. Cf. 811 chart. ' Appin(c)g lond ' 
(Kent), and Dom. Surrey Epingeh a; also Epney (Glostersh.), 
1252 Eppen', ' Eppa'a isle.' 

Eppleby (Darlington). Dom. Aplebi= Appleby. 

Epsom (Surrey). Dom. Ebbasham(e), 1662 Ebsham or Epsom. 
' Home of Ebbe ' or ' Mbbe,' an abbess, early in 7th cny. Dom.'s 
Ebbas- must be an error for Ebbes-. Cf. Mill-om (N. of Barrow) ; 
also Ipsley. 

Epworth (Doncaster). Not in Dom. c. 1444 Eppeworth. ' Farm 
of Eppa or Eappa.' Cf. B.C.S. 253 Eppan hrycg. See -worth. 

Ebdington (Birmingham). Dom. Hardintone, a. 1200 Erdin(g)ton, 
1327 Erdyngton. ' Village of Harding,' once in Dom. Erding. 
Cf. Hardingstone and Eaudington (Bridgenorth) . This 
last might also be fr. Eardwine. 

Erewash R, (Derby). Not in Dom. c. 1175 Yrewis, 1637 Ar-, Erewash. 
Doubtful, prob. pre-Saxon. But cf. Guash, Irwell and Wash. 

Erith (London), also Earith (St. Ives, Hunts). Lon. E. c. 962 
chart. Earhyth, EarhiSe, Dom. Erhede, 1486 Erith, c. 1580 
Eareth. St. I. E. Ramsey Chron. Herhythe, Erethe, Erithe. 
Dr. Morris says, O.E. ea-rith, ' water-channel.' But Skeat is 
positive that it is O.E. ear-hythe, ' muddy landing-place ' or 
' shore.' O.E. ear is a very rare word, Icel. aurr, ' wet clay, 
mud.' See Hythb. Skeat is almost certainly right. 

Ernley. See Arley. 

Escomb (Bps. Auckland), a. 1130 /Sim. D%r. Ediseum. ' Edda's 
or Adde'a valley'; but already 1183 Boldon Bk. Escumba. 
See -combe. 

EsGAiR Felyn (Ogwen). W.= ' yellow scaur or cliff.' Esgair is 
same root as the Sc. skerry, G. sgeir, all borrowed fr. O.N. sker, 
N. skjer, ' a rugged, insulated sea rock.' 

EsHER (Surbiton). Dom. Aissela, Aissele, c. 1210 Ashal, 1230-31 
Close B. Esser, Eyser, Eiser, c. 1240 Assere. A curious name. 
It ifl prob. ^Ascytel's' or ^Aschil's lea or meadow,' O.E. leah; 
and I has become r by dissimilation. But it is rare for the 
ending -lea or -ley to have wholly fallen away. In 801 Grant 


we find an Esher or Echer in Somerset, to which the above 
explanation could not apply; it will be= Asheb, ' ash-tree bank/ 
Cf. B.C. 8. 158 Uckinge Esher. 

EsK R. (S. Cumbld.). 1340 Eskheved or -head. For forms see 
EsK (Sc), 3 rivers there, a. 800 Esce, etc. Kelt, root for 
' river, water,' as in Exe, G. uisge, etc. Wh. Stokes cannot be 
right in calling Esk Pictish, when we have it in S. Cumbld.; 
but it may well be cognate with O.Ir. esc, ' a marsh, a fen,' and 
O.W. uisc or UsK. 

EssENDiNE or -DEAN (Stamford). O.E. Chron. ann. 657 Esendic, a. 
1100 Esendike. ' Ditch,' O.E. die, ' of Esa, Ese, or Esi,' all these 
forms are in Onom. The -dean is a later ending, q.v. Cf. Dom, 
Essex Lassendene, which may be La(The) Essendean (as in 
Lasham), as no man Lassa is recorded. But by 1230 Close R. 
we get Esenden. See -dean. 

EssENDON (Hatfield). 1298 Writ Estdene= 'East Dean'; but 
EssiNGTON (Walsall) is 994: chart. Esingetun, Dom. Eseningetone, 
a. 1300 Esynton, Esnyngton. ' Village of the descendants of 
Esne,' a common O.E. name, meaning ' servant,' or else ' of 
Esa, Ese, or Esi,' as above. 1160-61 Pipe Nthbld. has an 

Essex. Nennius Est saxum (inflected). O.E. Chron. 499 East 
Sexa, a. 1087 Essex, Dom. Exsessa, a. 1236 Rog. Wendover Est- 
sexia. ' Land of the East Saxons.' 

Etchells (Chesh., etc.). See Nechells. But Etchilhampton 
(Wilts), not in Dom., is 1228 Hechelhamt, ' Homestead of 
? Heahhelm or Hehelm ' ; one in Onom. See Hampton. 

Etchingham (Sussex). 1298 Echingham. 'Home of Ecca,' a 
common name in Onom., once found as Eccha. It may be a 
patronymic. See -ing. Dom. has only Echen-, Achintone and 
Achingeworde. Etchden (Kent) is 1286 Close R. Haccheden, 
perh. ' woody vale entered by a hatch ' or half -door, or wicket; 
O.E. hcec, hcecce, 3-7 hacche, 5 hetche, 5-6 heche ; but it may be 
fr. a man Eccha. 

Eton. Sic 1298, but Dom. Ettone, Etone. O.E. ea-tun, ' town 
on the river.' Cf. Eaton. 

Etburia (Burslem). The pottery works here were founded in 1769 
by Josiah Wedgewood, who gave them this fanciful name ' as 
that of the country of old most celebrated for the beauty of its 
ceramic products.' 

Ettingsham (Shrewsbury). Dom. Attingeha, a. 1145 Orderic 
'Apud Ettingesham in ecclesia Sancti Eattae confessoris,' 
abbot of Melrose, then Bp. of Lindisfarne {Bede iii. 26). 
'Home of Eatta's, people'; a patron3nnic. Cf. both Etes- 
hale and Ettinghale in Dom. Cheshire, and Ettingshall 
(Wolverhampton), 994 Ettingeshall, Dom. Etinghale: also 


Eatington (Wwksh.), Dom. Etendone, and Eteloe (Awre), Dom. 
Eteslau, ' burial mound of Mtta ' or ' Eatta.' 

Etton (Mket. Deeping and Beverley). M. D. Ett. sic a. 1100; 
Bev. E. Dom. and 1202 Ettone, 1179-80 Eton. 'Town of 
Eatta.' Cf. above. 

Etjston (Thetford). Dom. Eustuna, and Eusfort, 1479 Euston. 
Prob. ' Eowa's town.' This accords with analogy better than 
to derive fr. O.E. eowu, M.E. ewe, ' an ewe.' Euston Sq. is 
called after the Dukes of Grafton and Earls of Euston, ground 
landlords here. 

EuxTON (Chorley). Pron. Allstn, Elestn. 1241 Euckeston, 1246 
Eukeston, a. 1300 Euchestona, 1311 Huxton. ' Town of Euca/ 
a name unrecorded, but Hiui, Hucco and HiLch are in Onom. 

EvENLODE (Stow-on-Wold). 772 chart Euulangelade, 777 ib. 
Eunlade {u=v), 969 ib. Eowlangelade, Dom. Eunilade, 1327 
Evenlode, 1330 Eweneload. O.E. Eowlan gelad, ' channel of 
Eowla/ gelad being cognate with Eng. lade and lode. Duignan 
translates, ' ford, ferry.' Eowla is found B.C. 8. 812 as Eowel, 
name of a W. prince, better known to us in the form Howell. 

EvENWOOD (Bps. Auckland), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Efenwuda. 
' Eafa's or Eafe's wood.' It might be fr. O.E. efen, efn, ' even, 
level.' Cf. Enville. 

EvERCREECH (Bath) . Exon . Dom . Euercriz . See next and Creech . 
Thus it is a hybrid — the ' Creech ' or ' Hill of the Boar.' 

Everley or -LEIGH (Marlborough and Yorks). Ma. E. a. 1140 Wm. 
Malmesb. Eburleah. Yo. E. Dom. Eurelai, -lag. ' Meadow of 
the wild boar.' O.E. eofor, eofer, 3 eaver, 4 ever, cognate with 
L. aper. Cf. O.E. seofon, now seven. Eversley (Winchfield) 
is, of course, the same. But in both cases Eofor may be a 
proper name, just as Bear, Wolf, etc., are so used. Cf. Evring- 
HAM and Everton (Notts), Dom. Evretone. See -ley, 

Eversden (Cambs). c. 1080 Inquis. Cam. Eueresdona, Dom. 
Auresdone, 1291 Everesdon, 1316 Everesdene; and Everthorpe 
(Yorks), Dom. Evertorp. ' Hill ' (or ' valley '), ' enclosure,' 
and ' village of Eofor ' or ' of the wild boar.' See Everley, 
-don, -dean, and -thorpe; also cf. Heversham. 

Evesham. 709 chart. Homme, Eveshomme, also Cronochomme, 
714 ib. Eouesham, 716 ib. Cronuchhomme, 854 ib. Ecquines 
hamme, 1045 O.E. Chron. (H)eofeshamme, Dom. Eovesham, 
c. 1097 Flor. W. Eoveshamm. ' Enclosure of Eof,' herdsman 
to Bp. Ecgwine, mentioned in 854 chart. Here, it is said, the 
Virgin appeared to Eof, and a monastery was erected on the 
spot In Worcestersh. a ham means specifically 'riverside 
meadow-land.' See -ham (2). Cf. Eaveston (Yorks), Dom. 
Eveston, Dom. Surrey Evesha, and 1179-80 Pipe Yorks Euesham. 


EviNGTON (Boddington, Sussex and Leicester). Bo. E. Dom. 
Givingtune, 1303 Yivynton; and changes for Suss, name are 
similar. ' Dwelling of Gefwine,' For similar changes also see 
Ealing; and see -ing. 

EvBiNGHAM (Yorks). Dom. Evringha', 1202 Everingeham. ' Home 
of the Boar's sons.' Cf. Eveeley, and Dom. Bucks Evreham 
and Evringehou. See -ing. 

EwELL (Epsom). 727 chart. Euuelle, 1160 Pipe Aiwella, which 
looks like an O.E. ed welle, ' river well/ ' well by the river.' But 
it is Dom. Etwelle, or ' at the well.' Cf. the surname Attewell. 
There was a well-known well here. There is also an Ewell 
(Kemble) whose only old form is Ewelle. Cf. next. 

EwELME (Woodstock) . Sic 1450. Not in Dom., but chart. Eawybn. 
This last is thought to be O.E. ki, river; and wielm, walm, wylm, 
' boiling, welling up.' It prob. means ' a spring.' Cf. Ewell, 
Gyting, and Walmsley. 

Ewhubst (Battle, Sussex). 822 chart. lu hyrst, O.E. for ' yew-tree 
wood.' Hyrst also means ' a sandy place.' 

EwYAS Harold (Hereford), c. 1130 Lib. Land. Eugias, 1167-68 
Pipe Euwias, mod. W. Euas. Doubtful. Nothing in mod. W. 
seems to suit. Eweston (Pembroke) is in Black Bk. St. David's 

Exboubne (Devon). Dom. Echeburne. The stream here now is 
the Okenent. Eche- may be =Exe; and Oke- may be a var. of 
the same root, while -nent will be W. nant, ' a valley.' 

Ex(e) R. and Exeter. Sic 1485, but c. 380 Ant. Itin. Isca 
Dumnoniorum, c. 810 Nenniiis Cair Legion guar Usic 
(' fort of the Rom. legion on the Exe '), 877 O.E. Chron. 
Escanceaster, 893 ib. Exanceaster, c. 893 Asser Exceastre, 
Dom. Exonia urbs, a. 1130 Sim.. Dur. Brittanice Cairwisc, Latine 
Civitas Aquarum, c. 1275 Excetre. ' Camp, town on the R. 
Ex/ in Ptolemy lo-xa, L. Isca, 739 chart. Exa, Eaxa. Same as 
Sc. EsK, same root as is seen in usque-baugh and in whisky, also 
in Ax and Usk, and prob. Ox- (in Oxford), too, all being Keltic 
forms of the word for ' water, river.' The mod. W. name is 
Caerwysg. For Exe R., cf. Ashtord. 

ExHALL (Alcester). 710 cJiurt. Eccleshale, Dom. Ecleshalle. ' Nook 
of jEcel or JEcle,' or possibly ' of the church. Cf. Eccles, and 
see -hall. Extall (Staffs) is 1220 Hecstall, prob. ' place of the 
hatch ' or ' heck ' ; whilst Exn^BY (N. Yorks) is Dom. Aschilebi. 
' Ascytel's ' or ' AskiVs dwelling.' 

ExMOUTH. 1001 ExanmuSan. See Exe. 

ExNiNG (Newmarket), c. 1097 Flor. Wore. Yxninga, 1157 Pipe 
Roll Exningis. ib. 1160 Exining, 1298 Ixinynge. 'Place 
on the water or stream.' Cf. Exeter. Merivale comiects with 


the tribe Iceni, as in Icknield. This is improbable. See -ing, 
as river-ending. 

ExTON (Oakham, on R. Meon, Hants, Dulverton, etc.). Oa. E. 
1126 Extona, Han. E. 940 chart. East Seaxnatune. This last 
is ' town of the East Saxons ' or ' Essexmen.' The others may 
be ' town of Ecca,' a conmion name. Of. Dom. Chesh. Exestan, 
which is prob. Estyn (Flint). More old forms needed. Dom. 
has Exwelle in Rutld., but no Exton there or in Somst. 1160-61 
Pipe Kent has an Exfnea (c/. Eastney, Portsmouth) . 

Eyam (Northants and Sheffield). Not in Dom. Nor. E. 1155 Pipe 
Hehham. 'High home/ O.E. heali, heh, 3-5 hey. See -ham. 
For Eybford or Heyford (Stow-on-Wold), Dom. Aiforde, 
Baddeley prefers O.E. hege, 'hedge'; M.E. heie, which is 

Eynesbtjry (St. Neots). Dom. Einulvesberie, c. 1130 Wm. Malmes. 
Einulfes Ijiri, c. 1136 Enesbure. ' Burgh, town of Einwulf/ 
which is contracted into ' Mwx,' ' Mne' or ' Ena ' ; all forms are 
in Onom. Cf. next; and see -bury. 

Eynsford (Dartford). c. 983 chart, ^nesford. 'Ford of ^ne.' 
See above. Cf. Dom. Norfk. Ensford. 

Eynsham (Oxford). O.E. Ghron. 571 Egonesham, a. 1142 Wm. 
Malmes. Egnesham, c. 1450 Bromtun Eynesham. ' Home, house 
of Egon.' This is prob. the same name as Egensheim, old form 
of Ensisheim, Alsace. 

Eythorne (Dover). 805 chart. HeagySe ^orne, prob. Dom. 
Haihome. The first part prob. represents the name of some 
unknown man. O.E. gi\f is 'corn cockle.' 

Eyton (WeUington, Salop). Dom. Aitone. Perh. 'islet' or 'ait- 
town.' O.E. iggath, 2 eyt, 7 ait, 8 ayte, 9 eyot, ' a Httle island.' 
But cf. Ayton. Eycote (Colesbourne), Dom. Aicote, is ' cot on 
the islet.' See -ay, -ey. 

Faddiley (Nantwich). Prob. O.E. Ghron. 584 Fethanleag. No 
nxsun Fetha in Onom., so prob. 'meadow of the troop,' O.E. /eSa. 
For th becoming d, cf. faddom for fathom, fader for father, etc. 
Of. Fiddington (Ashchurch), Dom. Fitentune, a. 1300 Fedyn- 
tone. But Fadmoob (Kirby Moorside, Yorks) is Dom. Fade- 
more, where Fad- is doubtful. Cf., too, Dom. Suss. Fodilant. 

Faircross (a hundred of Berks). Chron. Abingdon Balliva Belle 
Crucis, 1428 Hundredum de Bella Cruce, of which ' fair, beautiful 
cross ' is simply the translation. 

Fairfield (mtn. near Helvellyn, Cumbld.). N. fcer-fjall, 'sheep 
mountain or fell.' Cf. Fair Isle (Sc). Fairburn (W. Riding), 
Dom. Fareburn, prob. has a similar origin. But Fairfield 
(Bellbroughton) is 816 chart. Forfeld, ' fore, front field.' 


Fakenham (Thetford). Dom. Fachenha, Fagenham. 'Home of 
Facca: Of. B.C. 8. 1232, Faccan heah. 

Fal R. (Cornwall), c. 1200 Gervase Fale, 1680 Vale. Prob. a 
Keltic root meaning ' moving, running, flowing." Cf. G. falbh, 
' to go, to walk.' But W. Jfal means ' closure, or the heel of 
a shoe.' 

Fallings Heath (Wednesbury) . a. 1200 Olde Falinge. Duignan 
thinks this refers to a falling or felling or clearing of timber. 
Oxf. Diet, gives no quots. illustrating such a usage, and yet it 
may well be. FAlloden (Alnwick) is ' fallow valley/ O.E. falu, 
fealo, ' pale brownish, or yellowish coloured.' Cf. Falfield 
(Thornbury), 1347 Falefield. 

Falmer (Lewes). Dom. Falemere. O.E. for 'pale brownish, or 
reddish-yellow mere or lake ' ; O.E. falu, 4 faU, now fallow. Cf. 
Fowlmere. But Falsgrave (E. Riding) is Dom. Wal(l)esgrif, 
' Welshman's or foreigner's grave,' O.E. gro&f, O.N. grof, Fal- 
stone (Northbld.) and 1168-67 Pipe Faleslea (Nhants.) seem to 
imply a man's name, Uke Fala. Onom. has only one Fawle. 

Falmouth. Sic 1478, 1231 Close R. Falem', 1234 ib. Falemuth, 
c. 1^50 Fortescue The Falmouthe ; but till 1660 usually Smithwick 
or Pennycomequick. See Faj.. 

Farcet (Peterboro'). Not in Dom., but O.E. chart. Fearres heafod, 
or ' bull's head.' Cf. Fazeley and Forset (N. Riding), Dom. 
Forsed, which is perh. ' head of the waterfall or force.' N./ors. 

Fareham (Hants). Not in Dom. 1160 Ferham. ' Fair, beautiful 
home.' O.E. fceger, Icel. fag-r, Dan. feir, ' fair.' 

Faringdon (Swindon and Exeter). Swin. F. Dom. Ferendone, 
Ex. F. Dom. Ferentone. Doubtful at both ends. Feren- may 
represent a patronymic, ' town of the Ferrings or Farrings.' 
Cf. Farringford. Or it may be fr. O.E. fearn, ' ferns ' (only no 
early speUing feren is recorded here) ; or foera, -an, early M.E. 
fere, 'a spouse,' a comrade, 'spouse's hill': and the ending 
may either be O.E. tun, ' village, town,' or dun, ' dune, hill, 
hill-fort.' See Farndon. 

Farleigh or -ley (Halesowen, Cheadle, Elmore, onMedway, Surrey, 
Sahsbury). Ch. F. Dom. Fernlege, El. F. 1221 Farnlee, ]^e. F. 
Text. Roff. Fearnlega. These are all ' fern-meadow.' Biit Su. F. 
is chart. Fearlege, Dom. Ferlega; and Sa. F. Dom. Farlege, 1155 
Pipe Ferlega. There is only one Fara in Onom., so this may 
be fr. O.E. foera, M.E. fere, ' spouse, comrade,' and so ' spouse's 
mead.' But Farewell (Lichfield) is a. 1300 Eager-, Fagre, 
Fayrwell, ' fair, clear spring,' fr. O.E. foeger, 3 fager, 4-7 far{e). 

Farlington (Havant and N. Riding). Hav. F. 1256 Deed Far- 
hngetone, N. Rid. F. Dom. Farlintun. ' Town, dwelling on the 
ferling,' O.E. feor^ling, a. 1300 ferlyng, ' fourth part,' here 'the 
fourth part of an acre/ 


Farmington (Northleach). Dom. Tormentone, 1182 Tormer-, 1226 
Thormerton, 1601 Farmington or Thormerton. Prob. ' village 
of Thurmcer.' For change of early th to /, see Fenglesham. 
Cf. Fabningham. 

Farnborough (Banbury, Wantage, etc.). Ban. F. Dom. Fernberge. 
Want. F. 931 chart. Feam beorg(an), Dom. Fermberge, 1291 
Farnberg. 'Hill covered with ferns.'' See Farestgdon and 
Farndon; cf. Devon Dom. Ferenberga. The ending -berg(e) 
represents Barrow, ' mound, hill," rather than ' burgh.' Farn- 
cote, also in Wwk., is sic a. 1300. 

Farncombe (Godalming). Dom. Fernecome, 'fern valley.' See 

Farndon (Newark). 924 O.E. Ghron. Fearndune, Farndune; Dom. 
Farendune; c. 1140 Wm. Malmes. Ferenduna. This is clearly 
' fern hill.' CJ. Faringdon, which some hold is the place meant 
in these references. But Farndon (Chester) is Dom. Ferentone, 
which may be ' town of the Ferrings.' 

Farnbam (Surrey, Hants, and W. Riding) . Su. F. 893 O.E. Chron. 
Feamhamm, Dom. Ferneham, 1297 Farnham. Ha. F. 805 chart. 
Femham. W. E,i. F. Dom. Farneha.' 'Enclosure,' or 'home 
among the ferns.' See Farnley and -ham. 

Farningham (Dartford). Dom. Fermingeha. ' Home of Farman,' 
2 in Onom., or else ' of Farman's son' (m and n often interchange). 
Cf. Farmington. See -ing. 

Farn Isles (Bamborough). Bede Fame. M'Clure thinks this is 
Keltic ferann, Ir. fearran, ' land.' It may be O.E. feam, ' ferns.' 

Farnley (Leeds and Otley). Both Dom. Fernelie, c. 1200 Gervase 
Fernlege, 1202 Farnelai and Fernleie. 'Fern meadow.' Cf. 
Dom. Salop Femelege, Farleigh, and Farnham. See -ley. 

Farnsfield (Southwell, Notts). Dom. Franes- Farnesfeld, 1189 
Pipe Famefeld. 'Field of Frani or Frano/ a N. name. 'Field 
of ferns ' is not likely, 

Farrinodon (Alton, Hants). =Faringdon. 

Farringegrd (Freshwater), a. 1400 Ferringford. Prob. 'ford of 
the Ferrings or Farrings. Cf. Faringdon and Ferrensby 
(S. Yorks), ' dweUing of F err en.' 

Farsley (Leeds). Dom. Fersellai. There is no likely man's name 
in Onom., and connection with parsley (see Oxf. Diet.) hardly 
seems possible. Prob. it is 'furze meadow,' O.E. fyrs, 4:-Qflrse. 
Cf. 1167-68 Pipe Devon Far-, FairesUng. See -ley. 

Farthingstone (Weedon). Dom. Fordinestone, 1292 Fardinge- 
ston. Prob. ' stone of Fcerthegn,' also found as Farthain and 
Fardein, or possibly fr. Forthwine, one in Onom. Derivation is 
not impossible fr. O.E./eorSww(/, 4:-Qferdyng{e), 6 farthing, which 
usually means ' a farthing ' in money, but also, as early as 


Exon. Dom. we find/erdlm meaning a land-measure, ? a quarter 
acre. Cf. Ferndale. But Fabthestghoe (Brackley) is Dom. and 
1229 rerning(e)ho, prob. fr. the same name as Fabningham, 
' height of the Farnings.' See Hob. 

Faversham. See Feversham. 

Fawley (Aylston, Hereford and Lambourn). Ayl. F. c. 1030 
chart. Feligly. ' Meadow of one Felig,' or some such name. 
There is a Felaga and two anchorites called Fel(i)geld in Onom. 
But Lam. F. is a. 1300 Falelegh, 1316 Fallele, which Skeat 
derives fr. E. Frisian falge, ' fallow land.' Northants F. 1242, 
FalghesF, might be either, but the -es of the gen. makes it prob. 
fr. a man. 

Fazakerley (Liverpool). 1277 Fasakerlegh, 1376 Fasacrelegh. 
Looks as if O.E. fas-cecer-Uah, ' border of the open-country 
meadow/ ir. fas, foes, ' border, fringe/ and cecer, acer, ' open plain, 
field,' mod. ' acre.' See -ley. There is no name in Onom. that 
would suggest Fazaker-. 

Fazeley (Tamworth). 1300 Faresleye, a. 1400 -eslee. 'Meadow 
of the hill,' O.E. fearr, -es. Cf. Faucet, and see -ley. 

Featherstone (Wolverhampton, Pontefract, Haltwhistle). Wol. 
F. 994 chart. Feother(e)stan, Dom. Ferdestan, 1271 Fethereston 
Po. F. Dom. Ferestane, Fredestan. ' Stone of Fether ' or 
' Feader ' — i.e., ' father,' which is still dialectically pron. fether. 
Cf. also Fearby (Yorks), Dom. Federbi. 

Feckenham (Redditch). 804 chart. Feccanhom, 957 Feccan ham, 
Dom. and 1156 Pipe Roll Fecheham. ' Home of Fecca.' Cf. 
Dom. Surrey Feceha. See -ham, which here may either be 
' home ' or ' enclosure.' 

Felbridge (E. Grinstead). and Felbrigg (Norfolk and York) 
E. Gr. F. not in Dom., but old Thelbrig. Yo. F. 1206 Felebrigge. 
No. F. 1451 Felebruge, Felbrygge. Early th not seldom becomes 
/, and so fel-= O.E. feZ, ^ell, ' a deal, a board or plank.' Thus 
this name is ' bridge (O.E. hrycg) made of boards.' Cf. Fengle- 
SHAM, also fill var. of thill, ' the shafts of a cart,' likewise Elm- 
bridge and Thelwall. 

Feuskirk (Thirsk). 1210 Ecclesia S. Felicis. This is the same 
saint as in Felixstowe. However, in Dom. it is Fridebi, 
* dwelling of Freda.' 

Felixstowe (Suffolk). Not in Dom. c. 1080 chart. 'The church 
of St. Felix of Walton.' Sometimes said to be ' place,' O.E. 
stoiv, of Felix, first bp. of E. Anglia, c. 640. But this does not 
agree with the form in 1318 Filthstowe, which might be ' filth 
place,' place full of dirt or foulness, O.E. fylQ. This is not likely, 
as there is a 'To. de Fvlethe' in Kent in 1318, and a Dom. 
Felede, which is Fauld (Uttoxeter), a. 1300 Falede, Fauld, Felde 


— i.e., O.E. fald, falced, ' a fold, a farmyard.' Only it is not easy 
to see how this last could become either Filth or Felix. The 
bp.'s name certainly influenced the present form. 

Fblmingham (N. Walsham). Dom. Felmincha. A patronymic, 
otherwise unknown. See -ing and -ham. 

Felstead (Chelmsford). 1082 cTiart. Felstede. O.E. for ' skin, 
hide-place, tannery.' O.E. fel, fell, ' a skin.' 

Feltham (Hampton Court). Sic 969 chart, and Dom. Possibly 
' home of ' some man with a name like Felgeld or Fildas, the 
nearest in Onom, Prob. ' home, house in the field,' O.E. feld, 
3-5 felt. The Eng. sb. felt already occurs in O.E. Felthorpe 
(Norwich), Dom. Felethorp, seems to be ' village of ' some man. 
See -thorpe. 

Felton (Northumbld. and Bristol). Nor. F. 1242 Felton. Not in 
Dom. May be, like Feltham, named from some man. Cf. 
1305 Eougham chart., 'Robertus de Feletone,' E. Anglia. But 
Nor. F. at least may be ' town on the fell' or ' hill.' O.N. fjall 
found in Eng. as fell a. 1300. Also cf. Felstead. 

Fen Ditton and Drayton (Cambs). Cf. 1272 Fenne (Lines.). 
O.E. fen, fenn, ' a marsh,' O.N. fen, ' a quagmire.' See Ditton 
and Drayton. 

Fendrith Hill (W. Durham). Prob. W. ffaen d{e)rwydd, ''rock of 
the magician, sorcerer, or Druid.' 

Fen-, Finglesham (Deal). 831 chart. Thenglesham. Not in Dom. 
' Home of Thengli,' a name not in Onom. For change of early 
th into / cf. Farmington, Felbridgb, and Finchale, and 
Threshpield (Yorks), Dom. Freschefelt and Treschefelt. 

Fenny Compton (Warwksh.). Dom. Contone, a. 1200 Cumton, 
a. 1400 Fenni Cumpton. See Compton, and cf. Fenton (Stoke), 
Dom. Fentone. 

Feock (Devoran, Cornwall). ? c. 1400 Ecclesia Sancto Feoko, a 
saint also termed Feoca, Fyock, Fiach ; the name is Keltic for 
' raven ' ; but about this person little seems known. Cf. Fixby 
(W. Riding), Dom. Fechesbi, which must be ' dwelling of ' one of 
the same name. 

Ferndale (Glamorgan). M'Clure suggests that this is ferthing- 
deal, or ' fourth part.' Cf. Fartbingstone. But old forms 
are needed. 

Ferriby N. and S. (Yorks). Dom. Ferebi. Prob. 'dwelling of 
the comrade or partner'; Northum. O.E. foera, 2-9 fere. See 
-by. But Ferrybridge (Yorks) is Dom. Ferie — i.e., ' ferry,' 
O.N. ferja. The Oxf. Diet, has nothing for the sb. a. 1425. 

Festiniog. Fr. W. ffestinio, ' to hurry, hasten,' L. festinare, ? in 
allusion to the many waterfalls around. 


Fbv-, Faversham (Kent). 811 chart. Fefresham, 858 ibid. Febre- 
sham, Dom. Feversham. 1155 Pi'pe Fauresham. Some suggest 
from a man, or fr. L. faher, a ' smith/ but this seems doubtful; 
more prob. ' home of fever/ O.E. fefer, fefres. It is also said to 
be the Fauresfeld of 1154 O.E. Chron., which is doubtful. 

Fewston (Harrogate) . Dom. Fostune, ' Town at the waterfall ' ; 
Dan. fos, O.N. fors. To be perh. noted also is O.Nor. Fr. fiusf, 
' lofty trees ' ; but Nor. Fr. names are very rare in England. 

FiLBY (Gt. Yarmouth). Dom. Filebey, c. 1471 Fylby. 'Dwelling 
of ' some (Danish) man, whose name has been rubbed down 
into File. Cf. Filleigh, and see -by. But Baddeley says 
Filton (Bristol), 1340 Fyltone, is ' farm in the field,' which is 

Filey (Yorks). Dom. Fiuelac — i.e., 'five pools,' O.E. /(f, Z-9 five, 
and lac, ' a lake, a pool.' Camden derives fr. an early Eng. 
file, ' a thin sHp of land, Hke a small tongue thrust out,' into 
the sea. The Oxf. Diet, does not recognize this word file. Lac 
for ' pool ' is very rare in O.E., and there is perh. no other 
instance where it has become -ley. But we have Fishlake 
(Doncaster) in Dom. Fiscelac, and also Fixca-le. Cf., too, 
Beverley and Fyfield. We may add that North Fyhng 
(N. Yorks) is Dom. NortfigeUnge, a patronymic, ' place of the 
sons of Fugel,' 2 in Onom. See -ing. 

Filleigh (S. Molton). Cf. 940 chart. Fileleighe (Glastonbury). 
? 'meadow of File.' Cf. Filby, and see -leigb. Onom. has 
only a Filica, seen in Filkins (Lechlade), old Fileching, ' place 
of Filica's sons.' See -ing. 

FiLLONGLEY (Coventry). Dom. Filung-, ingehe, a. 1400 Filungeye, 
1475 Fylongley. Duignan cannot explain, but says cf. FimNG- 
HAM (Lincoln), Dom. Fihngeham, FigeHngeham, c. 1120 Figel- 
ingaham. There is no Hkely name in Onom. But we have 
Fyhng (N. Riding), Dom. FigeHnge, Figlinge, which must be a 
patronymic. Cf. JFilby. See -ing. 

FiNCHALE (on R. Weir, Durham). Thought to be Bede, iii., 27, 
Pegnaleth; 1298 Fynkhale, 1305 Fynkhalgh. O.E. finc-halh 
means ' finches' haugh ' or 'meadow by a river.' Cf. Feststall, 
and 1240 Close R. Finkel', 1241 ib. Finchel' (Andover). For 
-hale see -hall. 

FiNCHAM (Downham). Not in Dom. c. 1150 Fincheham, 1451 
Fyncheham. ' Home of a man Finch,' or ' of the finches,' O.E. 
fine. Cf. above. Also Finchamstead (Berks). Dom. Finch- 
amstede; 1316 Fynchamsted. 'Homestead, farm with the 

FmcHiNGFiELD (Braintrec). Dom. Fincinghefelde, -gefelda, 1297 
Fynchingfelde. Presumably ' field for finching or hawking, or 
catching finches or birds in.' Only there is no sb. ' finching ' 


in Oxf. Diet, nor any likely man's name in Onom., though Dom. 
form looks like a patronymic. See next and -ing. 

FiNCHLEY (London). Recorded from time of K. John. Cf. above. 
Finch is O.'K.finc, 4c finch, some sort of small bird of the sparrow 

FiNEDON (Wellingborough). Prob. Dom. Tingdene, 1296 Thindon. 
Prob. ' hill of the thing,' or ' local parHament/ O.N. ]>ing, N. 
ting. Cf. Thingoe. On common change of early th to / see 
Felbridge. But FiNDON (Worthing) is Dom. Findune, which 
is prob. 'hill of Fin' or ''Finn,' names in Onom. See -don. Cf. 
FnsnsriNGLEY (Notts) . Dom. Feniglei, 1278 Finningelay. See -ing. 
Dom. (N'hants) also has Finemere, now Finmere (Bucldngham) . 

FiNGHALL or FiNGALL (Bedale, Yorks). Dom. Finegala. Perh. 
O.E. Chron. 788 Fingale (in Northumbria), which is prob. not 
= FiNCHALE. O.E. finnig or fennig halh, loc. hale, 'marshy 
fenny nook ' or ' corner.' 

FiNSTALL (Bromsgrove). a. 1400 Fynchale. See Finchale. 

FiBBANK (Sedbergh). Old Frithbank. Frith is some kind of a 
wood. See Frith Bank. But Firby (Wistow, Yorks) is Dom. 
Fredebi, 1202 Fridebi, which is ' Freda's dwelling.' 

Fishguard (Pembroke), c. 1390 Fishgarth, 1535 Fisshecard. 
' Fisher's garth or enclosure/ the -guard being but a mod. 
spelling of O.E. geard, ' yard, court, enclosure.' In W. it is 
Abergwaun, ' at the mouth of the level or straight river.' Cf. 
Hasguard in same shire, 1307 Huscard, where the first syU. 
prob. represents a man's name, now uncertain. 

FiSKERTON (Lincoln). Sic a. 1100, but Dom. Fiscartime. ' Town, 
village of the fishers,' O.E. flscere. 

FiTTLEWORTH (Susscx). Not in Dom, 1167-68 Pi'pe FitelwurSa. 
'Farm of Fitel, Fitela,' or ^ Fithele,' all forms in Onom. See 

FiiADBURY (Pershore). 691 chart. Fledanburg, 714 ib. Fladeburi^ 
Dom. Fledebirie. ' Town, castle of Fleda or Flceda.' Cf. Fled- 
borough (Notts), Dom. Fladeburg. See -bury. 

Flambtjrgh Head (Yorks). Dom. Flaneburc, -burg, a. 1130 Sim. 
Dur. Flamburge, c. 1450 Fortescue Flaymborough, also Flayn- 
burg, -borght. ' Fort of Fleinn,' a Norseman. Flame (0. Fr. 
flambe) is not found in Hterary Eng. a. 1340; but doubtless it 
has had some influence on the present form of the name. Cf. 
Flensburg, (Schleswig). See -burgh. 

Flavell Flyford (Pershore). 930 chart. Fleferth, 1002 ib. Fle- 
ferht, a. 1200 Flavel, a. 1400 Fleyford, a. 1600 Flyford Flavell. 
The two names are really a redupHcation. Fie- or Fla- will be 
a man Floeda, Fleda, as in Fladbury, and -ferth is softened 
form of -ford (q.v.). Flseferth has become Fleyferthand then 
Flavell, through the common dissimilation of r for I, 


Flaxby (W. Riding) and Flaxton (York). Dom. Flatesbi, and 
Flastun, Flaxtun. The former is prob. 'dwelling of FUeda,' 
one in Onom., the latter ' village among the flax/ O.E. fleax. 
See -by and -ton. ' 

Flaxley Abbey (Gloster). 1167-68 Pipe Flexlega, c. 1188 Gir. 
Cambr. Flexleia. 'Flax meadow.' Of. above; also Flechham- 
stead (Coventry), 1327 Flechamstude, ' flax homestead.' 

Fleam Dyke and Flendish (Cambs). Variants of same name, 
c. 1080 Inquis. Gamb. Flamencdic, Flamminedic, Dom. Flaming- 
dice, Flam(m)iding, 1158 Flemedich, 1279 Flemigdich, 1284 
Flemesdich. 'Fleming's ditch/ of which dyke is the older, 
hard form. Fleming is 0. Fr. Flamenc, late L. Flamingus. 
This name shows the early settlement of the men of Flanders 
in our midst. 

Flecknoe (Rugby). Dom. Flachenho, a. 1200 Fleckenho. Prob. 
' Hoe, hiU of Flecca,' gen. -can, not in Onom. 

Fleet R. (London and 2 others), also Fleet (Hants), which is 
K.G.D. 688 Fleot. O.E. fleot, O.N. fljot, 'a stream, a river, 
also a creek or inlet.' The root is seen in O.N. flj6t-r, 'quick.' 
Of. Fleet (Sc). and Fleetwood (Lanes), also Dom. (Norfk.) 
Fletwest and Shaltleet. 

Fleggburgii (Gt. Yarmouth). Of. 1442 'Fleghalle,' manor in 
Norfolk. ? ' fort, burgh among the flags or rushes.' Flag is 
not found in Eng. till 1387, and is of doubtful etymology, but 
is spelt ^eg' in 5. Flag sb.2 Icel. flag, ' the spot where a tujf has 
been cut,' O.^.flaga, ' a slab of stone,' still used in E, Anglia for 
' a turf, a sod,' is quite a possible origin. Dom. has East and West 
Flee and FHceswella ; but Onom. has no name the least likely here. 

Fletchtng (Uckfield). Dom. Flescinge(s), 1232 Olose R. Flescing. 

A patronymic; the man's name implied is unknown. See -ing. 
Fletherhill (S. Wales). Sic a. 1349. A tautology; W. llethr, 

* a hillside, a slope.' Of. Shakespeare's FlueUen for Llewelyn, 
and p. 82. 

Fletton (Peterboro'). Sic a. 1100. 'Town, village on the fleet 
or stream,' O.E. fleot, in Qflett. Of. Fleet. 

Flimwell-vent (Hawkhurst). Old forms needed for Flim-; not 
in Dom.; possibly O.E. fliem/i, flyma, 'a fugitive, an outlaw.' 
A vent or went is said to be ' a place where roads meet.' The 
root is O.E. wendan, 'to go, to wend.' 

Flint. In W. Fflint, or Tegeingl. 1277 In castris apud le Flynt 
prope Basingwerk, 1277-8 Welsh R. Le Chaylou and Rothelan, 
where Chaylon is prob. Fr. caillou, 'pebble, flint.' O.E. flint, 

* flint, rock,' fr. the rocky platform on which the castle stands. 
Flints are not common here. Flinton (E. Riding) is Dom. 
Flentun, prob. ' town of the flints.' Fltntham (Notts) eic in 
Dom., is clearly 'flint house.' See -ham. 


Flixton (Salford). c. 1200 Flyxton, Fluxton. Perh. 'town of 
the flitch/ OiEt-flicce, 5 flytske, 5-6 flik. There is, however, in 
K.C.D. mention of a Flecge, Flecges, a man otherwise unknown, 
and this is quite a possible origin. There is no hkely name in Onom. 

Flockton (Wakefield). Dom. Flocheton, 1201 Floketon. 'Town 
of ' an unrecorded Flocca. Hardly fr. O.E. flocc, O.N. fiokk-r, 
' flock.' Cf. Dom. (Norfk.) Flokethorp. 

Flodden (Northumbld.). 1512 Floudane. Prob. flood-dean — i.e. 
' (wooded) glen with the stream,' O.E. flod, M.E. flod, 6 floud, 
' a river, a flood.' See -dean. 

Flookersbkook (Chester). 1340 Flokersbroke. Prob. called after 
some man; there is nothing in Onom. nor yet in the dictionaries 
wh. seems helpful. Flokk-r would be N. form of the Flocca of 

Flushing (Falmouth). Sic 1661. Named after the Dutch port 
at the mouth of the Scheldt. 

FoGGATHOBPE (Sclby). Dom. Fulcartorp. ' Fulchar's place or 
village.' In Onom. there are several Folcheards, one Folcgaer, 
and one Fulcher. The orig. name has had eg in it, and the 
liquid I and r easily disappear. 

FoLESHiLL (Coventry). Dom. Focheshelle, a. 1200 Folkeshulle, 
1327 FolkeshuU. O.E. folces Jiyll, 'people's hiU,' which in 
Midland M.E. regularly is hull. 

Folkestone, a. 716 cJiart. Folcanstan, 1051 O.E. Chron. Folc- 
stane, Dom. Fulchestan. ' Stone, rock of the folk or people,' or, 
more prob., ' of a man Folca.' The Onom. has a Folco and a 
Fulco, and we have Folkton (E. Riding), Dom. Fulcheton. 

FoNTMELL Magna (Shaftesbury). 939 chart. Funtmeales, Dom. 
Fontemale. Perh. ' Fountain of Mcel{a),' one in Onom. ; O.E. 
font, 2-6 funt. The order is unusual as -funt or -font usually 
comes last. Cf. Bedfont. But -mell may be O.E. mcel, ' a 
mark, sign, cross, crucifix ' — ' font at the cross.' Fontley 
(Fareham), Dom. Funtelei, wiU be ' mead with the fountain 
or spring.' Magna is L. for ' Great.' 

Ford (Shrewsbury, etc.). Dom. Ford. 1184 Pipe Devon, Ecclesia 
de Forda. Nothing is commoner in early Eng. names than to 
name a place after a f ord,.which was often a very important spot 
before bridges were made. 

FoRDHAM (Colchester and Soham). Cole. F. sic 1373, but c. 1080 
chart. Fordam. Soh. F. Dom. Fordeham. ' House at the ford.' 

FoRDiNGTON (Dorchester) . Dom. Fortitone, 1156 Pipe Fordintune. 
Perh. ' village of Forthwine,' one in Onom. See -ing. 

Forest of Dean. Dom. Dene, 1160-61 Pipe Foreste de Dena, 
c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Danubis& Svlva. \yhich is supposed to mean 


' forest of Denmark or of the Danes/ Dean here may be W. 
din, ' fort, hill-fort '; but is prob. as in Dean. 

FoRMBY (Liverpool). 1203-04 Formebi, 1227 Forneby, 1269 
Fornebi. ' Dwelling of Forni/ There are several called Foma 
or For7ie in Onom. Cf. next. In Brit, names m and n are fre- 
quently found interchanging. See -by. 

FoRNHAM (Bury St. Edmunds). Sic in Dom. 'Home of Forne.' 
See FoRMBY. There is a Forne in Dom. (Herefd.). 

FoRTON (Gosport, Newport, Staffs, N. Lanes, and 3 others). New. 
F. 1199 Forton, whilst for the others Dom. has Fortune, and 
Fordune (twice). Prob. 'town by \he ford.' Of course, dune 
is ' hiil.' Leland calls Forthampton (Tewkesbury) Fordhamp- 
ton; but it is Dom. Fortemeltone, prob. ' Forthhelm's town." 

Foss Dyke (Boston). 1480 Caxton Chron. Eng. 'Two other 
weyes this Belyn made . . . that one is called fosse and that 
other fosse dyke ' — i.e., a raised causeway over marshes, etc. 
Fosse sb., L. fossa, 'a ditch,' is first found in Eng. a. 1440. 
There is also' the Fossway, which stretched fr. Exeter to 
Lincoln, via Bath and Leicester. Cf. Fangfoss (N. Riding), 
Dom. Frangefos, ? ' ditch of the Frank.' 

FosTON (3 in P.G^.). Foston on Wolds. Dow. Fodstone. 1158-59 
Pipe Fostuna (Northants). Some may be ' town on the foss ' 
(see above); but Fodstone must be fr. some unknown man. 
See -ton. 

Fotheringay (Northampton). Dom. Fodringeia. a. 1163 Fod- 
rigeia, 1237 Fodringh', 1434 Fotheringhey, c. 1460 Foodryngdre. 
' Foddering-island.' .E . fodor, .N . fo^r, Dan. foder, ' fodder, 
food for cattle.' The vb. O.N. /dtSm, is not found in Eng. till 
a. 1300. Cf. the Pile of Fotheray in Furness, q.v.; also 
Featherstone. See -ay, -ey. 

FoxJiiNESS (Cromer). Not in Dom. 'Foul, dirty cape or ness." 
O.N. ful noes. Foul is also found in O.E. as ful, and this is a 
more likely origin than O.E. fugol, 'fowl, bird.' Cf. next and 
FuLFORD. Still Dom. Nfk. has a Fugalduna. 

FouLSHAM (Dereham). Dom. and 1454 Folesham. Prob. not 
' home of the fowls,' which is .E . fugol. Foolston (W. Riding) , 
Dom. Fugelestun, is phonetically different, and even it means 
the man ' Fowl's town.' Foulsham will be ' home of the man 
Fula; seen in B.C. 8. 1052 Fulan ea. Cf. Dom. (Suss.) Folsalre, 
or ' Fula's alder.' 

Fountains Abbey (Ripon). 1156 Pipe De Fontibus, c. 1246 de 
Fontanis. ' Abbey of the springs or wells.' 

FovANT (Salisbury). Not in Dom., but O.E. cTiart. Fobbefunte — 
i.e., 'font, spring of Fobba.' Cf. B.C.S. 862 Fobbanwyl (well), 




FowEY R. and town (Cornwall), c. 1200 Oewase Fawe fl. Town 
a. 1400 Fawi, c. 1450 Fortescue, the Ffowe; c. 1530 Foye, 1536 
Fowey. Pron. Foy. The river, which names the town, is 
said to be fr. Corn, foys or foy fenton, ' walled well or fountain ' 
(which rises near Altarnun). But it looks a little like the Com. 
foath or foio, pi. fowls, ' cave, den.' ; the W. jfau. Foy (Herefd.) 
is c. 1130 Lib. Land. Lanntiuoi. 'church of St. Tyfai.' Cf. 

FowLMERE (Royston). Dom. Fuglemsere, Fugelesmara, which is 
O.E. for ' fowls' lake or mere'; 1302 Ful-,1401 Foulmere. 

FowNHOPE (Hereford). Old forms needed. It seems a sort of 
hybrid; 'fawn's refuge'; O.Fr. /own, faow, M.E. (1369) faun, 
' a fawn '; but very prob. Fown- is O.E. Fornan, ' of Foma,' a 
common name; and O.N. h6x>, ' a haven, a place of refuge.' See 

Foxholes (Yorks). Dom. Foxhole, Foxohole, Foxele. 1202 
Fines Foxholef orde. Cf. Foxton (Cambs) ., Dom. Foxetune, and 
B.C. 8. 750 Foxcotone. There is a Foxoote (Glos.), Dom. Fuscote. 

Fox Lydiate (Redditch). 1300 Fox huntley yates, 1377 Foxhunt 
Ledegate. ' Fox hunter's gate.' See Lidgate; and cf. Hyett, 
Henbury, 1221 Hyate, ' high gate.' 

FoxT (Cheadle, StafEs). 1253 Foxiate — i.e., fox-gate, or 'open- 
ing'; O.E. geat, get, 6-9 dial. yat{t)e, (Sc.) yett. But in 1292 it 
is Foxwyst, which is inexpHcable. 

Fradley and Fradsweix (Staffs). 1262 Foder(e)sleye, 1286 
Frodeleye. j^fiom. Frodeswelle, a. 1300 FrothesweUe, Frodes- 
wall, -well. ^rob. all fr. a man Frod, which is O.E. for 'wise.' 
Form 1262 prob. simply illustrates the shiftiness of r. See -ley. 

Framingham Earl (Norwich). Dom. Framingaha. 1424 Fram- 
yngham. ' Home of the descendants of Frame,' still a surname. 
Frcenxi is common, and there is one Fram in Onom. Cf. Frem- 
INGTON. See -ing. 

Framlingham (Suffolk). Dom. Framlingaham, 1157 Pipe Fram- 
ingeham, 1425 Fremelyngham, a. 1444 Framljmgham. ' Home 
of the Framlings.' These may be ' descendants of Frambeald ' ; 
2 in Onom. See -ing. 

Frampton (Boston and Dorchester). Bos. F. Dom. Framantune, 
Do. F. Frantone. 'Town of Frama' or 'Fram'; 1 in Onom. 
For intrusion of p, cf. Bampton and Hampton ; also cf. above. 
There is a Framwellgate, Durham, and a Framelle (? ' Fram's 
nook ') in Dom. Suss. But Frampton, 3 in Glos., is Dom. 
Framtone, 1221 Fremtone, ' town on R. Frame,' or ' Frome '; 
whilst Fraunton, same shire, is 1166 Freulinton, 1182 Froulinton, 
perh. fr. a man Freo-, Freawine. 

France Lynch (Stroud) and Franche (Kidderminster). Ki. F. 
Dom. Frenesse, 1276 Frenes, Freynes. Duignan says, O.Fr. 


fresne, ' ash-tree/ and that the -esse in Dom. is meant for O.E. 
msce, ' ash-tree/ and so Dom.'s name a reduplication. He may 
be right. 

Fbankley (Bromsgrove) and Frankton (Rugby). Br. F. Dom. 
Franchlie, a. 1200 Frankle, Frankeleg. Ru. F. Dom. Franche- 
tone. ' Meadow ' and ' town of Franca ' or ' the Frank.' 
Origin fr. O.Fr. franc, 'an enclosure^ esp. to feed swine in'; 
in Eng. c. 1400 3bS frank, fraunke, seems just possible. 

Freckenham (Ely) . ' Home of Freac or Frecca ' ; both forms in 
Onom. Of. 801 chart. Frecinghyrte (? Kent), also Friock;- 
HEiM (Sc). The root is O.E, free, ' ready, quick.' We have 
also Frickley (Yorks). Dom. Frichehale, or ' Freca's nook.' 
See -hall. 

Freckleton (Preston). Dom. Frecheltun. ' Frecel's or Freculf'a 

Freeby (Leicestersh.). Dom. Fredebi, 1230 Close R. Fretheby. 
' Village ' or ' dwelling of Frith{e) ' (one in Onom.), or of some 
of the many men whose names begin with Frithu. But Free- 
THORPE (Norwich) is Dom. Frietorp, ' village of Freyja,' which 
was the name of a well-known Saxon goddess. Cf. Freystrop 
and Fbitton. 

Freemantle (Bournemouth and Southampton). Not in Dom. 
Cf. c. 1220 Elect. Hugo ' Frisomantel,' a now vanished place 
near High Clere House, Hants. This is a puzzling name. Friso- 
suggests the Frisians of N. Holland; and -mantel must surely 
be O.Fr. mantel, ' a mantle or cloak.' But how comes this in 
a place-name ? Mantel (see Oxf. Diet., s.v.) in the sense of ' a 
fortification,' is not found in Eng. till 1475. Prob. this is one 
of the rare cases of a place called simply by a man's name, 
often referred to in 12th cny Pipe as Frigidum Mantellum. Cf. 
Goodrich, Snitter, etc. 

Freiston (Boston). Sic 1274, Dom. Fristune, 1381 Frestoine 
also Ferry Fryston (S. Yorks). Dom. Fristone. Perh. ' town 
of the Frisians or Frieslanders '; possibly fr. the Saxon goddess 
Frea or Freyja. Fraisthorp (BridHngton) is Dom. Frestintorp, 
which is puzzHng. 

Fbemington (Yorks and Devon). Yorks F. sic in Dom. The 
family name must be the same as in Framingham. 

Freseley (Polesworth). Sic 1256. Friezeland (Walsall and 
Tipton) and Frisland (Tibberton). Duignan derives all, 
not fr. the Frisians, but fr. O.E. fyrz, ' furze, gorse,' dial. 
freze, friez. Oxf. Did. gives furse as 4-6 firse, but not with 
transposed r. 

Freshwater (I. of Wight). Dom. Frescewatre. Why so called 
is not very apparent. The usual O.E. for 'fresh' — i.e., not 
* salt ' — is fersc. Oxf. Diet, says the fre- forms do not occur 


till c. 1205 Layamon, and so are most likely due to adoption 
fr. O.Fr. freis, fresche. But the much earher Dom. form shows 
this untenable. Cf. Tkbeshfield, Dom. Freschefelt. 

Fressingfield (Harleston). Not in Dom. c. 1590 Fresingfield; 
and Freston (Ipswich). Dom. Frise-, Fresetuna. The latter 
is ' town of the Frisians/ who called themselves Frise, Frese. 
The former is prob. ' field of the Frisians' descendants.' Cf. 
Frisington. See -ing. 

Freystrop (Pembroke). ' Freyja's village.' She was a Norse 
goddess, akin to the L. Venus. Fraisthorpe (Yorks) is Dom. 
Frestintorp, which is puzzhng; also cf. Freethorpe and 
Fridaythorp.' See -thorpe. 

Fridaythorp (Yorks). Dom. Fridarstorp, Fridagstorp, Fridaizs- 
torp. 'Village of Friday/ O.E. Frigedceg, O.N. Friadag-r, 
' day of Frigg or Frig/ the Norse Venus. But Friday seems to 
have been used as a personal name. Cf. B.C.S. 1047 Frigedaeges 
treow. There is a Friday Street (Glouc). See -thorpe. 

Frilford (Berks). O.E. cTiart. Frileford, later Frylesford. Like 
Frelsham (on R. Pang), Dom. Frilesham, prob. contracted fr. 
Frithel, Fritholf, Frithuwolf, or some such name. 

Frimley Green (Farnborough). Not in Dom. 'Moist meadow/ 
frim dial., O.E. freme, ' full of moisture, sappy.' See -ley. 

Frindsbury (Rochester). Dom. Frandesberie. ' Burgh of Frand/ 
which may be contraction of Freomund, UkeUest name in Onom. ; 
prob. influenced by friend, which in Southern Eng. is 4 vrind, 
5-7 frind. See -bury. 

Frisestgton (W. Cumbld.). 'Town of the Frisings/or 'descend- 
ants of the Frisians.' See Fressingfield and -ing. 

Fritchley (Derby). Not in Dom. Cf. Dom. Nfk. Frichetuna. 
' Meadow of Fricca/ Onom. has only Frecca and Freca. 

Fritham (Lymington). Not in Dom. Cf. 804 chart. Frit5esleah 
(Kent). ' Home of Frith/ or of some man with a name begin- 
ning in Frith- ; there are many in Onom. Frithubeorht, Frithu- 
geard,' etc. The O.E. fyrMe, 'a wood,' is seen in Chapel- 
en-le-Frith, and in Fretherne, Frocester, Dom. Fridorne, 
1372 Freethorne, O.E. frith-thyrne, ' thorn-bush by the wood.' 

Frith Bank and Frithviixe (Boston). 1323 Le Frith, 1512 
'The Bang's Frith beside Boston.' Frith is O.E. fyrh^e, 'a 
wood ' or ' woody pasture '; -ville is always mod. 

Frittenden (Staplehurst, Kent). 804 chart. FriSSing-, Fred- 
dingden, and in the same chart. FriSesleah. ' Dean (wooded) 
valley of the descendants of Frith/ Cf. Fritham. 

Fritton (Long Stratton, Norfk.). Dom. Fridetuna, Frietuna, 
' Town of Frith ' or ' Fride.' Cf. Freeby. 


Frooester (Stroud). Dom. Frowcester. Origin unknown; perh. 
pre-Keltic. See -cester. 

Frodesley (Shrewsbury) and Frodsham (Retford and Warring- 
ton). Re. F. 1240 Frodesham. 'Meadow' and 'home of 
Froda or Frod,' common in Onom. Cf. Frodingham (Yorks), 
Dom. Frotingha'. See -ham, -ing, and -ley. 

Frognal (Windsor and 2 others). Old forms needed. The -al 
almost certainly represents -hall {cf. BmsTAiiL, Brinscall, 
etc.), and the Frogn- must be some personal name. Of course, 
O.E. frogga, -an is ' a frog/ as in Frog Hall (Dunchurch), Frog- 
ham, and Frogmore (Camberley). Though there is no Ukely 
name in Onom., we have 704 chart. Frocesburna (Middlesex), 
which is prob. ' Froce'a ' or ' Froga's brook.' 

Frome (Somerset). Pron. Froom. 875 O.E. Chron. Frauu, c. 
950 ib. Frome, ib. From (river) ; also Frome R. (Glouc. and 
Hereford), whose forms are found in Frampton, Framilode, 
1175-76 Pipe Fremelada (O.E. gelad, 'ferry'), and Frenchay, 
1257 Fromscawe (O.E. scaga, 'wood'). The Gloucester R. is 
now rather called Frame." Dr. Bradley thinks this must be 
orig. Frama, which, on Kelt lips, would aspirate and yield 
Frauu or Frauv. Cf. Aberefraw and Bp's. Frome. Mean- 
ing doubtful; origin fr. W. ffromm, 'angry, fuming,' is not 

Frosterley (Co. Durham). Sic in 1183 Boldon Bk., but 1239 
Close R. Forsterlegh.' ' Meadow of Forster ' or ' Foster ' — i.e., 
' the forester ' — a word not in Oxf. Diet, till 1297, though ' Archi- 
bald Forester ' occurs 1228 in Cartul. Boss. No name Froster 
is known, but metathesis of r is common. See -ley. 

Froxfield (Hungerford and Petersfield). Pet. F. 965 chart. 
Froxafelda, ' field of the frogs,' O.E. frox{a), var. of frogga, 
frocga ; but also cf. 704 chart. Frocesburna (Middlesex) . So perh. 
' Field of Froca.' The name is not in Onom. But Froxmore 
(Crowle), 1275 Froxmere, 1327 Froxemere, is plainly 'frogs' 
mere or lake.' 

FuLBBCK (Lines) and Fulbottrn (Cambs). Li. F. 1202 Fulebec. 
Ca. F. c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Fuleburna, Dom. Fuleberne, chart. 
Fuulburne. O.E. and O.N. ful, 'foul, dirty'; and see -beck 
and -bourne. Cf. Bacup, c. 1200 Ffulebachope. 

FuLEORD (York, Stone, and Solihull). Yo. F. Dom. Fuleford and 
Foleford, Sim. Dur. ann. 1066 Fulford, St. F. Dom. Fuleford. 
' Foul, dirty ford.' See above. Cf. 1183 Boldon Bk. Durham, 

FuLHAM (London). Sic 1298, but 879 O.E. Chron. FuUanhamme. 
This is prob. ' enclosure of Fullan.' There is one such in Onom. 
' Home of fowls ' would need a g in 879. O.E. fugol, ' a fowl.' 
See -ham 2. 


Ftjlney (Lincoln). Thought to be B.C.8. 1052 Fulan ea, ' isle of 
Fula.' Not in Dom. It has a Fulnedebi. 

FuRNESS. Not in Dom. Old Futherness, Fuderness, which is 
prob. ' fodder-ness or cape ' (see Fotheeay) ; though M'Clure 
ventures to identify with Pict. father, ' a piece of land.' Cf. 
FoRTEViOT (Sc). Foodra Castle, on the point at Furness, was 
formerly called ' the Peel of Further ' (Whitaker's Craven). 

Fyfeld (Abingdon). Dom. Fivehide — i.e., five hides of land — 
still 1437 Fifhide, but c. 1540 Ffield. Fyfeld (Essex), is also 
Dom. Fifhide, while places of the same name in Hants and 
Wilts were 1257-1300 chart. Fifhide. There are both Five Hide 
and Fyfield in Glouc. Cf. Filey. 

Fyltng. See Fillongley. 

Gad's TTttt. (Gillingham, Kent). ' Hill of Gadd ' or ' Oaddo,' as in 
Gaddesby (Leicester), Dom. Gadesbie, and Godshtll. See -by. 

Gaebwen (Anglesea). O.W. gaer. Mod. W. caer gwen. 'White, 
clear castle or fort.' and c freely interchange in W. Cf. 
Dolgelly, etc. 

Gailey (Cannock). 1004 chart. Gageleage, Dom. Gragelie (error). 
a. 1300 Galewey, Gaule, Gaueleye. ' Bog-myrtle meadow,' fr. 
O.E. gagel, 4 gayl, 5-7 gaul{e), 5 gawl, gawyl, 'the gale or sweet 
gale.' See -ley. 

Gaineokd-on-Tees. a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Ge(a)genforda, c. 1150 
Gainesford, 1200 Geineford. ' Straight, direct, favourable ford.' 
O.N. gegn, found in Eng. fr. 1300 as gain. 

Gainsbobo'. 1013 O.E. Chron. Gaeignesburh, Gegnesburh, Dom. 
Gainesburg, Sim. Dur. ann. 1013 Gainesburh. May be fr. some 
man Gegne or the Uke; but there is no such name in Onom., 
unless it be Ga^an-heard. So perh. ' town, castle of gain, help, 
advantage,' O.N. gagn, gegn, found in Eng. c. 1200 as ga^henn. 
Mod. Eng. gain. Cf. Ganstead. 

Galeobd (S. Devon). O.E. Chron. ann. 823 Gafol, Gaful forda. 
Not in Dom. ' Ford of the tribute, or payment to a superior, 
or gavel.' O.E. gafol, which does not mean ' a toll.' M'Clure 
would derive fr. a Kelt, gabail or gabal, meaning 'the fork of 
a stream,' G. gahhal; this seems doubtful, though cf. Yeovil, 
which must be fr. O.E., rather than Kelt., gafol, geafl, ' a fork, a 
forked opening.' 

Galtbes forest (Yorks). 1179-80 Pipe Foreste de Galtris; also 
Caltres. Thought to be same word as Calathros, name in the 
L:ish Annals for Callandeb (Sc). The meaning is doubtful. 
Some identify it with ' Gerlestre Wapentac ' in Dom. Yorks, 
which is possible, and may be ' tree of Goerlaf,' or some such 


Gamblesby (Langwathby). 1179-80 Gamelebi, 1189 Gamelesbi. 
'Dwelling of Gamel,' O.N. for 'old'; the surname now is 
Gamble or Gemmell. Gembling (Yorks), Dom. Ghemelinge, is a 
patronymic fr. the same name, and shows the same intrusion of b. 
Cf. next, Gammelspath, name of the old Rom. road. Middle 
March (Northumberland), and Ganfield. See -by. 

Gamlingay (Sandy). 1166-67 Pipe Gamelengeia (Essex), 1210 
GameUngehey, 1211 Gamelingeye. 'Isle of the descendants of 
Gamel.' Cf. above ; and see -ing and -ey. 

Gamston (Retford). Dom. Gamelestune. a. 1199 Roll Rich. I. 
Gamelesdun. ' Hill ' or ' town of Gamel ' or ' Gamall/ names 
frequent in Onom., being N. for ' old man.' See -don and -ton. 

Ganfield (a hundred in Berks). Dom. Gamesfelle, Gamenesfelle 
{n here for I). See above. 

Gajstnel (New Quay). Corn, gan hael, 'mouth of the saltings.' 
Hael or hayle means ' a tidal river.' 

Ganstead (Hull). Dom. Gagenestad, 1208 Gaghenestede. The 
first haK must be the same as in Gainsbobo'. See -stead, ' place.' 

Ganthorpe (Yorks). Dom. Gameltorp, 1202 Gaumesthorp. ' Vil- 
lage of Gamel.' Cf. Gamston and (Canton; and see -thorpe. 

Gatstton (York). Dom. Galmetona, prob. 1179-80 Pi^e Gonton. 
' Town of Galmund,' one in Onom., and no other likely name. 
But cf. Gamston and above. 

Gaugbave (Leeds). Dom. Geregraue, Gheregrave. 'Grave,' O.E. 
grcef, ' of Goer ' or ' Geir ' ; cf. next. But Gabeobd (Berks) is 
942 chart. Garanforda, 1291 Gareford, ' ford at the gore '■ — i.e. 
' promontory or triangular piece of land,' O.E. gdra. Cf. Gajb- 
TBBE. Yet Garforth (Leeds), Dom. Gereford, Ingereforde, is fr. 
the man Gcer. See -ford. 

Gabstang (Preston). Dom. Cherestanc, 1204-05 Geirstan, 1206 
Guegrestang, 1208 Geersteng, 1230 Gerstang, 1304 Gairstang. 
This is a peculiar name. It seems to be, the man ' Geir's stang ' 
— i.e., ' spear,' or ' goad ' — same root as sting. But Dom. evi- 
dently thought that the name was ' Geir's pool,' O.Fr. estang, 
L. stagnum, still used in Eng. as ' a stank.' This certainly gives 
a likelier sense; cf. Mallerstang (Cumberland), and Gaegbave. 
But Gabshall (Stone) is a much altered name, a. 1400 Gerynges 
halgh, -hawe — i.e., ' river-meadow of Gering.' See -hall and 

Gabston (Berks and Liverpool). Ber. G. O.E. cTiart. Gserstun, 
Gerstun, Grestun. Also Dom. Garstune (Worcester). O.E. 
gcerstun, ' a grassy enclosure, a paddock,' O.E. gcers, grces, 
' grass,' the old forms being still preserved in Sc. The orig. 
meaning of ton or town is ' enclosure.' But G. (Liverpool) is 
1093-94 Gerstan, 1142 Gerestan(am), 1153-60 Grestan, 1205-06 
Gaherstang {cf. Gabstang), 1297 Garstan. ' Stone, rock among 


the grass '; cf. the Gastons (Tewkesbury), old Gerstone. Gar- 
MSTON (N. Riding) is Dom. Gerdeston, fr. Geard, contracted fr. 
Geardwulf, or the like. Cf. Grbasborough. 

Garth (Bangor, etc.). W. garth, 'enclosure, yard'; also 'hill- 
ridge, headland,' Ir. gart, ' a head.' If the meaning be ' yard/ 
it is a loan-word in W. Cf. Gwaelod-y-Garth. 

Gartree (Leicester). Dom. Geretreu. ' Tree at the gore of land,' 
O.E. gdra, 4-9 gare, O.N. geire. It was the meeting-place of the 
Wapentake. See Garford and Appletree. 

Gatcombe (I. of Wight). Dom. Gatecome. 'Valley with the 
opening,' or 'gate,' O.E. geat. Also 2 in Glouc, no old forms. 
See -combe. 

Gateacre (Liverpool). 'Field, acre,' O.E. acer, 'with the gate,* 
O.E. geat. Cf. Dom. Bucks, Gateherst, and Fazakerley. 

Gateshead. Prob. c. 410 Notit. Dign. Gabrosenti* (Kelt, gabar, 
' goat '). Bede iii. 21 Ad Murum, ^t Walle (the Roman Wall). 
8im. Dur. ann. 1080 Gotesheved id est Ad caput Caprae ; also 
Capiit Capras; but Sim. Dur. contin. c. 1145 Gateshevet, 1183 
Gatesheued. These names, of course, all mean ' goat's head ' — 
i.e., the Gate- is O.E. ^dt, ' a goat,' and not ^eat, ' a gate.' Cf. 
Gateford (Notts) 1278 Gayt-, c. 1500 Gatford, also fr. N. geit 
or O.E. ^dt, ' a goat.' 

Gavenny R. (S. Wales). W. Gefni. See Abergavenny. 

Gawsthorpe (Macclesfield) . ' Village of ?' Cf. Gawthorpe, Ossett, 
and Dom. Norfk., Gaustuna, ? fr. an unrecorded Gaha. Gawsa 
(Wales) is thought by Rhys a corrup. of causey or causeway ! 

Gaydon (Kineton) and Gayton (Stafford, Bhsworth, and King's 
Lynn). Kin. G. 1327 Geydon, St. G. Dom. Gaitone, 1227 Gai- 
don. Lynn G. c. 1150 Geitun. Prob. not fr. gate, but fr. a man 
Goega or Gega, K.C.D. vi. 137 and 148, while we get the patro- 
nymic Gceing in B.C.S. iii. 257. Gay is now a common surname. 
Cf. Ginge (Berks), Dom. Gain3, 1225 Est geyng, and Gaywood, 
also found near King's Lynn, likewise 940 chart. Gaecges stapole 
(market), Hants. See -don and -ton. 

Geddington (Kettering). Not in Dom. Said to be c. 1188 Gir. 
Camb. Garcedune. This, if the same place, must be a different 
name. Prob. ' town of Geddi,' one such in Onom. Cf. 1363 
chart. ' Wilhelmus Bateman de Giddingg,' near Kettering (which 
is, of course, a patronymic), Gedney (Lines), and Gedelega, 
1157 in Pipe Devon. 

Gedltng (Nottingham). Dom. GhelUnge, 1189 Pipe Gedlinges. 
A patronymic. The same name is seen in Gillamoor (Yorks), 
Dom,. Gedhngsmore. Mutschmann derives fr. O.E, gcsdlingas, 
' companions in arms,' and makes Gillinq the same. 

* The -senti may be for -ceuti ; perh. the same Kelt, root as in Kent, and mean- 
ing * head,' or ' headland.' 


Gee Cross (Stockport) . •An ancient cross was erected here by the 
Gee family. 

Gelliswick farm (Milford Haven). Hybrid. W. gelU or celU, 
' hazel grove/ and N. vik, ' a bay.' Cf. Wick (Sc.) and Good- 
wick (S. Pembroke). But the Welsh tale, Kulhwch and Oliven 
{a. 1200), speaks of ' Gelh ' or ' KelU Wic ' in ComwaU. 

Gentleshaw (Rugeley). 1505 Gentylshawe. 'Wood of Gentle/ 
a surname still in use. A John Gentyl is known in this district 
in 1341. Dom. Bucks, Intlesberie, may represent the same name. 
See -shaw. 

Gerrans (Falmouth). Perh. the same as c. 1130 Lib. Land. Din- 
Gerein — i.e., 'castle of Geraint,' K. of the Welsh in 711; 1536 
Grerens. But the Welsh chronicler's castle may be in Pembroke. 

GiGGLESWiCK (Settle). Local pron. Gilzick. Dom. Ghiceleswic, 
Ghigeleswic. Cf. Ickleford. 'Dwelling of Gicel,' now Jekyl, 
fr. Breton Judicael, which also jdelds Jewell, 1215 Close Ri Gikels- 
wik and William Gikel. See -wick. 

GiLCRUX (Carlisle). Old forms needed. Cf. Dom. Norfk., Gillecros, 
Gildecros. Can it be ' cross of the guild ' 1 O.E. gild, gyld. 
Cross was early taken into Eng. in more than one form; see Oxf. 
Diet. The M.E. crouch shows that late O.E. must have had a 
form cruc, L. cruc-em, ' cross.' 

GrLLLNG (N. Yorks). Bede in Gethlingum, Gsetlingimi. Dom. 
Grellinge(s). See Gedlinq. Gilling and Gillon are stiU sur- 
names. There is a ' Gilleburc ' 1160 in Pipe (Northants). 
Cf. Ealing. See -ing. 

GiLLiNGHAM (Dorset and Kent). Do. G. 1016 O.E. Chron. Gilling- 
ham; Dom. Geling(e)ham, 1160 Pipe GilHngeha; Ke. G. c. 1150 
chart. Gyllingeham. ' Home of the Gillings,' a patronymic 
fr. Gilo. 

GrCiiiiNG-, Gyllingdune, and GiLLrNGVASE (Falmouth). Said to 
be Corn, for ' William's hill,' and ' William's field/ Com. mces, 
here aspirated. The William is said to be he who was son of 
Henry I., drowned in the White Ship, crossing from Normandy 
to England, 1120. All this is a little doubtful. 

GiLSLAi^D (Carhsle). Sic 1215, but 1291 Gillesland. 'Land, terri- 
tory of Giles ' or of ' Gilo,' 2 in Onom. 

GiMLNGHAM (N. Walsham). Dom. Giming(h)eha, 1443 Gymyng- 
ham, c. 1449 Gemyngham. The name or patronymic is a little 
uncertain here. Perh. ' Home of Gemmund or Gefmund,' the 
nearest name in Onom. See -ing. 

GippiNG E,. See Ipswich. 

Girdle Fell (Cheviots). ' Mountain with the belt or band round 
it.' The ending ' fell ' {q.v.) is Norse, and so the root is quite as 
likely O.N. gyr^ill, O.Sw. giordell, as O.E. gyrdel. If so, this is 


one of the very rare Norse names in Northumberland. C/. 
Girdle Ness (Aberdeenshire). 

GiRLiNGTON (Bradford) . Dom. Gerlinton ; also sic in Dom. Somerset. 
' Town of Gerling/ or perh. ' of Gcerland,' one in Onom. See -ing. 

GiETON (Cambridge). Dom. Gretone, K.C.D. iv. 145 Gretton, 1236 
Greittone, 1434 Grettone, Gyrttone. Skeat inclines to think 
this is not ' great town ' (c/. the six Littletons), but prov. Eng. 
gratton, ' grass which comes after mowing, stubble/ fr. O.E. 
greed, Mercian gred, ' grass.' The forms in Girton (Notts) are 
practically the same. Mutschmann derives, rather doubtfully, 
fr. O.E. great, 'sand.' Cf. Gretton, which may be 'great, 
O.E. great, town.' Great is 3-6 gret{e), 4-6 grett{ej. Cf. Girsby 
(Yorks), Dom. Grisbi. 

GiSBUEN (Clitheroe). Dom. Ghiseburne, 1179-80 Giseburne, 1197 
Kisebum. ' Burn, brook of Gisa,' 2 in Onom. Kisi was a Norse 
giant. Cf. GuiSBORo'. See -bourne. 

GiSLDSTGHAM (Eye). Dom. Gislingeha, -ghaham, GissiHncham. 
' Home of the descendants of Gisel ' — i.e., ' the hostage ' — O.E. 
3iseZ, O.N. gid. Cf. 1384 ' Giselyngton ' (Lines). 

Gladmoxjth (S. Wales). See Cleddy. Cf. also Gladder Brook 
(Wore.) 1275-1340 Gloddre, also W., -der being dwfr, ' stream.' 

Glamorgan. 1242 Close B. Clammorgan, c. 1250 Layam. Glom- 
morgan, 1461 Glomorganeia. Old W. name Morganwg, Mod. W. 
Gwlad Morgan, ^ dominion of Morgan,' a 10th cny. prince, of 
which the other forms are corruptions or contractions. 

Glapthorne (Oundle). Not in Dom. a. 1100 Glapthom. Prob. 
' thorn-tree of Glceppa,' found in Onom. Cf. Glapton (Notts), 
sic 1216-72. 

Glasbtjry (Brecon), c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Glasbiria. Hybrid; W. 
glas, ' blue, green, verdancy, hence, a green spot,' and O.E. burh. 
See -bury; also cf. Glazebrook. 

Glascote (Tamworth). Sic a 1300. ' Cot, cottage with windows 
of glass,' O.E. glees, a very rare thing for an early cottage. 

Glaston (Uppingham) . Not in Dom. a. 1 100 grant of 664, Glathe- 
stun. There is no name like Glatlie in Onom., though there is a 
Gloedwis. So this may be ' town of gladness,' O.E. gl(Bd, 4 glathe, 
but prob. not. Gleadthorpe (Notts), Dom. Gletorp, 1278 
Gledetorp, must have the same origin. 

Glastonbury (Somerset), a. 716 Boniface Glestingaburg ; 1016 
O.E. Chron. Glsestingabyrig ; 1297 B. Glow. Glastinbury. In W. 
Ynys Wydrin (' isle of Wydrin ') ; found already in chart, said to 
be of 601, Ineswytrin. Freeman thinks this a patronymic. 
William of Malmesbury says the name is fr. a N. Wales Glasting, 
who wandered there in search of a lost sow. The Lib. Hymn 
(Bradshaw Society), a. 900 calls it 'Glastimber of the Goidels'; 


and a. 1100 Ann. Cambr. calls it Glastenec. M'Clure would 
derive fr. a somewhat dubious W. glastan, ' an oak ' ; there is 
certainly glasdonen {ii.glas and tonen), ' the scarlet oak/ a quite 
possible origin, though it is more prob. a patronymic, as the 
very early fost spelling indicates. See -bury. 

Glatton (Peterborough). Not in Dom. 1217 Glattun. Seems to 
be ' glad town ' ; O.E. glced, 3 glat, O.N. gla^-r, ' bright, beautiful,' 
cognate with O.H.G. glat, ' smooth.' 

Glazebrook (Manchester). 1227 Glasbroc, 1303 Glasebrok. Perh. 
tautology. Kelt, glas and Eng. brook, iDoth meaning the same. 
Glazebury is near by. Of. Dom. Glese (Wore), now Glass- 
hampton, and Glass Houghton (Yorks), not in Dom. W. and H. 
prefer ' glassy brook,' O.E. glees, ' glass,' but are prob. wrong. 

Glbaston (Ulverston). Dom. Glassertun. This impHes a name 
Glasser, or the like, prob. Norse. Glasserton (Wigtown), looks the 
same name; in early chronicles it seems to get confused with 

Glen R. (S. Lines and Northumberland). History wanted. Either 
may be Nennius § 56 Fluminis quod dicitur Glein. G. gleann ; 
W. glyn, ' a glen, a valley.' 

Glencune, Glendhu, and Glenwhelt (all near Haltwhistle). 
Glencune is G. gleann cumhann, ' narrow glen.' Of. Glencoe 
(Sc). G. dubh means ' black,' W. du, and -whelt may be W. 
gwdllyn, ' blade of grass/ or ? ullta, ' a crazy one, an oaf.' 
Glencoin (Ullswater) = Glencune, G. comhann, being var. of 
cumJiann, and mh has become mute. 

Glenderamackin E. (Keswick). VMieG., gleann dobhair or doir-a- 
meacain, ' glen of the stream with the roots, bulbs, or parsnips.' 

Glenfield and Glen Magna (Leicester) . 1232 Close R . Glenesfield. 
Seemingly fr. a man; Glen may be contraction fr. Glcedwine, 2 in 
Onom. But in Dom. is Glen, which surely must be G. gleann, 
W. glyn, ' valley,' though it, too, may be a man's name. Magna 
is L. for ' great.' 

Glentwobth (Lincoln). Dom. Glenteum-de. Cf. grant a. 675 
Glenthufe, ? in Hants. Perh. ' farm of the hard, flinty rock ' ; 
Dan. and Sw. Jclint. See Clent and -worth. Glinton (Market 
Deeping), sic Dom. and a. 1100, would suggest a man's name 
hke Glent or Glint. None such is recorded, but prob. must be 

Glogue (Pembrokesh.). La W. Y Glog, fr. O.W. clog, ' a stone '; 
Corn, clog, ' a steep rock ' ; G. clach, gen. cloiche, ' a stone.' 

Gloucester. Pron. Gloster. c. 120 Lat. inscr. Glev. = Glevensis 
civitas, later do. Glevi, c. 380 Ant. Bin. Gle-, Clevo, a. 700 
Raven. Geog. Glebon, 681 cTiart. Gleawceasdre, 804 grant 
Gleaw(e)ceastre, Lanfranc Rist. ann. 1071, Cloecistra, ib. 1080 
Claudia Civitas, 1085 ib. Cleucestra, a.,1130 Sim. Dur. Glocestre, 


1140 O.E. Chron. Gloucestre, c. 1160 Gesta Steph. Glocestrensis, 
1375 Barbour Gloster. In W. Caerloew, as in a. 810 Nennius 
Cair Gloui., Saxonice autem Gloecester. Said to be called ' camp 
of Gloni ' fr. its builder, a mere guess, whilst to connect with 
Emperor Claudius is to make a worse guess. Many think the 
name Kelt., 'bright castle,' fr. W. glaw, 'brightness.' The 
forms all have the c, in later times the soft c, and not ch (except 
in Layam, Gleochaestre), owing to Nor. influence. See -cester. 

Gnosall (Stafford). Dom. Geneshale, 1199 Gnowdes-, Gnoddes- 
hall, 1204 Gnoweshale, 1223 Gnoushale. ' Nook, corner of ' 
prob. ' Oeonweald,' one in Onom. Duignan suggests ' of Cnof- 
wealh/ which is very far fr. Dom. But older forms are needed. 
Cf. Dom. Norfk, Gnaleshala. See -hall. 

Gob6wen (Oswestry). (1298 ' Robertus Gobyon.') W. gob Owen, 
' heap, mound of Owen/ 

GdpALMiNG (Surrey). Dom. Godelminge, a. 1199 Goldhalming. 
Patronymic, fr. Godhelm. Dom. also has ' Godelannge,' Surrey; 
? an error. 

GoDLEY (Mottram). a. 1250 Godelegh; also cf. Dom. Surrey, 
Godelei. Prob. not ' good meadow,' but ' meadow of Godd, 
Godda, or Gode,' all of them names found in Onom. Cf. Gode- 
stoch in Dom. Salop, and Godeston in 1 155 Pipe Devon. See -ley. 

GoDMANCHiiSTER (Huntingdon). 970 chart. Guthmuncester, Dom. 
Godmundcestre, c. 1150-1623 Gumecestre. 'Camp of Guth- 
mund/ a name common and early, found occasionally as Gud- 
mund, which is but var. of the common Godmund, ' the man whom 
God' (or 'a god') 'protects,' as gu^, go^ is O.N. for 'god'; 
O.E. god. The contracted form Gume- is influenced by O.E. 
guma, 3-4 gume, 3-6 gome, ' a man,' and Goma occurs as a name 
twice in Onom. We have parallels in Goodmanham and 
GuMLEY. See -Chester. 

GoDSHiLL (WroxaU). 1499 Gaddishill= Gad's Hill. 

GODSTOW (Oxford). Not in Dom. 1158-59 Pipe Godestov, 1161-62 
ib. Godesto. ' Place of Goda,' a very common O.E. name. See 
Stow. Dom. Oxon has Godendone, ' Goda's hill.' 

GoLANT, Glent, or St. Sampson's (Par). 1507 Gullant. Prob. 
Keltic or Com. gol land, ' holy ground.' 

GoLBORN Bellow and David (Chester), c. 1350 Golborne, which 
is prob. ' gosHng's burn or brook,' fr. gull sb.^ in Oxf. Diet., found 
in 4 as goll, ' a gosUng.' Bellow is fr. the family of Bella Aqua 
or Belleau, ' fine water,' which once held this place. 

GoLCAR (Huddersfield). Dom. Gudlages arc, and argo; later, 
Gouthelagh chaithes, Goullakarres. ' ShieUng/ Norse Gaelic 
argh, G. airigh, ' of Gudlag ' or ' Guthlac' See Ai^glesabk, and 
cf. Grimsabgh, etc. The -car comes through the influence of N. 
kjarr, 'marshy ground.' 


Golden Valley (S. Hereford). We find c. 1130 Richard de Aurea 
Valle as King's chaplain. Said to be because the French monks 
confused W. dwr, ' stream/ with Fr. d'or, ' of gold/ 

GoLDiNGTON (Bedford). Dom. Goldentone. * Village of Gold' or 
' Gould.' Cf. Dom. Essex, Goldingham. See next and -ing. 
But GoLDicoTE (Alderminster) is 1275 Caldicote, ' cold cot.' 

GoLDSBOROUGH (Knaresboro') . Dom. Golborg, Goldeburg, 1179-80 
Goldburg. ' Burgh, castle of Gold/ which is still an Eng. sur- 
name. One Golda and one Golde in Onom. See -borough. 
GoLDTHORPB (Rotherham) , Dom. Guldetorp, Golde-, Godetorp, 
is fr. the same name. See -thorpe. 

GoNALSTON (Nottingham). Dom. Gunnulveston, 1278 Guneliston, 
1316 Gonelston. ' Town of Gunnulf-r.' 

GooDMAiraAM (E. Yorks). Bede Godmundigaham. Dom. Gud- 
mundham, -mandham. ' Home of Godmund ' — i.e., the man 
whom God protects. O.E. mund, ' protection.' The -iga in 
Bede prob. represents -ing, q.v. Cf. Godmanchester and 


Goodrich (Ross, Hereford). Not in Dom. 0.'E.Godric{h), a, man's 
name. A rare type of place-name. Cf. Snitter (Northumber- 
land), also a. 1400 Godrichesley, now Gothersley (Stourbridge). 

GooDWiCK (Fishguard). Dan. and Sw. gud vik, * good bay.' 

Goodwin Sands, or The Goodwins (Kent). 1495 le Goodwine 
sandes, 1546 Goodwins sands. Said to be fr. Earl Godwine, so 
prominent in the reign of Edward the Confessor. Cf. The 
Bedwins, sands in R. Severn, perh. fr. O.E. Beaduwine. 

GooLE (Lines) . a. 1552 Leland, ' a place caullid Golflete' ; fr. the dial. 
gool, found in Eng. in 1542 as goole, ' a small stream, a ditch ' ; 
O.Fr. gole, goule, ' the throat.' For -flete, see Fleet. 

GooNHAVERN (Pcrranporth, Cornwall). Corn, goon, ' a down, a 
moorland, a marsh,' and ? some word for ' iron,' W. haiarn. 

Goosey (Faringdon). O.E. chart. Gosige, Dom. Gosei, 1291 Goseye. 
' Goose-isle.' See -ey. But Goosnargh (Preston), Dom. Gusan- 
sarghe, is ' shieling of Gusan,' an unrecorded, prob. N., name. 
See Anglesark and Grimsargh. 

Gore (hundred of Middlesex, around Kilburn). c. 1134 chart. Gara, 
which is O.E. or Early Eng. for ' a wedge-shaped strip of land on 
the side of an irregular field.' This is a good deal earlier than 
any quot. in Oxf. Diet. Cf. Dom. Wilts, Gare. 

GoRLESTON (Gt. Yarmouth). Dom. Gorlestuna. The name is 
doubtful; ? fr. Garweald, oi Geroldus, or Gerbold, as in Dom. 
Norfk., Gerboldesha. 

GoRNAL Wood (Dudley), a. 1500 Gwarnell, Guarnell. Prob. ' hall ' 
or ' nook ' (O.E. heall or hedlh) ' of Garnwi ' or ' Geornwig,' 


names in Onom. Duignan derives fr. O.E. cweorn, cwearne, 
6 quearn, ' a quern, a hand-mill/ but this is not prob. phoneti- 
cally. See -hall. 

GoESLEY (Glouc). Not in Dom. 1228 Close R. Gorstley. Prob. 
not ' furze-meadow/ O.E. gors, ' furze, whin,' but ' meadow of 
Gorst/ a name not in Onom., but still a surname. See -ley. 

GosFORTH (Seascale and Newcastle). Se. G. c. 1170 Gose-, 1390 
Gosford, 1452 Gosforth. ' Goose ford,' O.E. gos, 3-6 gose, ' a 
goose.' But GoscoTE (Walsall), a. 1300 Gorstycote, is gorsey cot 
or ' cottage among the gorse '; and Gossington (Glouc), 1189 
Gosintone, is ' village of Gosa,' -an. Of. 940 chart. Gosanwelle 
(Dorset). See -forth. 

Gotham (Notts). Sic 1316, but Dom. Gatha. O.E. gdt ham, ' goat- 
house,' 4-6 gote, 6- goat. Gotherdstgton (Bishop's Cleeve), Dom. 
Godrinton, is fr. Godhere. See -ing. 

GowER (S. Wales). In W. Gwyr. a. 810 Nennius Guir, c. 1188 
€Kr. Camb. Goer, Ann. Camb. 1095 Goher. Prob. W. gwyr, 
' awry, askew '; there is a Corn, gover, ' a rivulet '; and W. gwyr 
is ' fresh, verdant.' There can be no certainty as to the name. 

GowY R. (trib. of R. Mersey, Cheshire). Corrup. of W. gwy, ' water, 

GoxHTLL (E. Riding and Grimsby). E. Ri. G. Dom. Golse (? c), 
Gr. G. Not in Dom., 1210 Gousele (where -ele prob. represents 
-hale or -hall, q.v.). Difficult; more old forms needed. No 
name like Golc is on record; and gowk, 4-6 goJc, O.N. gauk-r, ' the 
cuckoo,' yields no I, nor is it found in Eng. till c. 1325. 

GoYT R. (N.E. Chesh.). M.E. gote, 'a watercourse, a stream'; 
O.E. gyte, ' a flood,' fr. geotan, ' to pour,' stiU found in North, dial, 
as goit, goyt. Of. W. gwyth, ' a conduit, a channel'; also ' Skir- 
beck Gowt,' sic 1593, near Boston, which is a watercourse or 
channel. Guyting-Power and -Temple (Glouc.) must be fr. same 
root; 814 chart. Gythinge, Dom. Getinge, 1221 Guytinge, with 
-ing, q.v., here in its meaning of ' place on a stream.' But 
GoYTRB (Glamorgan) may be for W. coed tre, 'wood-house, 
dwelling in the wood.' 

Grafton (5 in P.G.). Worcester G. 884 chart. Graftune. Two in 
Warwick, 710 chart. Graftone, 962 ib. Greftone, Dom. Grastone, 
1189 Grafton. Northants G. 1166-67 Pipe Grafton. ' Grove 
town,' O.E. grdf. See -ton. 

Graham. The orig. Graham prob. was in Northumberland; c. 1195 
a David de Graham witnesses a charter re Ellingham (Belford) . 
The surname is found a. 1128 as Graeme, and 1139 Graha. 
O.E. grd ham, ' grey house.' Of. 1179-80 Pipe Gremrig (Yorks). 

Gratnthorpe (Lines). [Dom. Lines has only Greneham.] ' Village 
in the forked valley '; O.N. grein, ' division, branch'; Sw. gren. 


' a branch/ See -thorpe and Grain (Sc), also Grain, sb.'' in 
Oxf. Diet., found in Eng. a. 1300. This last also means ' arm of 
the sea, branch of a stream/ as in Isle of Grain (Medway). 

Grampound (Truro). Corn, grawpont, ' great bridge.' 

GRAN(D)BORauGH (Rugby and Winslow) . 1043 chart. Greenesburgh, 
Greneburga, Dom. Grane-, Greneberge, 1260 Greneborwe, 
' Burgh of Green,' not in Onom. Cf. Granby (Notts), Dom. 
Granebi, and Dom. Lines., Granham. See -borough. 

Grantchesteb. See Cambridge. 

Grantham. Sic in Dom. ' Home of Oranta ' or ' Grant,' a name 
not in Onom., but we have also Grantley (Ripon), Dom. 
Grentelaia. On the meaning of Grant, see Cambridge. 

Grasmere (Cumberland). 'Grassy lake'; O.E. grces, 3-6 gras, 
' grass.' Cf. Graseley (Wolverhampton), sic 1282. 

Grassington (Skipton). Dom. Ghersinton, 1212 Gersinton. ' Town 
of Gersent ' or ' Gersendis,' both names in Onom. 

(jtRATeley (Andover). Not in Dom. Prob. a. 941 Lett, to Athelstan 
Greatanlea. ' Greta's lea ' or ' meadow ' ; but the name is not in 
Onom. Cf. Greetham and Gratwich (Uttoxeter), Dom. Grate- 
wich, which Duignan thinks 'great, large village.' O.E. great, 
3 greet, 4-6 grait, grett. 

Graveley (Stevenage and Huntingdon). Hunt. G. chart. Graeflea, 
Greflea, Dom. Gravelei, ' grave or trench meadow.' See -ley. 
Cf. Graveney (Faversham), 940 chart. Gravenea. See -ey. 

Gravesend. Dom. Essex, Grauesanda, 1157 Pipe Grauesent. 
c. 1500 in Arnold's Chron. Gravesende — i.e., ' at the end of the 
moat.' Cf. Med. Dutch grave, ' a trench.' 

Greasborough (Rotherham). Dom. once Gersebroc. One would 
expect a man's name here, but on analogy of Garston this is 
prob. ' grassy brook,' O.E. broc, altered to -borough (q.v.). O.E. 
for ' grass ' is goers, gross. But it is also in Dom. Grese-, Gresse- 
burg, prob. 'burgh, castle of Grese' or ^ Grise' — i.e., 'the Pig!' 
See Gristhorpe. So Gersebroc is prob. an error. 

Great Ayton (Yorks). Dom. Atun, 1179-80 Atton. Perh. ' village 
of Mtta, Mtte,' or ' Mtti,' all forms in Onom. If so, not= Ayton 
(Sc). It may well be =Eton; O.E. ea-tun, 'town, village on 
the stream.' 

Great Bookham (Leatherhead). Chart. Bocham, Dom. Bocheha. 
Cf. 1224 Patent R. Bukeham (Norfk.). Prob. 'beech-built 
home.' See Bockhampton. 

Great Bradley (Newmarket). 1341 deed Bradeleghe; M.E. for 
' broad lea ' or ' meadow.' See -ley. 

Great Kimble (Bucks). Dom. Chenebella, chart. Cunebelle, 1291 
Kenebelle. Cf. 903 chart. Cynebellinga-gemsere. Perh., as Dr. 


Birch suggests, called after Cunobellinus, the British King, said 
to have been buried here. There is also a Cynebill or Cynobill, 
brother of the Bps. Cedda and Ceadda, in Onom. Cf. Kemble 
(Cirencester), a. 1300 Kenebelle. 

Great Tey (Kelvedon). O.E. tih, teah, ' a paddock/ 

Great Witchingham (Norwich). Dom. Wicinghaha, c. 1444 
Wychjrngham. ' Home of Wiching ' or ' W icing '; three of 
this name in Onom., really a var. of viking, ' bay-man, sea-rover.' 
Prob. here a patronymic. See -ing. 

Greenodd (Lonsdale). O.N. oddi, odd-r, 'a small point of land,' 
as in Odde (Norway). Cf. Greenhow (Pately Br.). O.N. haug-r, 
' mound, cairn ', and Dom. Norfk., Grenehov. 

Greenwich. 1013 O.E. Chron. Grenawic, Dom. Grenviz, c. 1386 
Chaucer Grenewich. O.E. grene wic, ' green, grassy town or 

Greetham (Oakham). Dom. and 1292 Gretham. Cf. Dom. Hants, 
Greteham. Prob. * Greta's home,' as in Grateley. But it may 
be ' great house '; O.E. great, grecet, 3-6 gret, 4-6 greet. Greet- 
LAND (Halifax) is Dom. Greland. 

Grendon (Atherstone, Northampton, Aylesbury). Ath. G. Dom. 
Grendon. O.E. gren dun, ' green hill.' Grindgn (Ham and Co. 
Durham), H. G. Dom. Grendone, and 1183 Boldon Bk. Grendona 
(Durham), is the same name.' 

Gresham (Norwich). Dom. and 1426 Gressam. Older forms 
needed, but prob. 'Home of Gressa,' a name not in Onom., 
but seen in Gressenhall, and cf. Greasborough, whilst 
Dorri. Norfk has also Gresingaha, the patronymic form. See -ham. 

Gresley (Burton-on-Trent) . Old forms needed. Perh. ' meadow 
of Gresa ' or ' Gressa.' Cf. Gresham. But also cf. 1179-80 
Greselea, 1283 Greseleye (S. Lanes), Grizebeck and Grizedale, 
which may come fr. O.N. griss, 'a pig.' See -ley. Greis- or 
Grassthorpe (Notts), Dom. Grestorp, is prob. 'grassy village'; 
cf. Garston. 

Gressenhall (Dereham). Dom. Gressenhala, c. 1450 Gressenhale. 
Prob. as above, ' nook, corner of Gressa.' It does not seem prob. 
that it comes fr. grass ; no adj. grassen or gressen is known. See 

Greta R. (Yorks). O.N. griot a, 'stony, shingly river,' fr. griot, 
O.E. great, ' gravel, sand, stones.' The name reappears in Lewis, 
the R. Greeta or Creed, in G. Gride. We also have a R. Greet 
(Notts), 958 chart. Greota, Great Bridge (Wednesbury) on a 
stream called a. 1400 Grete, a. 1600 Greete, and Greet (Glouc), 
1195 Greta, a hamlet on a iDrook. 

Gretton (Kettering and Winchcombe). Ket. G. not in Dom. 
Chron. Ramsey Gretton. Same as Girton, But Wi. G- ia 


Dom. Gretestan, or -stanes, c. 1175 Gretstona, prob. ' great 
stone or rock/ Cf. Geeetham; and see -ton, which often inter- 
changes with -stone. 

Greystones (Sheffield) . Cf. 847 chart. Fram Smalen cumbes heaf de 
to grsewanstane ; not this place. There is no Smallcombe in the 

GmMSABGH (Preston) . Dom. Grimesarge. ' Grim's sheihng ' or 
' hut." argh being N. corrup.'of G. airigh. See Anglesabk; and 
cf. Sizergh (Kendal), also next. 

Grimsby. Dom., and 1156 Pipe Grimesbi, 1296 Grimmesby, 1297 
Grymesby. ' Grim's dwelling.'' See -by. Grim was a very 
common O.E. name. Grimsby existed from the days of Cnut, 
or earlier. Its origin is described in c. 1300 Havelok. There is a 
Grimsbury (Berks) and a Grimstock (Coleshill) . See -stock. But 
Grimscote (Whitchurch) is said to have been Kilmescote and 
Kenemyscote, which, as Duignan says, is prob. ' Coenhelm's ' or 
' Kenelm's cot.' There are also several Grimstons — e.g., Dom. 

- Yorks and Notts, Grimeston, Grimstun, and a Grimsbury (Glouc.) . 

Grim's Dyke, or Ditch op Grim, runs fr. Bradeham (High Wycombe) 
to Berkhamstead (Herts). It is an ancient earthwork of un- 
known origin, possibly Roman. Cf. above and Graham's Dyke 
(Falkirk), which is the old Roman Wall; also Grime's Hlll 
(Worcs.), 1275 Grimesput ('pit '). Grim in O.E. means ' fierce, 
cruel,' common as a surname. Geimley (Worcs.) is 851 chart. 
Grimanleage, ' Grima's meadow/ 

Grestdleton (CHtheroe). Dom. GretUntone. This seems to be a 
corrup. of the common ' GrimcyteVs town,' a name also found as 
Grichetel, Grinchel, Grichel. But cf. next, Grindleford (Sheffield) 
and Grindalythe (see Hythe), Thirsk; neither in Dom. 

Grindley Brook (Whitchurch) . May simply be ' meadow with the 
barred gate'; O.N. grind. See -ley. Some would compare 
Grendlesmere (Wilts) fr. Grendel, the witch in Beowulf. Cf. 
a. 1000 cJmrt. Grendles bee and Grindeles pytt (Wore), and there 
is a Grindelay, or ' Grendel's isle ' (Orkney) ; but see, too, above. 
Grendley (Uttoxeter) is often in 13th cny. Greneleye, as if 
' green meadow.' Cf. Gringley (Notts), Dom. Grenelei. 

Gedstdon. See Grendon. 

Grinshill (Shrewsbury). Not in Dom. Grin is prob. var. of 
Grim, as in Grimsby, etc. Grimthorpe (Yorks) is in Dom. both 
Grim- and Grintorp; cf. 940 chart. Grinescumb (Dorset). But 
Grind ale (Yorks) is Dom. Grendale, ' green dale.' 

Gristhorpe (Filey). Dom. Grisetorp and Griston (Thetford). 
Dom. Gris-, Grestuna. ' Village of the pigs,' or, ' of a man Grise '; 
O.N. griss, ' a pig.' Similar is Girsby (Yorks), Dom. Grisebi. 
Cf. next and Greasbobough; and see -thorpe. 

Grittleton (Chippenham). 940 chart. Grutelingtone, Dom. Grete- 
linton. ' Village of the sons of Grutel,' a name not in Onom. 



Perhaps it is for the fairly common Orimcytel, var. Gr'icketel, 
See -ing. 

Geizebeck (Furness) and GmzEDAiiE (Cumberland). O.N. griss, 
' a pig.' Cf. above. On beck, ' a brook/ see Beckebmet. 

Groby (Leicester). Dom. Grobi, 1298 Grouby. ' Dwelling by the 
pit." O.N. grof, Ger. grube. See -by. 

Gronant (Rhyl). W. gro nant, ' sand ' or ' gravel valley.' 

GxJASH R. (Rutland). Prob. O.W. gwes, 'that which moves or 
goes.' Cf., too, G. guaimeas, ' quietness,' and Wash. 

Guernsey. Possibly c. 380 Notit. Dign. ' Granona in Armorica.' 
If so the first part of this name must be Keltic, or pre-Keltic; 
perh. W. gwern, ' plain, moor, and alder tree,' with N. ending. 
But it is a. 1170 Wace Guernesi, 1218 Patent B. Ger(n)esie, 
1219 Gernereye; 1286 Close B. Gennere, 1447 Guernesey, 1449 
Garnyse, 1454 Gernessey. Some think it is also a. 1220 Volsunga 
Saga Varinsey. The name is prob. N. ' Isle of Gcerwine ' or 
' Gerinus,' names in Onom., or of an unrecorded Gcern, in which 
case s in 1218 will be an Eng. gen. and r in 1219 a Norse one. 
See -ey. 

Guild EN Mobden (Royston, Hunts) and Sutton (Chester), c. 1080 
Inquis. Camb. Mordune, 1166 Mordone, 1236 Mordene. ' Moor, 
down '; O.E. dun, changed into denu, ' (wooded) valley.' Later, 
1255 Geldenemordon, 1317 Guldenemordon, 1302 Gylden, 1342 
Gilden, 1346 Gyldene. This also prob., thinks Skeat, means 
' Morden of the guild-brother,' O.E. gyldena, gen. pi. of gylda, 
' a guild-brother.' But further evidence is needed. It can 
hardly be the same as Dom. Goldene (Salop), with which cf. 
GoldenhiU (Stoke-on-Trent). 

Guildford. Dom. Gilde-, Geldeford, c. 1100 BaVph the Black 
Guldedune (O.E. dun, ' hill, hiU-fort '), 1120 Geldeforda, a. 1199 
Goldeford, 1298 Gildeforde. ' Ford with the toU '; O.E. ^ield, 
^eld, ^yld, ' payment, tribute.' 

GuiSBORo' (Yorks) . Dom. Ghigesborg ; but it is also Dom. Giseborne, 
1151 Gysebume. Cf. Gisburn, and see -bourne. It is diJBficult 
to say what name Ghige- represents, but prob. it is the same as 
in Ginge (Berks), which is in O.E. chart. Greging, Geinge, Gainge; 
Dom. Gainz, ' place of the sons of Gcega '; also cf. K.C.D. vi. 137, 
Geganlege, ' Gega'a meadow.' In Ghiges- we have a strong gen. 
instead of the weak -an, and Gise- is a contraction; also see next. 
See -boro'. 

GuiSELEY (Shipley). Dom. Gisele. ' Gisa'B lea' or 'meadow.' 
See above, and cf. Dom. Norfk., Guistune. See -ley. 

GuLVAL (Penzance). Sic 1521; 1536 Gulvale alias Lanesleye (1222 
Lanesely). Called after (?wc?t<;aZ, Bp. of St. Malo, 6th cny. But 
Lanesely must mean ' church of ' some other saint. 


GuMLEY (Leicester). Dom. Godmundelai, 1292 Gomundele. ' Lea, 
meadow of Godmund'; 3 suck in Onom. Cf. Godmanchester 
and GooDMANHAM ; and see -ley. 

GuNNEESBTJRY (Kew). Not found till the 15th cny. 'Burgh, 
town of Gunner/ N. Gunnarr, a common name in Onom. Cf' 
next and Ballygunner (Waterf ord) ; and see -bury. 

GuNNERSKELD (Shap). 'Well of Gunner' (see above); fr. O.N. 
kelda, ' a well, a spring.' Cf. Threlkeld (Penrith). 

GiTNNiSLAKE (Tavlstock) . Perh. ' Lake of Gunna '; there is one 
such in Onom. On this Norse name, which means ' war,' see 
the interesting discussion in Oxf. Diet. s.v. gun sb. Cf. 
GuNSTON (Staffs) a. 1300 Gonestone, Gunstone. Guim is still a 
common surname. Lake is already found in O.E. as lac, though 
rarely. Cf. Filey. But Dom. Devon has a Gherneslete; 
? this place, which may be fr. O.E. gelcet{e), ' open watercourse ' 
or ' jimction of roads ' (see leat, sb.), and so ' leat of Geornn ' or 
' Geornwi/ corrupted into Guimislake. Cf.; too, Gtjrney Slade. 

GuNTHORPE (Nottingham and Norfolk). Not G. Sic a. 1100 in 
grant of 664, but Dom. Gulne-, Guimetorp, 1278 Guntorp. Nor. 
G. Dom. Gunestorp. ' Village of Gunna.' See above, and 
-thorpe. Possibly the name embedded is Gunhildr ; cf. GuN- 
THWAiTE (Yorks), 1389 Gunnyldthwayt. 

GuNWALLOE (The Lizard). Named fr. Winwaloe, son of Fragan of 
Brittany, c. 550. 

Gurney Slade (Bath). This looks as if the same name as Dom, 
Devon, Gherneslete ; see Gunnislake. Dom. Somerset has only 
Gernefelle, ' Georn's field.' 

Gtjyhirn (Wisbech). 'Guy's nook' or 'hiding-place'; O.E.hyrne, 
now hern, him. Guy is a common Nor. name in England. But 
Guy's Clife (Warwick) is a. 1200 Gibbe- KibbecUve, a. 1300 
Chibbeclive — i.e., ' Gibbie's ' or ' Gilbert's cliff.' 

Gwaelod-y -Garth (Cardiff). W., 'bottom of the Httle corn-field.' 
Garth must be a loan-wood, fr. O.N. gar^-r, ' an enclosure, a 
yard '; but in W. it now means ' a ridge, a hill, a promontory.' 

GwAUN-OAE-GuRWEN (Glam.). Looks like W. gwaen cae gwr gwen, 
' moor with the field of the fair man '. There is also a II. Gwaun 
or Gwayne (Pembrokesh.) a. 800 Guoun, or Gvoun; W. gwaen, 
' a (wet) moor.' Cf. Waunarlwydd, Glam. (W. arglwydd, ' a 
superior, a lord ') . 

GwEEK (Helston). Corn, giveek ; L. vicus, 'town, village.' Cf. 
Week St. Mary, etc. 

GwiNEAR (Hayle, Cornwall) . NotinjDom. 1536 Gwynner. Some 
would say. Corn, gwin nor, ' white earth.' Cf. Annor. But 
Gwynear was a saint, killed by K. Listewdrig. 

Gwynfai or -EE (Llangadock). 1317 Gwynuey. To-day W. gwyn 
fai, aspirated fr. mai, ' fair field.' But -uey may= gwy, 'river.' 


Gyting and Temple Guiting (Cutsdean, Wore). 974 Gytincgas 
^welme, Gytinc, -ges. Gyting seems a patronymic, ' place of 
the sons of Gytha, Gytlie, Githa,' or ' Gida/ all forms in Onom. 
See -ing. O.E. cewylme is ' a spring, a well/ See Ewelme. 

Haoheston (E. Suffolk). Dom. Haces, Hecestuna. ' Town of 
Hacca ' ; 2 in Onom. 

Haoejstess (Whitby). Bede Haconos, Hakenes ; O.E. vers. Hecanos ; 
Dom. Hagenesse. Haco nos is O.N. for ' Haco's ness ' or ' nose.' 
Cf. Hackthorpe (Penrith) and Haconby (Bourne). But a farm 
called Hack- or Ack-bury (Brewood, Staffs) is a. 1300 Herke- 
barewe and 1304 Erkebarwe, ' burial-mound of ' an unidentifi- 
able man. 

Hackney (London), c. 1250 Hackenaye, Hacquenye; temp. 
Edw. IV. Hackeney or Hackney. ' Isle of Hacca, Hacco/ or 

* Hacun '; several so-called in Onom. See -ey. Nothing to do 
with hackney, the ' horse/ which is O.Fr. haquenee, and not 
found in Eng.before about 1330. Of. Hagboubne (Wallingford), 
a. 900 chart. Hacca broce, Dom. Hacheborne, 1291 Hakeburn. 

Haddenham (Thame and Ely). Th. H. Dom. Hadena; El. H. 
K.G.D. vi. 98 Haedanham; c. 1080 Inquis. Gamb. Hadenham, 
Hsederham, Hadreham ; Dom. Hadreham; 1300 Hadenham. 

* Home of Hceda ' or ' Heada.' The forms with r pro n are due 
to a common confusion of liquids. C/. Haden. 

Haddon Hall (Bakewell). Dom. Hadun(a), O.E. for 'high hill/ 
hedh, ' high.'' Cf. a ' Hadune ' (Notts), in Eoll Rich. I. 

Haden Cross (Dudley). Named fr. a family long resident here. 
A family of Haden is found at Rowley Regis in 1417. (7/. Had- 

Hadfield (Manchester). Not in W. and H. Cf. 778 chart. 'To 
hadfelde 3eate.' This cannot mean 'head field,' but will be 
' field of Hadd, Hada, Hadde, or Headda/ names all found in 
Onom. Cf. Dom. Essex Hadfelda. Not the same as Hatfield. 

Hadleigh (Suffk.) and Hadley (Droitwich) . Suf . H., not in Dom., 
a. 1200 Heddele, still the local pron. Dr. H. 1275 Hedley. 
Prob. ' Headda's meadow.' But Hadley (Wellington, Salop) 
is said to be old Hsethleigh, O.E. hceth, ' a moor, a heath.' It is 
Dom. Hatlege, and in Dom. medial th regularly becomes d. 
Hadsor. (Droitwich) is a. 1100 Headesofre, Dom. Hadesore, 1275 
Haddesovere. ' Bank, edge of Headda/ O.E. ofr, obr, ' bank, 
brink, edge.' See -or. 

Hadstocb: (Cambridge). 1494 i^a^^/aTi Hadestok. Cf. R.Rich I. 
Hadestache (Derby) . Either ' place of Hadde or Headda,' see 
Hadfield; or fr. hade sb^ Oxf. Diet, 'a strip of land left un- 
ploughed, as a boundary, etc' Found in 1523. Stock is the 
same root as stake. 


Haggerston (London). Dom. Hergotestane. Either ' stone of 
Hcergod, Heregod, or Heregyth/ all in Onom. ; or ' stone of the 
heriot/ O.E. here-geatu, a feudal service, now commuted to 
a money payment on the death of a tenant. See Oxf. Diet, 
s.v. HERIOT. But there is or was a Haggerston (Co. Durham), 
1183 Agardeston, 1213 Hagardeston, which must be fr. a man 
Haggard, O.Fr. Agard, still a surname. 

Hagley (Stourbridge). Dom. Hageleia, a. 1200 Hageleg. The 
first half is thought to be N., though such names are very rare 
in this shire. O.N. hagi, Sw. hage, ' enclosed field, pasture,' not 
found in Eng., as hag sb^, until 1589. Moreprob. is derivation 
from O.E. haga, with the same meaning, cognate with O.E. 
hege, ' a hedge.' The -ley (q.v.) is ' meadow.' Cf. Haglow 
(Awre), old Hagloe. See -low. This may be fr. a man Agga, 
short for Agamund, a common name, as a form Aggemede is 
found for Hagmede, also in Glouc. 

Haigh and Haighton (see Hatjghton). 

^Saikable (Westmld.) . Said to be High Cop Gill or ' ravine ' ; fr. 
O.N. hd-r kopp-r, ' high top (of a hiU).' See -gill. 

Hailes (Glouc.) and Hales (Mkt. Drayton). Dom. Hales (?), 
a. 1400 Hali, Hales. Glos. H. Dom. Heile, c. 1386 Chaucer 
Hayles. O.E. healh, dat. heale, Mercian halh, hale, ' a nook, 
corner, secret-place,' with common Eng. pi. Some make it 
' meadow-land by a river, a haugh.' See -hall. Hale (Arre- 
ton, I. of W.) is Dom. Atehalle, ' nook of Ata/ 2 in Onom., 
where the personal name has fallen away. We have the simple 
Hale also at Liverpool, Altrincham, Glostersh., and Chingford. 
The pi. s is usually late. 

Hailsham (Sussex). Not in Dom. 1230 Close R. Eilesham. 
' Home of Mia,' 1 in Onom. 

Hainault Forest (Essex). Old Henholt. This old form tends to 
bar out connection with Hainhault or Phihppa of Hainhault, 
Germany, consort of Edward III. Some think it is, O.E. hkin 
(inflected form of heah), holt, ' high wood.' As likely hen 
represents Dan. hegna, ' a hedge, an enclosure,' O.N. hegna, ' to 
enclose.' Dom. Essex has only Henham. 

Hainton (Lincoln), Dom. Hagetone, Haintone, -tun, and Hain- 
WORTH (Yorks), Dom. Hageneworde. Prob. fr. same man as 
in Haunton (Tamworth), 942 Hagnatun, a. 1300 Hagheneton, 
and in Hanyard, 1227 Hagonegate, Hageneyate. ' Town ' 
and ' farm of Hagene.' See -worth. 

Haisthorpe (Yorks). Dom. Aschil-, Ascheltorp, Haschetorp. 
' Place of ^s- or Ascytel,' var. Askyl, Aschil. See Asselby and 

Hakin (IMilford Haven). Sometimes thought to be fr. the Norse 
Xing Haco{n) (? which). Such an origin would be contrary to 


analogy. It may be corrup. of haven. Cf. Copen-hagen, 

' merchants' haven/ 
Halam (see Hallam). 
Hale (see Hatles). 
Halesowen (Worstrsh.). Dom. Halas, 1276 Halesowayn, 1286 

Halesowen. See Hailes. The Owen comes fr. David ap 

Owen, prince of N.Wales, who married Emma, sister of Henry II., 

in 1174. 
Halfoed (Shipston and Stourbridge). Ship. H. 950 cTiart. Halh- 

ford, 1176 Haleford. ' Ford at the meadow-land,' or ' haugh,' 

O.E. healh ; see -hale, -hall. But St. H. is 1343 Oldeforde. 

Halifax. Curious name. It seems always (see below) to have 
been so spelt, since the founding of the Church of St. John the 
Baptist here soon after 1100. If so, it must be O.E. Mlig feax, 
' holy (2-4 kali) locks ' or ' head of hair,' perh. referring to some 
picture of the head of St. John. On the strength of a compari- 
son with Carfax (see Oxf. Diet, s.v.), it is often said to mean 
' holy fork ' or ' holy roads,' converging as in a fork, L. furca. 
Carfax is first found in 1357 Carfuks, and not till 1527 as Carf axe, 
so this origin seems quite untenable. Perh. the earliest original 
document which names the place is a letter, c. 1190, which 
speaks of ' ignotse ecclesise de HaHflex,' where the I seems to be a 
scribe's error, and -flex must be feax. ' Holy flax ' would make 
no sense. In Dom. it seems to be called Feslei. Can the Fes- 
be feax too ? 

Halkin (Holywell). Dom. Alchene, a puzzling form. But, as the 
village now lies at the foot of a hill called Helygen, this is prob. 
the origin. It means in W. ' a willow-tree.' 

Hallam (Sheffield). Dom. Hallun. An old loc, 'on the slopes,' 
O.N. hall-r, ' a slope'; cf. La Haule, Jersey. Halam (South- 
well) is also in chart, set Halum, 1541 Halom. For a N. word 
taking on an Eng. loc. form, cf. Holme-on-the-Wolds. Hallen 
(Henbury), old Hel(l)en, may be fr. W. helen, ' salt '; but this is 

Halulford (Shepperton). 969 chart. Halgeford, inflected form of 
O.E. haligford, ' holy ford,' 1316 Halgheford. 

Hallikeld (Yorks). O.N. heilag-r kelda, 'holy well or spring.' 
O.E. hdlig, 'holy.' Cf. Gunnerskeld and 1202 Fines Helghe- 

Hallingbury (Bp's. Stortford). Dom. HaUngheberia. 'Burgh, 
town of the sons of ? ' Older forms needed to identify this 
patronymic ; ? fr. Halig or Healfdene. See -ing. 

Hallington (Corbridge, Northumbld.). Cf. 806 chart. Hahngton, 
in the Midlands. Prob. a patronymic, 'Haling or Hayling's 
town.' Cf. Hayling I. 

Halloughton (see Haughton). 


Hallow (Worcester) . 816 chart. Heallingan, Halhegan, Halheogan, 
963 ib. Hallege, Dom. Halhegan, 1275 Haliawe. A very puzzling 
name. It surely must be meant to represent hallow, * a saint,' 
then, ' the shrine of a saint/ O.E. ha^a, hah,e, pi. hah,an, 2 hale- 
chen ; whilst Heall- Hal- does look as if it had something to do 
with -hall iq.v.), 

Ha(l)lsall (Ormskirk). 1224 Haleshal, 1312 Halesale, 1320-46 
Halsale, 1394 Halsalle. Prob. ' hall of Hala ' or some such 
name; Halga is the nearest in Onom. Were the name late it 
might be ' Hal's hall.' Cf. ' Halsam ' in a grant of a. 675, near 
Chertsey, Halstead, Halstock, and Dom. Halstune (Salop), also 
Halsham (Yorks), Dom. Halsam, -em. For the ending -all cf. 
Walsall, etc., and see -hall. 

Halton (8 in P.O.). Leeds H. Dom. Halletun. Graven H. Dom. 
Haltone, Alton, 1179-80 Pi'pe Aleton. Tring H. Dom. Haltone. 
' Village with the hall or mansion.' See -hall and -ton. But 
Dom. Yorks, Haltun, is now Great Houghton, and 1160-61 
Pipe Nhbld., Haulton, prob. has a similar origin. 

Haltwhistle (Garlisle). 1178 Arbroath Chart. Haucwy - Htle 
(scribe's error), 1220 ib. Hauetwisel; later in same chart. Haut- 
wisil, -twysill, 1553 Hawtwesyll, a. 1600 Hartweseil. Local 
pron. Haw-tessel. The first syll. is doubtful. Some say, O.E. 
hawe, ' a look-out.' The likeliest origin is O.E. hdwi twisla, 
' bluish-grey confluence,' where Haltwhistle burn joins Tyne ; 
O.E. hdwi, hkbwi, hcewi, 6-9 haw, ' bluish, greyish, or greenish 
blue,' and see Twizel. Cf. chart. ' Hocgetwisle ' (Hants), and 
Oswaldtwistle (Accrington) . 

Halveegate (Norwich). Dom. Halfriate, 1157 Halvergiata. O.N. 
halfr gat (O.E. geat), 'the half gate,' ? one which only closed 
the entrance half-way up. 

Ham (Hungerford, Richmond, and Essex). Es. H. 969 chart. 
Hamme, O.E. for ' enclosure.' See -ham. But Hambrook 
(WinterlDourne), Dom. Hambroc, may be O.E. hean broc, ' at 
the high brook.' 

Hamble, R. (Solent). Bede Homelea, c. 1450 Fortescue Hammelle 
Ryce and Hammelle the Hoole. M'Clure suggests that this 
may be an aspirated form of R. Gamel ; but the name is doubtful. 

Hambledon (Godalming and Cosham). God. H. O.E. chart. 
Hamaelendun, Dom. Hameledone, ' Hamela's fort.' Also Ham- 
bleton (Selby and Preston). Both Dom. Hamelton, fr. the same 

Hamerton (Hunts). Dom. Hambertune, and Great Hammerton 
(W. Riding), Dom. Hanbretune, look as if fr. an inflected form 
of the common name Heahbeorht — Hanbeorht, Hanbert, or the 
like. But Hammerton (Yorks), Dom,. Hamereton, seems 
' town oifHaimhere or Haimheardus or Haimerus,' a name still 


surviving as Hamar. Cf. Hammersmith and -wich; also Dom. 
'Nik., Hameringahala. 

Hammer (Haslemere and Prescot). Not in Dom. O.E. heah mere, 
' high pool ' or ' lake." Seen inflected in the name Hanmer. 
Cf. Abestger Hammer and Emmer; also Hampole. 

Hammersmith (London). Seems to have no old forms, and no 
history before Chas. I. ' Hermodewode/ mentioned in Enc. 
Brit., cannot be the same name. Nor can the place be called 
from the artisan hammersmith, found in Eng. fr. 1382. There 
is no such place-name in England. Prob. it is ' Hamer's smite/ 
O.E. smite, a rare word, prob. meaning 'a bog, a morass.' 
See Smite, Dom. Smithh. It can hardly be ' Hamer's Mythe ' 
or river-mouth, as there is none such here. Cf. Hamerton. 

Hammerwich (Lichfield) . Dom. Humerwiche, c. 1200 Hamerwich, 
a. 1300 Homerwich. ' Dwelling, village of Homer ' or ' Hamar.' 
Cf. Hamerton and Homerton (E. London). 

Hamose (Anchorage, Plymouth). ' Home (shelter) among the 
ooze,"' M.E. oaze, wose, O.E. wos, ' juice.' See -ham. 

Hampole (Doncaster). Dom. Hanepol, which is an inflected form 
for O.E. hean pal, ' high pool.' Cf. Hammer and Hanley. 

Hampshire, O.E. Chron. 755 Hamtfinscire, c. 1097 Fhr. Wore. 
Hantunscire. Hamtun is O.E. for ' home town,' which as a 
place-name is spelt Hampton. There is a R. Hamps (N.E. 
Stafld.), but it seems impossible to guess its origin, though 
Duignan connects with the vb. hamper. It is a river so ' ham- 
pered ' that it totally disappears undergroimd for a time. 
Hampen (GIouc.) is Dom. Hagenpene, ' fold of Hagan.' 

Hampstead (London), and Hampstead Marshall and Norris 
(Berks). Lo. H. Dom. Hamestede. O.E. hdm-stede, 'home- 
stead, home-place or farm.' Cf. Ashampstead (Pangboum), 
1307 Ashamsted, and Finchamstead (Berks), Dom. Finchame- 
stede, ' homestead with the finches.' Hampstead Marshall 
was in possession of Roger le Bygod, Earl of Norfolk and Lord 
Marshal of England, in 1307. Norris is fr. the Norman family 
of Norreys. There is also a Hamstead (Handsworth), a. 1400 
Hamp- and Hamstede, and Dunhampstead (Droitwich), 804 
chart. Dunhamstyde, 972 Bunhsemstede. Hampnett (Glouc), 
Dom. Hantone, but Kirhy's Quest. Hamptoneth, may be for 
' Hampton heath.' 

Hampton and Hampton Court (London; 11 Hamptons in P.O.). 
781 Synod of Brentford Homtune, Dom. Hamntune, 1402 Hamp- 
ton, 1514 7ease Hampton Courte, also Dom. Hantone (Chesh.), 
Hantuna (Essex). O.E. ham has as one of its earliest, if not its 
earhest meaning, ' village,' so ham-tun will mean ' enclosed, forti- 
fied village,' or else ' house, home.' The letter p has a habit of 
intruding itself where not needed. Cf. Bampton, Brompton, etc. 


Hampton -Lucy (Stratford, Wwk.). c. 1062 chart. Heamtun, Dom. 
Hantone, and Hampton-in-Akden, Dom. Hantone, a. 1200 
Hantune in Arden, are O.E. hean tun, inflected form of ' high 
town/ hmh, ' high/ C/. Hanbuby. H.-Lucy has been held 
by the Lucy family from the time of Q. Mary. Hampton Gay 
(Oxon.) is also Heantun in 958. 

Hamstall Ridwarb (Rugeley). 1004 Rideware, Dom. Riduare, 
a. 1300 Rydewar Ham{p)stal. O.E. hamsteall, 'homestead.' 
Cf. c. 1200 chart. Whalley Abbey Hamstalesclogh. Ridware 
Duignan is prob. right in thinking to be Ridwara, ' dwellers on 
the rhyd' ; only that in W. means 'ford' not 'river/ Cf. 
Cantebbuby, etc. 

Hanbury (Broitwich, Bromsgrove, Burton-on-T., and Oxfordsh.). 
Dr. H. 691 chart. Heanburg, 757 ib. Heanbnrh, Hanbiri, 796 ib. 
Heanbyrig. Bro. H. 836 chart. Heanbyrg, Dom. Hambyrie. 
Bur. H. a. 1300 Hamburi, -bury, a. 1400*^ Hanbury, 1430 Ham- 
bury. Ox. H. Dom. Haneberge, 1495 Hanburye. O.E. hkin 
byrg is ' high burgh,' even as Hampton is often ' high town.' 
But in both cases ham may be ' home ' ; prob. not. Henbuby 
(Bristol), 691 chart. Heanburg, Dom. Henberie, is, of course = 
Hanbuby. Of. next and Heneield. See -bury. 

Hanchubch (Trentham). Dom. Hancese (-cese for -circe), 1296 
Hanchurch. O.E. hean circe, ' high church.' 

Handbobough or Hanbobough (Woodstock). Dom. Haneberge, 
prob. O.E. hean beorge, 'high hill.'; beorgis, 'a mountain, a hill, 
a mound,' and heah is ' high,' gen. hean. It may be ' cocks' 
hill,' O.E. hana, ' a cock,' han-cred, ' cock-crow.' 

Handforth (Manchester). Some think this is 'ford (g.v.) with a 
hand-rail across it.' But Handswobth (Sheffield) is Dom. 
Handeswrde, fr. a man Hand, while Handsworth (Birmingham) 
is Dom. Honeswrde, a. 1200 Hones-, Hunesworth, a. 1300 
Hunnesworth, ' farm of Hona ' or ' Hunna.' See -worth. 

Hanging Grove (Hanley Child), Hanging Heaton (Dewsbury), 
and Hanging Houghton (Nthmptn.). Dew. H. Dom. Etun, 
Nor. H. not in Dom. 1230 Close R. Hangadehout. Hanging 
is corrup. of O.E. hangra, ' a wood on a sloping hill.' Cf. 
BmcHANGER, etc. The -dehout in 1230 seems to mean ' of 
Hout,' an unrecorded name. Houghton is always a difficult 
name. See, too, Heaton, and cf. Hangerbury Hill (Glouc). 

Hankham (Hastings). 947 chart. Hanecan ham, prob. this place, 
Dom. Henecha'. ' Home of Haneca.' Cf. Dom. Bucks, Hane- 
chedene. 947 cannot be, as some think, Hanham Abbots 
(Winterbourne), Dom. Hanun, -on, c. 1170 Hanum, which seems 
to be the old loc. common in Yorks, ' at Hana'?,.' See -ham. 
But Hankerton (Malmesbury) is 1282 Haneketon. fr. the same 
name as Hankham. 


Hanley (3 in Wore, and Staffs). Dom. Hanlege, -lie (Upton-on- 
Sevem), 817 Heanley (Tenbury), Dom. Hanlege, 1275 Childre- 
hanle (Hanley Child), 1332 Hanley (Potteries). Perh. all O.E. 
Tiean lege, ' high meadow.' Cf. Hanbury. Childre- is gen. pi, of 
child. But it is to be noted that there are 2 called Hana in Onom. 
{cf. Honley) ; whilst Hanney (Berks) is 956 chart. Hannige, Dom. 
Hannei, 'isle of the cock/ O.E. hana. Cf. Dom. Salop, Hanelev. 

Hanwell (Ealing). Dom. Hanewelle. All these names in Han- 
are doubtful as to the first syll. Hanwell must be interpreted 
as Hanley is, and cf. Hanbuby. But, to show how uncertain 
the ground is, Hanyard (Stafford) is 1227 Hagonegate, Hagene- 
yate, with which cf. Haunton (Tamworth), 942 chart. Hagnatun, 
a. 1300 Hagheneton, Hanneton, ' Hagene'a gate ' and ' town.' 

Happisburgh (Norwich). Dom. Hapesburc, 1450 Happysborough. 
Local pron. Hazeboro'. The name is sometimes spelt Haisboro' 
and Hazebro'. The contractions are interesting; the z sound 
is rare in such a case. ' Town of Happi/ though Heppo is 
the nearest name in Onom. See -burgh. 

Habberton (see Market Harborough). 

Harbledown (Canterbury). Not in Dom-. 1360 (letter of a Fr. 
chaplain) Helbadonne. 'Hill, down, O.E. dun, of Harble/ 
which is prob. the O.E. Heardbeald, 1 such in Onom. 

Harborne (Birmingham). Dom. Horebome, c. 1300 Horebum, 
a. 1400 Horboume; -bourne (q.v.) is 'brook.' O.E. hdr, M.E. 
hor{e) is ' hoar, hoary, grey, old,' but har or hare often also 
means ' boundary,' and this place is on the border between 
Staffs, and Worcestersh. Of. Harome and Hoar Cross; also 
Harridge (Redmarley), 1275Horerugge, ' ridge on the boundary ' 
between Worcester and Hereford. 

Harborough, Great and Little (Rugby). 1004 chart. Here- 
burgebyrig, Dom. Herdeberge, a. 1300 Herdebergh, -berwe, 
Herburburi. ' Hereburh's town.' See -borough. But Har- 
bury (Leamington) is Dom. Edburberie, Erbur(ge)berie — i.e., 
' Eadburh's burgh ' (see -borough) ; whilst Harburston (Pem- 
broke) is 1307 Herbraundyston, fr. Herbrand, an early Flemish 
settler. Harby (Notts) is Dom. Herdebi, cf. Hardwick. 

Harbottlb (Rothbury). Sic 1595. O.E. hdr botl, 'hoary, grey 
house.' Of. O.N. hdr-r, and Newbattle (Sc). 

Harden (Walsall), a. 1400 Haworthyn, -werthyn, -wardyne, 1648 
Harden. O.E. heah worthyn, ' high farm.' See -wardine. It 
has now the same pron., but has not quite the same meaning, 
as Hawarden. Harden (Yorks) is Dom. Heldetone, or ' town 
on the slope,' O.E. hylde, helde. 

HARDrsTGSTONE St. Edmunds (Northampton). Dom. Hardinge- 
stone, but c. 1123 Hardingestroona. Thought to be a corrup. 
of * Harding's thorn.' Also Hardington-Mandeville (Yeovil), 


Dom. Hardintone. Two Hardings in Onom. Cf. Ardington 
and Hardington (Lamington, Sc). See -ton and its inter- 
change with -stone. 

Hardwick(e). There are said to be 26 in England. Cambs. H. 
c. 1080 Inquis Cam. and K.C.D. iv. 245 Hardwic, 1171 Herd- 
wice, Dom. Glouc, Herdeuuic; Bucks, Harduich, -uic; Yorks, 
Hardwic and Arduuic; Durham H. 1183 Herdewyk, 1197 
Herdewich; Lines. H. Dom. Harduic, 1204 Herduic. Also 
K.C.D. iv. 288 Heordewica, perh. in Northants. Usually de- 
rived fr. herd, ' herd's, shepherd's dwelling/ Skeat insisted 
that it could be nothing else, pointing to the form Heordewica, 
and to the fact that by rule eo in O.E. becomes a in our time. 
This is indisputable. There is also a word Jierdwick (see Oxf. 
Diet, s.v.) — Dom. 'iii. hardvices,' ? c. 1150 herdewica, 1537 herd- 
wyk, which is explained as ' the tract of land under the charge 
of a herd or shepherd ... a sheep farm.' But there is this diffi- 
culty, that, except occasionally in Northumbld., herd is never 
^ pron. hard ; and according to Oxf. Diet, neither O.E. heard, 
hiord, 3- herd, ' a flock, a herd,' nor hirde, hierde, ' a shepherd,' 
were ever spelt hard. So that the name, in some of its many occur- 
rences, must have been thought to be O.E. heard wic, ' hard, 
solid dwelling,' hard being given as 2-4 herd. Hahdwick 
Priors (Southam) used to belong to the monks of Coventry. 
But curiously Duignan can give no early forms for either of the 
Warwk. Hardwicks. He, however, gives a. 1300 Hordewyke 
for Hardwick (Eldersfield, Worstrsh.). See -wick. 

Harewood (Leeds), a. 1142 Wm. Malmesb. Harewode. O.E. 
hara-wudu, ' hares' wood.' Cf. Harwell. But Haresfield 
(Glouc), Dom. Hersefeld, 1179 Harsefelde, is ' field of Hersa,' 
though Onom. has only Heorstan. 

Harkstead (Ipswich). Dom. Herchestede. ' Stead, steading, or 
dweUing -place of Heorc ' or ' Hark,' still a surname. Onom. has 
only one Hercus. 

Harlaston (Tamworth) and Harleston (Bungay). Tam. H. 
1004 cJuirt. HeorKestun, c. 1100 ib. Heorlaveston, Dom. Horulve- 
stune, a. 1200 (H)erlaveston(e), a. 1300 Horlaveston. Bun. H. 
K.C.D. 1298 Heorulfes tun, Dom. Heroluestuna. ' Eeoruwulf's ' 
or * Heorelfs town ' ; 2 in Onom. 

Harlech (Barmouth) . W. hardd llech, ' beautiful rock.' So named, 
it is said, when Edw. I. built a castle here. 

Harley (Rotherham and Much Wenlock). Rot. H. 1179-80 Her- 
lega. Mu. H. Dom. Harlege. Prob. North. O.E. for ' higher 
meadow,' O.E. Mah, hiera, Angl. hera, in 5 har, her. See -ley. 

Harlxngton (Hounslow and Dunstable). Ho. H. Dom. Herding- 
ton, but Du. H. Dom. Herlingdone. ' Town of Harding.' See 
Hardingstone. There is no name like Harding in Onom., but 
cf. Harlton and the N. Erling. 


Harlow Heath and Cab (Harrogate). Prob. 'grey, hoary-look- 
ing hill/ O.E. hdr, O.N. Mr-r, and see -low. Car is either O.E. 
can, ' a rock/ or N. kjarr, ' copse, brush wood.' Of. Dom. Essex, 

Harlton (Cambridge), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Harle-, Herletona, 
1339 Harleton. Prob. ' Herla's village.' Of. Harlaston and 
Harston, also Harlsey, E. and W. (N. Riding), Dom. Herelsaie, 
Herlesege, Herselaige, ' isle of Herla.' See -ey. 

Harnhill (Cirencester). Dom. Harehille, c. 1300 HarenhuU. Prob. 
' grey hill,' O.E. har, -an, ' grey, hoary.' Cf. Harridge in same 

Harold (Beds), old hare weald, and Harold Wood (Romford). 
Prob. both O.E. hara weald, ' hare wood ' or ' forest region.' 
Dom. Beds, has only Hareunelle, and it is not in Dom. 


Harome (Nawton, Yorks) . Dom. Harem, Harun, which last must 
be a loc. ' at the boundaries,' O.E. Mr. Cf. Hallam, Har- 
BORNE, etc. 

Harpenden (Herts). 1250 Harpendene, 1298 Harpeden, and cf. 
966 in B.C.S. iii. 435 Of fsere grae^an hane and lang hearpdene. 
' Dean, woody vale of the harp,' O.E. hearpe. Skeat, however, 
prefers to derive fr. a man Herp. Cf. B.C.S. 34, Herpes ford — 
i.e., Harpford (Devon). There is also a Harpsden (Henley- 
on-Thames). The differing genitives, -en and -es, are against 
identifying all three. Note, too, Harpham (E. Riding), Dom. 
Harpein, where the ending is prob. a corrupt loc. as in 
Hallam, etc., and Harpley (Worcstrsh.), 1275 Arpeley, 

Harperley (Co. Durham). 1183 Harperleia. The 'meadow of 
the harper,' O.E. hearpere, O.N. harpari. See -ley. 

Harrdstgay (N. London), a. 1300 Haringee, of which Hornsey 
is a corruption. As in Harrington (Cumbld. and Northants) 
and Harringworth (Kettering), Earring must be, surely, a 
man's name, possibly a patronymic. There is one Hearing in 
Onom., and Herring is still an Eng. surname. See -ing. The 
-gee in a. 1300 is perh. the rare O.E. ge, 'region,' which 
Skeat thought to be found in Ely, Bede's El-ge. But see 
also -ay. Cf. Herringby. 

Harrogate. The original name, a. 1600, was Haywra or Heywray, 
* hedged-in corner or landmark,' O.N. Mgi (O.E. hege), ' a hedge,' 
and wrda, ' comer, turn, landmark.' Cf. Wrawby. Hay and 
haw are very near of kin, and both mean ' hedge,' and haw-iora 
could easily refine into Harro-; while -gate is O.N. gata, ' a way, 
a road,' not the same as the common Eng. gate, ' a door.' 
Possibly the first syll. is O.E. heah, 3-5 hei, hey, 'high.' Cf. 
Haverah and Wray. 


Harrow-on-the-Hill. Perh. 767 chart. Gmneninga hergae. Dom. 
Herges, later Hareways, 1616 Visscher Haroue on the hill. 
Possibly O.E. h(Brg, hearg, 'a heathen temple/ Of. Pepper- 
harrow, 1147 Peper Harow. The sb. Jmrrow is not found in 
Eng. till a. 1300, as haru, harwe, and so cannot be thought of 

Harston (Cambridge and Grantham). Not in Dom. Camb. H. 
1291 Hardeleston, 1298 Hardlistone, 1316 Hardlestone. Prob. 
' Hardulf or Heardvmlfs village ' (Skeat). 

Harswell (York). Dom. Ersewelle. More old forms needed. 
Perh. fr. a man Erra, 1 in Onom. Perh. fr. O.E. har, ' a bound- 
ary.' Cf. Harome. Hardly = Harwell. 

Hartington (Buxton). Not in Dom. ? c. 1150 Grant ' Herte- 
dona in Pecco (Peak).' The central r prob. represents a gen., 
'hart's hill,' O.E. herot, heorot, 'a hart, a stag.' The endings 
-don and -ton often interchange (q.v.) . 

Hartlebury (Kidderminster). 817 and 980 cJiart. Heortlabyrig, 
985 ib. Heortlanbyrig, Dom. Huertberie, a. 1200 Hertlebery, 
' Burgh of Heortla,' otherwise unknown ; but cf. Harford (North- 
leach), which is 779 chart. lorotlaford, not in Dom. ; also Irth- 


Hartlepool. Bede Heruteu, id est. Insula Cervi; O.E. vsn., c. 850 
Herotea. Herot, herut, or heorut is O.E. for ' hart, stag,' the 
ending -eu is a variant of -ey, 'island' (q.v.); whilst ea means 
' a stream, water,' which points on to the later ending -pool, 
1211 Hartepol, 1305 Hertelpol. The letter I not seldom in- 
trudes itself. See p. 82. 

Hartley Wintney (Winchfield). Prob. Dom. Hardelie (? fr. a 
man Heard), and prob. Grant of a. 675 Hertlys, Hertlye — a 
spelling which must be much later than the original grant. 
' Hart's meadow.' See above, and -ley. Wintney is ' Winton's 
isle.' See Winchester. HLirtlip (Sittingbourne) is c. 1250 
chart. Hertlepe, ' hart's leap.' Cf. Birdlip. 

Harton (Yorks and S.' Shields) . Yor. H. Dom. Heretun. Cf. Dom. 
Haretone (Cheshire). Doubtful. O.E. here is 'an army'; 
but cf. Harwell. Hartpitry (Glouc), 1221 Hardpirie, Bad- 
deley thinks 'pear-tree,' O.E. pirige, ' of ' some unknown man. 
Could it not be simply fr. hard, as almost all its old forms seem 
to indicate ? 

Hartshill (Atherstone). Dom. Ardreshille, a. 1200 Hardredes- 
hulle, Hardreshulle. ' Heardred's hill,' regularly in Midland 
M.'E. hull{e). This is a name to bid one beware ! But Harts - 
HEAD (Liversedge) is Dom. Horteseve, for O.E. heortes heafod, 
' hart's head ' or ' height,' while Harthill (Sheffield) is Dom. 
Hertil. With this last cf. Hartell or Hartle (Belbroughton), 
1275 Herthulle, ' hart hill.' 


Habvington (Chaddesley Corbett). 1275 Herewinton, 1340 Her- 
wynton. ' Hereivine's town/ But H., Evesham, is 709 chart. 
Herefordtune, 963 ib. Herefordtun juxta Avene, Dom. Herfer- 
thun, 1275 Herrfortune. Here-ford-tune is, of course, ' town 
of the ford of the army/ The corruption is very remarkable. 

Harwell (Steventon). O.E. chart. Haranwylle, Dom. Harwelle, 
Harowelle. Skeat says the man ' Hare or Hara'a well,' O.E. 
hara means ' a hare ' ; but the sign of the gen. suggests a per- 
sonal name. Hare- or H!arwell (Notts) is Dom. Herewelle, 
prob. fr. O.E. here, 'an army.' 

Harwich. Not in Dom. a. 1300 Herewica, Herewyck. O.E. 
here-wic, ' army-dwelling, camp.' See -wich. 

Hasbury (Halesowen), a. 1300 Haselburi. O.E. hasel byrig or 
beorh, ' hazel town ' or ' hill.' Cf. Hasler, and Hascombe 
(Godalming), not in Dom. But Haseield (Glouc), Dom. Has- 
Hesfelde, is prob. fr. O.E. ham, haso, ' grey,' though c. 1300 we 
have Hersfelde. Gf. Dom. Wilts, Haseberie. See -bury. 

BLaselor (Alcester), Haselour (Tamworth), and Hasler (Solent). 
Al. H. Dom. Haselove, a. 1300 Haselovere, Ta. H. a. 1300 
Hazeloure, a. 1400 Haselovere. O.E. haesel, haesl ofer, ' hazel 
bank ' or ' border.' Cf. Haseley (Wwk.), Dom. Haseleia, and 
Asher; also Hasilden (Glouc), Dom. Hasedene, 1274 Hasilton. 
See -over. 

Haslingeield (Cambridge). Dom. HasHngefeld, 1284 Haseling- 
feld. Patronymic, ' field of the HcesUngs ' or ' sons of Hazel,' 
still a personal name. O.E. hcesel, hcesl, 'the hazel-tree.' Cf. 
Hasltngden (Lanes), Haslington (Chesh.), and Heslestgton 
(Yorks), Dom. Hashnton. 

Hassocks (Sussex). O.E. hassuc, ' a clump of matted vegetation,' 
then ' a clump of bushes or low trees.' Cf. {K.C.D. 655) 986 
chart. On one hassuc upp an hrofan hricge. 

Hastings. 1011 O.E. Chron. Haestingas, 1191 chart. Barones de 
Hastingiis. Patronymic; at first a shire distinct from Sussex, 
prob. called after the E. Saxon vildng, Hasten{g), who landed 
at the mouth of the Thames, O.E. Chron. ann. 893. Cf. Croix 
Hastain, Jersey. 

Hatch Beauchamp (Taunton), Dom. Hache, and Hatch End 
(Middlesex). Cf. Dom. Nfk. and Salop, Hach(e). O.E. hcec 
3-7 hacche, 4 hach, ' a hatch ' — i.e., ' a half-door, gate, or wicket- 
then, any small gate or wicket.' Cf. Colney Hatch. 

Hatcham (S. London) = Atcham. 

Hatfield (Worcstr., Herts, Doncaster, Holderness). Wor. H. 1275 
Hathfeld, Her. H. Dom. Hetfelle, later Hethfeld, Don. H. Bede 
Hethfeld, c. 850 O.E. vsn. Hse])felda, Hoi. H. Dom. Hedfeld. 
O.E. hoB\> felda, ' heath field, open field.' But Great Hatfield 
(Hull) is Dom. Haie-, Hai -feld or -felt— i.e., ' hay field,' O.E. 
hie^, he^, 2-4 hei, 3-7 hey{e), O.N. hey, ' hay.' Cf. Heathfield. 


Hatford (Berks). Dom. Hevaford (meant for Hevadford), a. 1300 
Havedlord, 1420 Hautford. O.E. heafod-ford, ' head-ford, chief 

Hatherleigh (Devon), Exon. Dom. Hadreleia, and Hatherley 
(Glouc), 1022 chart. Hegberle (? fr. O.E. hea^ burh, ' high castle 
lea'), Dom. Athelai, 1150 Haiderleia, 1177 Hedrelega, 1221 
Hathirlege. All except 1022 clearly ' heather meadow.' This 
is. interesting, as Oxf. Diet.' 8 earhest form is 1335 hathir, and it 
thinks it must be quite Northern, while postulating an orig. 
hcedder, hceddre. Cf. Uttoxeter. But Hatherop (Fairford), 
Dom. Etherope, 1148 Haethrop, 1275 Hatrope, 1294 Haythorp, 
Baddeley makes ' hedged village,' O.E. hege, M.E. heie, ' a 
hedge.' See next, -leigh and -thorpe. 

Hatherton (Nantwich and Cannock). Can. H. 996 chart. Hagen- 
thorndun — i.e., ' hawthorn hill ' — Dom. Hargedone, a. 1300 
Hatherdone, -dene, Hetherdon. An instructive list ! See above. 

Hatley St. George (Sandy). K.G.D. iv. 300 Hsettanlea, Dom. 
" Hatelai, Atelai, 1284 Hattele. Cf. Dom. Hatlege (Salop). 
' Hcetta's lea,' See -ley. 

Hatton (4 in P.O.). Duignan says, all Midland Hattons are O.E. 
hceth-tun, ' town on the heath.' Cf. Hateield. None in Dom. 

Haxjghton (Stafford), Dom. Haltone, a. 1200 Halecton, a. 1300 
Halechtone, Haluch-, Haleg-tone; Haughton Green (Man- 
chester), 1314 Halghton; Haughton-le-Skerne (Darhngton), 
a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Halhtun, 1183 Halctona, later Halughton. 
This last is also the spelling of a place in Leicester, chart. 
Edw. III. Thus Halloughton (Kingsbury) is the same name, 
a. 1400 Halghton, Halugh-, Haluton ; the Notts one is 1291 Halton. 
O.E. healh, halh, 2-3 halech, 4-7 hawgh, 5-haugh, 'a flat meadow 
by a riverside.' Cf. Haigh (Wigan), Halugh (Bolton), Halton 
and Haigh ton (N. Lanes), Dom. Hale tun and Houghton ; also see 
-hall and -ton. Skerne is a river. But Haughton (Notts), 
Dom. Hoctun, 1278 Hockton, Mutschmann derives fr. a man Hoc. 

Haunton. See Hanwell. 

Hatjxley -ON -Coquet, a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Hafodscalfe, which is 
prob. O.E. heafodes scelfe (O.N. skjdlf-r), 'head, of the shelf or 
ledge of rock.' The corruption is curious. 

Hauxton (Cambridge), c. 1060 Hauekstune, Dom. Havochestun, 
1316 Haukestone. 'Village of Hafoc' — i.e., 'the Hawk,' still 
a personal name. Gf. Hawkesbury (Coventry), Hawksworth 
and Hauxwell (Yorks), Dom. Hauocswelle. 

Havant (Portsmouth). O.E. chart. Hamanfunta, 'fountain, font, 
well of Hama,' 4 in Onom. The present form is simply a phonetic 
wearing down of the O.E. name. Dom. is Havehunte, where 
the h is prob. error for/. Cf. Chalfont and Fovant. 

Haverah Park. See Harrogate. 


Haverford West (Pembroke), c. 1188 Gir. Camh. Itin. Haver- 
fordia; c. 1200 Gervase Haverforde, 1603 Harford. In W. 
Hwlffordd or Cseralun. ' Oats-fjord/ O.N. hafre, pi. hafrar, 
Dan. havre, 'oats'; for -ford=N. fjord, cf. Waterford oppo- 
site, and MiLFORD. The W. Hwl- must be a corrup. (? of hywl, 
' a sail ') ; while ffordd in W. means ' a road, a passage.' The full 
form Haverfordwest is found as early as 1603 Owen. 

Havering (Romford). Dom. Haveringas, 1160 Pipe Hauering. 
Prob. patronymic, 'place of the sons of Haver' or ' H award.' 
See Haversgate, and -ing. 

Haversgate Island (Orford). Not in Dom. This is prob. 
' Haward's road or way,' O.E. geut. Five Hawards in Onom. 
But Haverthwaite (Ulverston), 1201 Haverthuayt, will be 
' oat-place ' or ' farm.' See Haverford, and -thwaite. 

Hawarden (Flintsh.). Pron. Harrden. Cj. Garden. Dom. 
Havrdin, Inquis. p.m. Hauwerthyn. ' Hedged farm,' Eng. haw, 
O.E. haga, ' a hedge,' and see -warden. Cf. Harden, which is, 
N.B., ' high farm.' The Mod. W. is Pennar Lag or ' high en- 
closure by the lake,' more correctly, pen arth leg. 

BLa-Wes (Earkby Stephen). O.E. and O.N. hdls, 'the neck, a col,' 
common in Northern place-names for ' the connecting ridge 
between two heights.' See Oxf. Diet. s.v. hause. 

Hawksworth (W. Ridg. and Notts). W. R. H. Dom. Hauoc(h)- 
esorde. Not.H.Z)om.Hochesuorde,c. 1190Houkeswrthe. 'Hawk's 
place or farm,' O.E. heafoc, hafoc, 3-5 Jiauk{e), ' a hawk.' See 
-worth. (7/. Hawkridge (Berks). 0.-£^. cAar^. Heafoc hrycg, and 
940 chart. Hafuc cnollum (Pewsey, Wilts) ; also Hawkbach, a. 
1400 Haukebache, ' hawk valley ' (see Comberbach) . Wherever 
you have the -s of the gen. Hawk will be a man's name. Cf. 
Hauxton, Hawkswick (W. Riding), Dom. Hocheswic, and 
Hawksbury (Foleshill), a. 1400 Haukesbury, Hawkesbury 
(Wickwar.), Dom. Havochesberie, also Dom. Kent, Havochesten. 

Hawnby (Holmsley, Yorks). Dom. Halmebi, 1201 Fines Halmiby, 
1298 Hainleghe. 'Meadow' or 'dwelling ' of Helm or Helma,' 
2 such in Onom. Al easily becomes aw, and m often changes 
into its kindred liquid n. Cf. Hawton (Notts), Dom. Holtone, 
'dwelling in the holt ' or 'wood.' See -by and -leigh. 

Hawstead (Bury St. Edmunds). 1298 Haustede. 'Place (Sc. 
' steading ') with a hedge or fence,' O.'Ei.haga, 4-9 haw{e). Haw, 
O.E. haga, and hay, O.E. hege, are, of course, cognate, and both 
mean ' hedge,' but they are not the same words. 

Haxby (York). Dom. Haxebi. ' Dwelhng of Hacca,' 2 in Onom. 
Cf. Haxey, Doncaster; (see -ej). See -by. 

Hay (N.E. of Brecon), c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Itin. Haia, Haya. 
O.E. hege, 4-9 hay{e), ' a hedge, a fence,' cognate with haw, and 
hedge. Cf. above and Oxhey. In W. it is Tregelli, ' house 


among the woods/ Haywood, Great (Rugeley) is Dom. Hai- 

Haydock (St. Helen's). 1168-69 Hedoc, 1170-01 Heddock, 1286 

Haydok, 1321 Heydok, 1565 Heghdoyk. Seems to be O.E. 

hege-docce, ' hedge of dock or docken.' Cf. Docoombe and Hay. 

Dock for ships is a late word. W. and H. are quite uncertain, 

and suggest a man's name, unknown, for the &st part, and O.E. 

dc/ oak,' for the second. Hayden (Glouc), 1220 Heidun, 1222 

Heydunn, certainly seems fr. O.E. hege, M.E. heie, 'hedge,' 

whilst Hayton (Notts), 1154-89 Haythona, may be fr. O.E. 

hcep, ' a heath.' 
Hayes (Uxbridge). 793 chart. Haese, Dom. Hesa, later Hease, 

Heyse, Hays. Doubtful; perh. for O.E. hasu, heasu, 'grey or 

tawny-looMng.' Possibly fr. O.E. ces, 2 ese, 4 hes, ' carrion ' ; for 

ending -a or -e= ' watery place,' see -ey. 

Hayle, The, or Saltings R.. (Bodmin). Corn, heel, ' a tidal river.' 

Hayltng I. (Portsmouth). Dom. Hahngei. Prob. a patronymic, 
-" ' isle of the Halings,' though there is no such name in Onom. 
Cf. Hallington, and -ey. 

Hazlehubst (Cobham). Grant of c. 675 Hasulhurst, c. 1200 Ger- 
vase Heselherste. ' Hazel-tree wood,' O.E. hcesel, and see -hurst. 
Cf. Haslewood (W. Riding), Dom. Heselewode. 

Headless Cboss (Redditch). Curious corrup. 1675 Hedley's Cross. 
We find a Wm. de Hedley in this district in 1275. 

Healaugh (Tadcaster). Dom. Hailaga, Helage, O.E. heah leah, 
' high meadow '; -laugh is a rare form of -leigh or -ley (q.v.). 
Cf. next and Headon (Notts), Dom. Hedune. 

Healey (Masham and Rochdale), and Healeyfield (Co. Dur- 
ham). Dur. H. 1183 Boldon Bk. Heleie, -ey. O.E. hkth leak, 
' high meadow.' High is 4-6 hee, he, hie. Cf. above and 
Heaton ; and see -ley. 

Heapham (Gainsborough). Not in Dom. Cf. 1200 chart. Hepe- 
dale. Prob. ' home of Heppo,' several in Onom. Perh. fr. O.E. 
heope, ' the fruit of the wild rose,' a hip, 4-5 hepe 5 heepe. Cf. 

Heathfield (Sussex and Newton Abbot) . Sus. H. not in Dom., local 
pron. HefEul. Ne. H. Dom. Hetfeld, -felle — i.e., ' heath field.' 
See Hatfield and cf. ? c. 1150 Grant Hethcote, Peak District. 

Heaton (7 in P.G.). Dom. Hetun, Etun (Yorks), Hetune (Salop). 
O.E. heah, 4-6 hee, he, hie, ' high.' Similarly Headon and Hedon 
(Hull) are ' high hill.' Cf. Healey ; and see -ton. 

Hebburn (Jarrow) and Hebbttrn Bell (hill, Belford). a. 1130 
Sim. Dur. Heabyrn and Hybberndune. Heabyrn is certainly 
Early Eng. for ' high burn or brook,' O.E. heah, hea. Hybbern- 
looks more Hke ' hip-bum,' brook along which the hips grow, 



4-6 hejpjpe, 6-7 hep. Cf. above. The personal name is usually 
spelt Hepburn. See Hepboene. Bell, of course, refers to 
the shape of the dune or hill; Oxf. Diet, gives no instances of 
such a usage. 

Heokfield (Basingstoke). 'Field of Heca' ; one was Bp. in 
Sussex, 1047. Gf. 836 chart. 'Heccaham.' Dom. has only 
Heceford. We get the patronjonic in Heckington (Lines). 
Cj. Dom. Nfk. Hechincham. 

Heddington (Calne) . ' Town of Headda ' or ' Hedde/ a common 
O.E. name. Cf. 1158-59 Pipe Hedendon (Oxfd.), and Dom. 
Essex Hidingeforda. Perh. patronymic. See -ing. 

HEDNEsroKD (Cannock), a. 1400 Hedenesford, Edenesford. 'Ford 
of Heoden.' Cf. B.C.S. 544 Hednesdene, and Henshaw, Halt- 
whistle, old Hedneshalgh. See Haughton. 

Hed WORTH (Jarrow). a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Heathewurthe. ' Heath- 
place.' The d ending for heath is seen also in the Ger. and Du. 
heide, O.N. hei^-r. See -worth. 

Heeley (Sheffield). 'High lea or meadow'; O.E. heah, 4-6 hee, 
he, hie. Cf. Healey ; also Heigkley Gas. (Staffs). Dom. 
Heolle, a. 1300 Helegh, HeUey. Duignan makes this a hybrid 
fr. W. heol, ' a road, a way.' See -ley. 

Heigham Potter (Norfolk). Dom. Hecham, 1444Heigham Porter 
and H. Potter. ' High home,' O.E. heah ham, 4-6 heigh, as 
still in Sc. Cf. Heighton (Sussex), and Higham. Potter is a 
corrup. of Porter through the vanishing of the hquid r. 

Hellesden (Norfolk). 1450 Heylesden, -don, Haylysdon. 'The 
woody vale ' or ' the hill of ' some man with a name in O.E. 
beginning with HcbI- or Heal-. There are several such. Possibly 
fr. the Scandinavian ogress Eel, the Northern Proserpine ; hence 
the Eng. hell. Dom. has only Helesham. Cf. Helston; and 
see -den and -don. 

Hellifield (Skipton). Dom. Helge-, Haelgefeld. Either ' Eelgi'a 
or Helga's field'; or fr. O.E. halig, haleg, 3-4 heli, ' holy.' Cf. 
Helbeck (Aysgarth, N. Riding), 1230 Close B. Helebec. See 
-beck, and HeUaby (S. Yorks), Dom. Elgebi. 

Helmdon (Brackley). ? Dom. Elmedene {Oxf. Diet, has no spelling 
of elm with h). Prob. O.E. helm-dun, ' top of the hill,' fr. helm, 
' top, summit, then, helmet. ' Cf. ' Helm o' the Hill ' (S, of 
Felton), and next. 

Helmingham (Stowmarket). Sic in Dom. Cf. 838 cJiart. Hel- 
manhyrst. ' Home of the sons of Helma ' or ' Helm.' Cf. next, 
and Dom. Yorks Helmeswelle, now Emswell; and see -ing. 

Helmixjgton (Bps. Auckland), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Hehne, Healme, 
which is O.E. for ' top, summit '; taken later for a proper name, 
and -ington added. Cf. above. 


Helmsley (N. Yorks). Dom. Elmeslac (3 times), Hamelsec (4 
times) Almeslai (once). The last form is the present name, the 
man ' Helm's meadow/ Cf. above. But the other forms look 
like ' Helm's ' or else ' Hamel's oak/ O.E. dc. See -ley. 

Helperby (York). Sic 1441, but Dom. Hilprebi, Ilprebi. ' Dwell- 
ing of Helpric or Helpericus/ names in Onom. To make it 
' dwelling of the helper ' (a word in Eng. a. 1300) would be 
contrary to analogy. Cf. Heuerthoepe (Yorks), Dom. Elpe- 
torp, and next. See -by. 

Heupringham (Sleaford). Dom. Helpericha, -rincham. ' Home of 
the sons of HeVperic' Cf. Helperby, and see -ing. 

Hbkpston (Mket. Deeping), a. 1100 chart. Helpeston. ' Dwelling, 
village of Helpo/ 2 in Onom. Cf. the mod. name Helps, and 
Dom. Bucks Helpeswrth, 

Helston (Falmouth). Sic 1432, 1200 HeUeston. Possibly hybrid, 
fr. Corn, hellas, ' a marsh.' But cf. Hellesden. 

Helstry Kingsley (Cheshire). It prob. is the goddess ^ Hel's 
tree.' Cf. Hellesdon, Oswestry, and Helsby (Cheshire), 
Dom. Helesbe. 

Helvellyn ((Mtn., Cumberld.). Prob. Kelt, for 'yellow-looking 
slope,' hel felyn. Corn, velen, ' yellow.' But hel is a somewhat 
doubtful Kelt. root. There are 3 places in Wales in P.G. 
called Velindre or ' yellow house.' 

Hemel Hampstead (Herts). Dom. Hamelamestede, Henamestede 
(error), 1303 Hemelhamstead. 'Homestead, home place,' 
O.E. hdm-stede, ' of Hemele,' several in Onom. Cf. Hemsworth, 
also Hemlington (N. Riding), Dom. Himelintun, Himeligetun, 
a patronymic fr. Hemel ; Dom. Norfk. Hemehngetun. See 
-ing. Hempstead (GIouc), Dom. Hechanestede, c. 1120-30 
Heccamstede, 1230 Ehamstede, may mean ' high homestead,' 
O.E. heah, ' high,' or may be fr. Hecca, -an, a man. It is often 
found in full as Heyhamstede, etc. 

Hemingburgh (Selby), Knytlinga Saga Hemingaborg, and Hem- 
INGBY (Horncastle), Dom. Hamingebi. ' Fort of Heming,' and 
' dwelling of Heming,' 3 in Onom. See -burgh and -by. 

Hempnall (Norwich). Dom. Hemenhala. Cf. c. 1490 ' Hem- 
nales ' (Suffolk). 'Nook of Hemma,' 3 in Onom. For intru- 
sion of p, cf. Brompton, Hampton, etc. Cf. Hempshill 
(Notts), Dom. Hamessel, c. 1200 Hemdeshill, Hemsby (Gt. 
Yarmouth), and 1166-67 Pipe Heimbia (Devon). See -hall. 

Hemsworth (Wakefield). Dom. Hameleswrde, Hilmeword. 'Farm 
of Hamele.' Cf. Hemel Hampstead; and see -worth. 

Hendon (London). O.E. chart. Hean dun (inflected form) Dom. 
Handune. A Keltic origin is out of the question. It is plainly 
' high hill,' as it is; or else possibly ' Hean'a hill.' Cf. B.C.S. 


246 Heanes pol, also Henstill (Sandford, Crediton), 930 chart, 
Henne stigel, where henne is either O.E. for ' hen/ or inflected 
form of heah, ' high ' ; stigel is ' a step, a ladder, a stile/ Hen- 
CASTEB (Wstmld.), Dom. Henneeastre, must be ' high camp/ 
whilst Hen ACRE (Glouc), c. 1196 Heneacre, is ' high field,' and 
Henbareow (same shire), ' high tumulus/ 

Henfield (Sussex). Dom. Hamfeld. As the Hquids m and n so 
often interchange. Ham- is prob. O.E. Man, inflected or loc. 
form of hexih, ' high,' so ' high field.' Cf. Hanbtjry and Hen- 
knolle, 1183 in Boldon Bk., Durham. 

Hengston Hill (Cornwall). O.E. Chron. 835 Hengesterdun. ' Hill 
of Hengest,' but not necessarily the comrade of Horsa, a.d. 449. 
O.E. hengest means ' a male horse, usually a gelding.' C/. 
HnsrcKsEY etc. A Hengest, vassal of the Danes, is mentioned 
in Beowulf and other early O.E. poems, Baddeley thinks 
Hengaston (Berkeley) may be for O.E. Man gcerstun, 'high 
grass-town.' Cf. Wallgaston, near by, 1243-45 Walhamgarston. 

Henham (Bps. Stortford). Sic in Dom., c. 1220 Elect. Hugo 
Hengham. O.E. hean ham, 'high house,' hean inflected form 
of heah. 

Henley (R. Thames, and in Arden), Th. H. 727 chart. Henlea, 
Dom. Henlei ; Wwk. H. a. 1200 Henlea, a. 1400 Henley in Arde(r)n. 
Either O.E. hean ledh, 'high meadow,' heah being inflected, or 
henn-ledh, ' hen meadow.' There are also ' Henley ' (Ipswich) 
and 'Henlei,' Dom. Surrey. E. and W. Hendred (Wantage). 
O.E. chart. Henna rith, is ' hens', water-hens' riU.' Henwood 
(Solihull), a. 1200 Hinewud, is more Hkely fr. O.E. hina, 3 hine, 
5 heynd, 7 hiend, ' a hind, a servant'; but Heniviarsh (Glouc), 
1236 Hennemerse, will be ' moor-hen marsh.' 

Hensall (Whitley Br.). Dom. Edeshale, which seems to be for 
' Mdan's ' or ' Edan's nook.' See -hall. But Henshaw (Halt- 
whistle) is c. 1147 Hethingeshalch; also Hedneshalgh — i.e., 
' Heoden's haugh ' or ' river -meadow,' influenced by North. 
Eng. shaw, O.E. scaga, ' a wood.' 

Hensteidge (Somerset). Dom. Hengesterich, O.E. chart. Hen- 
gestes ricg, O.E. for ' Hengest's ridge.' See Hengston. 

Hepborne or Hayborne (Wooler). c. 1330 Hebhorn, 1363 Hib- 
burne, 1366 Hebburne. 'Burn, brook with the hips,' the fruit 
of the wild rose, O.E. heope. Mope, 4-9 hep{e). Cf. Hebburn, 

Hepworth (Huddersfield) . Dom. Heppeword. ' Farm of Heppo/ 
Cf. Heapham; and see -worth. 

Hereford. 1048 O.E. Chron. Herefordseir, 1260 Herford. ' i'ort 
of the army,' O.E. here. Curiously, we get much older forms, 
s.v. Harvlngton (Evesham), which is 709 Herefordtune, etc. 
In 1161-62 Pipe we still read of ' Herefort in Waliis.' 


Hermansole (farm, Canterbury) . ' Herman's pond or pool/ O.E, 
sol, ' mire, a muddy place,' now only Kent. dial. sole. Cf. 
Maydensole (Dover) . 

Heenb Hill (London) and Herne Bay (Kent) . Cf. K.C.D., iii. 279: 
'Eamhylle/ O.E. hyrne, M.E. herne, him, 'a corner, nook, 
hiding - place.' Cf. Dom. Hants Heme, and Essex Witbrictes 

Herringby (Norfolk). Dom. Harringebi, c. 1456 Haryngby. 
' Dwelling of Herring.' Still a surname, patronymic fr. Heara, 
gen. Hearan. C/. Herringswell (Mildenhall). See -by. 

Herringeleet (Suffolk). Dom. Herlingaflet, 1361 Herlyngflet. 
' River of the Herlings ' ; patronymic, (?) fr. Herlewine, 3 in Onom. 
Of. K.G.D. 782 Herlingaham or Hurlingham. See Fleet. 

Hersham (Walton-on-Thames) . Not in Dom., but cf. Dom. Norfk. 
Hersam. ' Home of ' some one of the many men with names in 
Here-, Heremod, Heresic, Hereweald, etc. 

Herstmonceux (Pevensey). ' Hurst, forest (of Anderida), belong- 
ing to the Norman family Monceaux.' O.E. hyrst means ' a 
knoll, a hillock,' as well as ' a wood.' 

Hertford. Bede Herutford, 1087 Ordinance Wm. I. Hertfordscire, 
1258 Hurtford. ' Ford of the hart.' O.E. heorut, 3-6 hert, ' a 
hart.' The mod. pron. of the place-name always has the a 
sound. Cf. Harford (Glouc), 743 chart. Heort ford, 802 ih. 
Hereforda, Dom. Hurford, 1221 Harford. 

Hesblton, Monk and Cotjd (Durham), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Hesel- 
dene. ' Dean, den (wooded), valley with the hazels.' O.E. hcesel. 

Hesketh Bank (Southport). 1283-92 Heskayth, 1292 Eskayth. 
Wyld says, O.N. hest shei^, ' race course.' It seems possibly a 
plural form of W. hesg, ' sedges.' Cf. Werneth, ' place of 
alders ' ; but the ending -ayth is against this ; also the rarity of 
W. names here. 

Hesltngton. See Hasltngeield. 

Hessle (Hull). Dom. Hasele, which must be O.E. hcesel-liah, 
' hazel mead.' {Of. Dom. Salop, Hesleie, and Hesley, Notts, 
1217 Heselay.) But it seems to be 1179-80 Pipe Hessewell, 
Hesiwald, which corresponds with an Ashwell or Heswell, 1239 
in Galend. Pap. Reg., i. 181, ' ash-tree well.' Cf. 1298 ' Gerardus 
de Hesebrygge.' 

Hetton (Skipton). Dom. Hetune. O.E. heah tun, 'high town.' 
Cf. Hewick (Yorks), Dom. Hawie. But Hetton -le -Hole (Co. 
Durham) seems to be 1516-17 Durham Ace. Rolls Hett, where 
Hett is doubtful. 

Hever (Eden Br.). Sic 1327, but 1278 Heure, also Evere. Prob. 
for he-over, or he-oure, ' high bank,' OE. heah ofr. Of. Heeley 
and Wooler, and see= over. 


Heversham or Ever- (Westmld.). Dom. Eureshaim, a. 1130 Sim. 
Dur. Hefresham. ' Home of Eojor ' — i.e., ' the wild-boar.' 
See -ham. 

Hewobth (Felling, Durham) . 1183 Ewwrth . Prob . .E . tw worth, 
' yew-tree farm ' ; but possibly fr. a man Eva, Eua, or Ewa. 
Such names are known. See -worth. 

Hexham. Prob. c. 410 Notitia Axelodunum, Bede Hagulstad, 
c. 1097 Orderic Haugustalda, a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Extoldesham, 
a. 1200 John Hexham Hestoldes-, Hextildesham, c. 1300 Hexe- 
lesham, 1421 Hexhamshire. A curious and difficult name. The 
Notitia name is not certainly Hexham. If it is, Axelo-dunum 
is certainly Kelt, for 'high hill/ and the O.E. name may be a 
corruption of this. But O.E. hagosteald is ' a young soldier, a 
bachelor.' Cf. B.C.S., i. 97, Haegstaldes cimib (Somerset). It is 
often said to be ' home on the Hestild.' Two brooks, said once 
to have been called Hextol and Halgut, now the Cockshaw and 
Cowgarth bums, meet here. 

Hextablb (Swanley). Not in Dom. Perh. ' hatch staple,' O.E. 
hcBC, -ce, M.E. hec, hek, ' a hatch, wicket-gate,' and stapol, ' a 
pole or pillar marking the boundary of an estate.' Cf. Hexton 
(Bewdley), 1227 Hekstane. However, the names Heca, Hecca, 
and Heed are common in O.E., and may well be postulated here. 
Cf. HexthIoep (Yorks), Dom. Hestorp, Estorp. 

Heybridge (Maldon). Prob. Dom. Hobruge {cf. Hoe), ? c. 1250 
Visitation Churches belonging to St. Paul's Heubrege. Prob. 
' high bridge,' O.E. heah, 3-5 hey, hei; possibly fr. O.E. heg, heg, 
3-7 hey, 'hay.' Cf. Roll Rich. I., ' Haiscot ' (Essex). ^ The 
Heydons (there are several) are prob. all ' high hill.' Cf. 
1166-67 Pipe Hidon (Devon). Cf. Eyam. 

Heysham (N. Lanes). Dom. Hessam, 1094 Heseym, 1216 Hesam. 
' Hesa's home.' Cf. Hessle, and see -ham, 

HiBALDSTOW (Brigg). a. 1100 Grant of 664 Hibaltestow, 1179-80 
Hybaldestow, Hibolstowe. ' Place of Hibald ' or ' Hygebeald,' 
common in Onom. See Stow. 

HiCKLETON (Doncaster). Dom. Chicheltone {cf. Keighley), Ichel- 
tone. ' Town of Hicel.' See next. 

HiCKLTNG (Melton Mowbray). Dom. Hechel-, Hegelinge, 1298 
Hikellinge. Prob. a patronymic. Cf. B.C.S. 862, ' Hiceles wyrfe ' 
(Salisbury). ' Place of Hicel's descendants.' Cf. above. 

HiGHAjM Ferrers (Northants). c. 1060 chart. Hecham, 1465 Rolls 
Parlmt. Heigham Feres. ' High house or home,' O.E. Mah, 
4-6 heigh. Cf. Heighah. William Ferrers, Earl of Derby, 
became lord of the manor here in 1199. But Highnam (Glouc), 
old Hynehamme, is ' the enclosure of the hind'^,' or ' servants.' 
See -ham. 


HiLBOROUGH (Norfk.) [Dom. Hildeburhwella] and Hillborough 
(Stratford, Wwk.). Str. H. 710 chart. Hildeburhwrthe,. Zafer 
Hildeborde, Hildebereurde ; a. 1200 Hilburgewrth ; 1317 Hilde- 
boreworth. A very interesting corrup. — a woman, ' Hilde- 
burh's farm/ Gf. "^Hilston (Holderness), Dom. Heldovestun, 
Heldeweston, ? fr. Heldwulf, one in Onom.; whilst Hilcote 
(Gloue.) is old Hyldecote, fr. O.E. hylde, ' a slope/ 

HiLBREE I. and Point (Cheshire). 1577 Hilbery. Possibly W. hel 
bre, ' bank on the hill or brae.' Eng. bree sb' ' eye-brow ' {Oxf. 
Diet.) never seems used for ' brae ' or hill-slope, though Skeat 
says it doubtless had also this sense. Of course, Hilbery could 
mean ' hill-fort ' or ' burgh,' only burgh or bury very rarely 
becomes bree. 

HrLDENBOBOUGH (Toubridge), not in Dom., and Hildenley 
(N. Yorks) . Dom. Hildingeslei, Ildingeslei. This last is ' meadow 
of Hilding/ patronymic fr. Hilda.' The first name may be fr. 
the simple Hilda. Hillesley (Wickwar) is Dom. Hildeslei. 
See -borough and -ley. 

Htldersham (Cambridge) . Dom. amdichart. Hildricesham. * Home 
of Hilderic,' one in Onom. Gf. Hinderwell. Hildebthobpe 
(Yorks) is Dom. Hilgertorp, or ' Hildegar's village.' 

HiLGAY (Cambs) . c. 1080 Inquis. Gamb. Hehngheie, Ramsey Ghron. 
Helingeye. Patronymic. 'Isle of the Hellings.' Gf. Hel- 
lingly (Sussex), and see -ay. 

Himbleton (Droitwich). 816 chart. Hymeltun, Dom. ffimeltun; 
and HiMLEY (Dudley), Dom. HimeHc ;, a. 1200 HumiHleg, Humi- 
leg; a. 1300 Humilele, Hymele. Perh. 'town' and 'meadow 
of Hemele/ common in Onom. Duignan, owing to lack of all 
sign of the possessive, prefers to derive fr. O.E. hymele, ' the 
hop plant,' and refers to Hemlington and Hambleton (Yorks), 
which are both fr. a man Hamel or Hemel. But there is at 
Himbleton a stream, 956 chart, hymel broc, which does seem 
' hop-plant brook,' and the early spellings also favour ' the hop- 
plant ' origin. 

Hinckley (Leicester). Dom. HincheUe. ' Meadow of Hynca,' one 
in Onom. See -ley. But for Hincaster, see Hencaster, 
' high camp.' Htnchwick, Condicote, 1294 Henewyk, 1307 
Hynewyke, is perh. O.E. henge wie, ' steep village. Gf. Hinks- 


Hinderwell (N. Riding). Dom. Heldrewelle, Hildre-, Ildrewelle; 
1179-80 Pipe Hilder-, HirderwaUe. ' Well of HiU or Held.* 
The r may be the N. gen., but we also find 3 Heldreds and a 
Hilderic in Onom. The liquids I and n do interchange. Gf. 
Hn^DERSHAivr and Hinderskelf, now Castle Howard (Yorks), 
Dom. Hildreschelf, Ilderschelf . Shelf often occurs for ' ledge 
of rock.' 


HiNDLip, Hestlip (Worcester). 'Hind's leap/ O.E. hlyf, 3 lijp, ' a 
leap/ Cf. BiBDLip. 

HiNGHAM (Norfolk). Dom. Hincham, often, 1452 Hengham. Pos- 
sibly contracted fr. ' Hengest's ham' or 'home.' Older forms 
needed. Onom. has one Hength. 

Hjnksey (Oxford). O.E. c^arMIengesteseie, -ige; 1297 Hencsei. 
'Hengest's isle.- Of. Hengston and Hinxworth. Hinks- 
FORD, Kingswinsford, is 1271 Henkeston, 1300 Hinkesford, 
more prob. fr. Hynca, as in Hingkley. 

Hesttlesham (Ipswich). Dom. and sic 1157. Puzzling. The 
nearest name in Onom. is Hinwald or Hinieldus. Possibly 
Hintel is dimin. of the known name Hunta. See -ham. 

HiNTON Waldrist or Waldridge (Berks; 10 Hintons besides in 
P.G.). Dorset H. chart. Hine-, Hyneton; Ber. H. B.C.S., 
iii. 228, Heantunninga, Dom. Hentone ; Cambs H. Dom. Hintone ; 
Glouc. H. 1303 Henton. The B.C.S. form means ' dwellers in 
Heantun ' — i.e., ' high town/ O.E. Man, dat. of heuh, ' high/ 
But the Hintons are not all the same, and come most of them 
fr. O.E. hina, gen. of hiwan, ' domestic servants, hinds,' or else 
fr. hind, ' a female deer.' See -ton. Waldrist is fr. O.E. 
WeaUric. He was King's Chancellor 1100-35. See Chron. 
Ahing., ii. 127. 

Hints (Tam worth and Ludlow). Tarn. H. Dom. Hintes, a. 1300 
Hyntes. Duignan thinks W. hynt, ' a road, way,' with Eng. pi. s. 

Henxton (S. Cambs). and Hinxworth (Herts) Ramsey Chron. 
Hengestone, 1277 Hengeston, 1341 Hyngeston. Dom. Hain- 
geste uuorde. ' Hengest's farm ' and ' village.' Cf. Hinxton 
(Essex) and Hinksey, and see -ton and -worth. 

Hipperhouvie (Halifax). Dom. Huperun. It seems hard to ex- 
plain Huper or Hipper. There is nothing likely in Onom. unless 
it be Hygebeorht or Hubert ; but it may be a dissimilated form 
of hippie, 5 hupple, see next, and mean ' at the little heaps,' 
-un being an old loc, which either becomes -holme, ' riverside 
meadow,' or -ham, q.v. 

HiPSWELL (Richmond, Yorks). Dom. Hiplewelle, c. 1538 Leland 
Ipreswel. There is no name at all likely here, so this must be 
' well at the hippie,' or ' little heap,' first recorded in Oxf. Diet. 
in 1382 as hypil, heepil, and derived fr. O.E. * hiepel, hypel, 
cf. Ger. hail f el. 

HmwAiN (Aberdare). W. hir gwaen, 'long plain' or 'meadow/ 
It anciently stretched for ten miles. 

HissiNGTON (Herefdsh.). Dom. Hesintune. Prob. ' town of Hesa,' 
a name not in Onom. Cf. Dom. Bucks, Hesintone. 

HiSTON (Cambridge), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Hestitona, Dom. 
Histetone, Histone, 1 165 Hestona. ' Village of Hesta or Hcesta.' 


HiTOHiN. Dom. Hiz, 1210 Hiche, 1303 Huche, 1346 Hicheyn, 1541 
Hechjm. Dom.'s Hiz = Hits. The name, it would seem, can 
only mean Hicca's (place) ; a Hica and a Hicca in Onom. Had 
the -in been early it would prob. have represented an old loc, 
but it seems quite late. For similar names (which are rare)> 
cf. Beedon, Brailes, Coven, etc. The R. on which it stands, 
formerly the Hitche, seems to have been rechristened Hiz after 
Dom. HrrcHAM, Ipswich and Maidenhead, ' Hicca's home,' 
show what the normal forms of this name would have been. 

HixoN (Stafford). Dom. Hustedone, a. 1300 Huntesdun, Huhtes- 
Hucste-, Hucces-, Huncesdon; a. 1600 Hickston, Hixeton. It 
is on a ' hill,' and the ending is clearly -don, q.v. The proper 
name which comes before is a puzzle. Huch, Hucco, and Huctred, 
var. of U hired, are the nearest in Onom. In Dom. st usually 
stands for guttural ch or gh. 

Hoar Cross (Burton-on-T.). 1248 Harecres, 1262 La Croiz, 1267 
Orcross, 1268 Horecros. 'Boundary cross,' O.E. Mr. See 
Harborne. This Hoar- in later spellings of place-names is 
often corrup. into Whore. Cf. the Hoarstone (Bewdley), 1275 
Richard o' th' horeston. Another in Glouc. 

HoARwiTHY (Ross). 1Q05 chart. To ]jam haran wifie, ' to the old 
withy or willow,' O.E. withig. 

HoBOROUGH (Kent). 838 chart. Holebeorh; also Holenbeorh, 
-beorge, ' hill, mound of Hola.' See Barrow. 

HoBY (Leicester). Dom. Hobie. ' Dwelling on the Hoe ' or ' hill.' 
Cf. HuBY, and see -by. 

Hockerhj^ (Herts and Wore). He. H. c. 1250 Hokerhuka, 1491 
Hokerelle. ' Hill of the hooker,' or ' thief who steals with a 
hook.' Not in Oxf. Diet, till 1567. So Skeat. Perh. Hocker- 
TON (Notts), Dom. Hocre-, Ocreton, may be the same, and not fr. 
a man Hoc with N. gen. r. All is doubtful. 

Hockley (Birmingham and Essex). Bi. H. 1327 Hockele, 1332 
Hockelaye. Cf. Dom. Surrey, Hoclei. Prob. ' meadow with 
the hocks, holly-hocks, or mallows,' O.E. hoc. Skeat thought 
Hoc- a M.E. hardening of O.E. hoh, ho, ' promontory, abrupt 
height. Hoe,' though the Oxf. Diet, does not confirm this. Still, 
next is very possibly so derived; so, too, O.E. chart. Hants, 
Hocgetwisle. See Twizel: also cf. Dom. Leicr. and Notts, 
Hoches, ?=' heights,' and Beds, Hocheleia, and Hocberry 
(=-bury), Glouc. 

HocKLiiTB (Beds). Old Hocclyve. Seen also in the name of the 
15th cny. poet Occleve or Hoceleve. Prob. ' promontory chff, 
projecting cliff.' See above and Cleveland. 

HocKWOLD (Brandon). Not in Dom. c. 1460 Hokehold. Doubt- 
ful. It may be ' high wold ' — i.e., ' wood ' or ' hilly district,' 
cognate with weald, or ' high hold ' — i.e., ' fortress.' See 


Hockley. But it may be fr. a man Hocca. Cf. Hockwobthy 
(Wellington), see -worthy, 1160 Pipe, Hochelai (Northants) and 


HoDDLESDEN (Darwen). C/. 1297 a ' Hodleston/ Prob. ' den or 
DEAN of Holdwulf or ^Holdulf/ one in Onom. Wyld and Hirst 
omit. But HoDDESDON is fr. a man Hod or Hoda, both in 
Onom. Cf. 940 chart. Hoddes stoc (Wilts). 

HoDNET (Market Drayton). Dom. Hodenet. Prob. 'heath of 
Hoda/ gen. -an. Cf. Hodcot (Berks), Dom. Hodicote, 963 chart. 
Hodan hlsew (= -low or ' hill '), and 1160 Pipe Chesh., Hodeslea. 
For -et= heath, cf. Hatfield and Bassett. Dom. Salop has 
also a Humet. Hodkell (Southam), Dom. Hodenelle, -helle, 
is ' Hoda's nook'; see -hall; while Hod sock (Notts), Dom. 
Odesach, 1302 Hodesak, is * Hoda's oak.* 

Hoe, The (Plymouth). 1590 Spenser The Western Hogh, 1602 
Carew The Hawe. O.E. hoh, ho, ' a heel, a projection, a spur, a 
hill, high ground ' ; Sc. heugh. Cf. Hoo, Hockley, Dom. Devon, 
Ho (Totnes); 1160-61 Pipe Kent, Ho; Hoe Ford (Fareham); 
Mortbhoe, Staplow, etc. Hoe, hoo, is a common ending in Staffs 
and Warwk. — e.g., Tysoe is Dom. Tiheshoche, a. 1300 Thysho. 

HoGSTON or HoGGSTON (N. Bucks) . Dom. Hochestone. O.E. chart. 
Hocgestan, ' stone of Hocca.' Hog, ' a pig,' is not found till 
1340. Hogge for Hodge or Roger is found in CShaucer, Cf. 
Hogsthorpe (Lines), not in Dom., Hogston (Sc), and Hoxton; 
also Dom. Lines. Hogetune. 

(La) Hogue Hatbnai (Guernsey) and Hotjgtje Bie (Jersey). These 
names are all pure Scandinavian. Hogue is O.N. haug-r, 
' mound, cairn.' Cf., Grenehoga, -ehov, Dom. Norfk. See -how. 
Hatenai is ' isle of ' some Norseman who cannot now be surely 
identified. See -ay. Whilst Bie is the same as the common suffix 
-bie or -by, ' dwelling,' q.v. Cf. Cape La Hogue (Cherbourg) . 

Holbbach (Spalding). 810 chart. Holebech, c. 1290 Holebec, 1571 
Holbich. Nothing to do with beach. May be ' hole, hollow,' 
O.E. hoi, 'with the bach or beck or brook.' Hardly 'beck of 
Hola,' a name in Onom., for, if so, we should expect Holanbech in 
810. O/. a * Holan bsecc,' on Stour (Staffs) in 958 c^«r<. See -bach. 

HoLBBCK (Leeds). See above. 

HoLBUBN (London), c. 1162 Holeburn, 1513 Holbome. Pron. 
now clipped down to ' 'Obun.' J. R. Green says ' hollow bourne,' 
or burn or brook. Cf. Langbourne Ward in the City. O.E. hoi, 
dial, holl, and 5-9 hole, ' hollow, depressed, lying in a hollow.' It 
may be ' Hola's burn.' Cf. Hobokotjqh, and see -bourne. It 
may also be 'hole of the burn,' 'hollow with the brook,' O.E. 
hoi, hole. Cf. the Holbrook (Warwk.), which Duignan says 
is holh broc, ' hollow with the brook.' Holbrook (Winch- 
combe) certainly is c. 1170 Holebroc. 


lIoLCOMBE (Painswick and Manchester). Pa. H. 1166 HoUecumbe; 
Ma. H. c. 1215 Holcumbe hevet (head). Combe is ' valley/ q.v., 
but Hoi- must be interpreted according as one interprets HoL- 
BXJRN. C/. HoLDEN (Yorks), Bom. Holedene; and Holfoed 
(Winchcombe), Bom. Holeforde. 

HoLOOT (Northampton). Bom. Holecote, ? c. 1220 ElexA. Hugo. 
'Philip de Holkotes.' This last prob. means 'hovel-like cot- 
tages/ fr. O.E, hulu, ' a husk, a hull/ found a. 1225 meaning 
' a hut, a hovel.' Cf. Hull. But Bom.'s form points to ' cot 
of Hola/ a known name. 

HoLDERNESS (E. Yorks). Bom. Heldrenesse, Heldemesse; c. 1097 
Orderic Hildernessa; c. 1100 Holdernese; 1208 Holdernesse. 
Prob. ' cape of the High Reeve/ an officer of rank in the Dane- 
lagh, O.N. hold-r, O.E. hold. But in its earlier forms fr. Eeld-r, 
Hild-r, on which names see Hindebwell. See -ness. 

HoLKHAM (Wells, Norfk.). Bom. and 1157 Pipe Boll Holeham. 
Seems to be fr. O.E. holh, 'a hollow, a hole, a cave,' 'dwelling 
at or in the hollow.' See -ham. 

HoT.TiAT^TD (S. Lincoln). Bom. Holland, 1216 Hoyland. The Dutch 
Holland is prob. ' holt-land,' woodland, see Oxf. Bid. s.v. ; 
whilst the Eng. name is usually thought to be O.E. hoi land, 
* hoUow or low-lying land.' But Holland suggests Dan. hoi, 
' high,' which does not seem very applicable. Of. Hoyland. 

HoLLTNGBOTniNE (Maidstone) . c. 1018 Holingburne. ' Bum, brook 
of the holly -trees,' O.E. holen, hole^n, 3 holin, 5 holiitg. Cf. 
K.G.B. 722 Holungabuma, prob. in Dorset; and Bom. Bucks, 
Holendone. We get a curious corrup. of this root in Holdfast 
(Upton-on-Sevem), 967 chart. Holenfesten, prob. ' holly fastness/ 
Cf., too, HoLUN, Upp. and Low. (Bewdley), 1332 HoIjti. 

HoLLOWAY (Feckenham, London, and Matlock Bath). Lon. H. 
sic 1576, but Fe. H. Bom. Holewei, a. 1200 Holowei; Ma. H. 
Bom. Holewei. Also Holloway or Holewey (For. of Dean). 
' Way which is deeply excavated or depressed, lying in a hollow,' 
O.E. hoi, infl. hole, 4-9 holl, cognate with hollow, not foxmd till 
c. 1205 Layamon holh, 3-4 holewe, 3-5 holwe. The a. 1200 form 
cited by Duignan is earher for hollow than anything in Oxf. Bid. 

Holme (7 in P.O.), a very common name — found, e.g., in Bom. 
Yorks 17 times as Holme or Holne. It is O.E. holm, ' low, flat 
land by a river, river -meadow.' It often interchanges as an 
ending with -ham, and as ending is also found as -hulme, as in 
Davyhulme, and as -om, in Millom (probably). Holmttbth 
(Huddersfield) is Bom. Hohie. The -firth is O.E. fyrhp, Z-frith, 
4 ri ht, ' a wood, wooded country, unused pasture-land.' Holme- 
ON-THE-WoLDS is Bom. Hougon, which must be a loc. ' at the 
hows ' or ' mounds,' O.N. haug-r. Cf. Howsham, and for a 
Norse word taking an Eng. loc. form, cf. Hallam. The Nor. 


family of Pierrepont or ' Perpunt ' is found at Holme Pierrepo nt 
(Notts) in 1302. In Channel Is. holm becomes -hom, Brecqhon, 
Jethon (1091 chart ' quae vulgo Keikhulm vocatur'), etc. 

HoLMPTON (Hull). Dom. Holmetune. ' Town on the holm or river- 
meadow.' See above. For intrusion of p, cf. Hampton. 

HoLNE (Ashburton, Devon). 8ic in Dom. O.E. holeyn, hollen, 
' hoUy-tree.' Cf. 847 chart. JEthelwulf, To tSaem beor3e Se mon 
hatet5 ' set Ssem holne/ also Hollandbtjsh (Sc). 

HoLNHURST (Glouc). 940 cAarf. HolenhvTst. ' Holly- wood.' See 
above and -hurst. 

HoLswoRTHY (Budc). Not in Dom. Prob. 'farm of Hola.' Cf. 
HoLBEACH, and see -worthy. 

Holt (Norfolk and Worcester). Dom. both Holt. O.E. and N. 
holt, ' a wood, a copse.' So also Holton (6 in P.O.). Newark 
H. Dom. Holtone. ' Town by the wood.' 

Holyhead. Pron. Hollyhead. a. 1490So<owerLeHolyhede. But 
in W. Caergybi — i.e., ' fort of St. Oybi.' The parish church 
occupies an elevated site where once stood a monastery dedi- 
cated to this saint. And the ' Mountain of Holyhead ' is called 
Pen-Caer-Gybi. Gybi or Cybi was a British saint who, after 
visiting Gaul and opposing Arianism, returned c. 380, and 
founded this monastic estabUshment here. 

Holy Island (Northumbld.). c. 1130 Hali eland, c. 1330 R. Brunne 
Holy Eland. So called because the Columban monks from lona 
planted the monastery of Lindisfarne here in the 7th cny. 
Cuthbert was its great saint. 

Holywell (Flint). In W. Treffynon. So called from the famous 
well of St. Winefride, to which many R.C. pilgrims still come. 
Winefride is a dubious saint, reputed to have been a noble 
maiden whose head was cut off by Prince Caradog because she 
scorned his lustful advances. The head rolled down a hiU, and 
where it stopped this spring or well gushed forth ! She is said to 
have been daughter of Prince Teuyth of N. Wales in the 7th 
cny., but there is no mention of her doings until Robert of 
Shrewsbury, c. 1140. 

Homer (Much Wenlock) . Not in Dom., but old Hohnere, which is 
O.E. for ' hoUow lake,' lake in a hollow. Cf. Cromer and 
HoLBTJRN; but for HoMERTON (London), see Hammerwich. 

Homersfield (Harleston). Dom. Humbresfelda, Red Bk. Excheq. 
Humeresfeld, also Humorsfeld. Doubtful. Perh. . ' field of 
Humberht, Humbertus, or Hunbeorht,' all forms in Onom., the 
last most correct. Cf. Hubberstone. It might be fr. Hormcer. 
Cf. B.C.S. 622 Hormseres wudu. The liquid r could easily dis- 
appear, and a spelHng Hornersfield is found. Skeat votes for a 
man Hunmcer, a name admittedly not on record. 


HoMiLDON (Northumbld.) . c. 1230 Homeldun. 'Hill of Homel.' 
Cf. Homeliknow (Coldstream), 1198 Homelenolle. Rommel is 
still a personal name in Germany, but is not found in Onom. 


HoNEYBOiJRNB (Evesham). 709 chart. Huniburne, 840 ib. Hunig- 
burn, Dom. Huni-, Honey burne. ' Brook with honey-sweet 
water/ O.E. honig. Of. next, and see -bourne. There is a 
HoNEYBBOOK in the same shire, 866 chart. Hunig broc; also a 
HoNEYBOBOUGH (Pembksh.),1307 Hounteborch, 1327 Honiborch. 
' Burgh, castle of Hunta ' or Hunto/ several in Onom. See -burgh. 

Honey CHURCH (Devon). Dom. Honecherche. The connexion 
between a ' church ' and ' honey,' O.E. huni-^, 4-7 honi, is not 
very obvious, and this is prob. ' church of Buna.' Cf. Honiley 
(Warwk.), a. 1200 Hunilegh, plainly fr. honey, even as is HoN- 
NiNGTON (same shire), 1043 chart. Huniton, Dom. Hunitone. 
On Honey Child (Romney Marsh), 1227 Honi Child, see 

Honicknowle (Crown Hill, Devon). Prob. ' knoll, hill of Honoc/ 
a name in Onom. Cf. Dom. Devon, Honecherde (-erde prob.= 
-worth, ' farm), and Knowle. 

Honing (Norwich). Honingham (Norwich), and Honington (3 in 
P.O.). Dom. has only Honincgetoft. Honing is c. 1160 
Haninges, ' place of the sons of Hana ' or ' Rona.' Cf. Dom. 
Kent, Honinberg. See -ing. But Honley (Huddersfield) is 
Dom. Haneleia, prob. ' mead of Rana/ 2 in Onom. Cf. Hanley. 

Hoo (Rochester), c. 700 chart. Hogh, Dom. Hou, How=Hoe. 
Stanhoe was orig. Stanhoghia. There is also a Hoo Faem 
(Kidderminster), 1275 John de la Ho. 

Hook (7 in P.O.). Where these are fr. hook, O.E. hoc, 'a hook,' 
then ' an angle or bend' in a river, etc., thej'^ must be late, as 
Oxf. Diet, has nothing in this sense till late in 16th cny. But 
some of the Hooks (those in Norse regions) are prob. of the same 
origin as the Hog and Hough of Lines, and Hook (Goole) . See 
Houghton. The numerous Hooks in Pembk. will have this 
origin. 1603 Owen, ' South hooke,' etc., and in older charts. Hoch. 

Hook Norton (Banbury). 917 O.E. Chron. Hocneratun, Hoc- 
ceneratun; late chart. Hokenarton; c. 1115 Ren. Runt. Hoche- 
neretune. An interesting and puzzling corrup. Rocnera must 
surely be a gen. pL, and the name mean ' town of the Rocs ' 
or ' sons of Roc.' 

Hoole (Chester). Sic 1340. O.E. hoi, 5-6 hoole, ' a hole, a hollow.' 
Cf. ' Hammelle the Hoole,' s.v. Hajmble R. ; also cf. Much Hoole. 

HooTON Pagnell and Roberts (Doncaster and Rotherham). 
Dom. H. Dom. Hotun, 1203 Hoton. ' Village on the Hoe ' or 
' hill.' Hoton is very frequent in Dom. Yorks, usually for some 



Hope (4 in P.G.). Dom. Hope (Salop). This is hope sb^ in 
Oxf. Diet., ' a place of refuge/ O.E. hop, ' a piece of enclosed 
land, an enclosed little valley '; O.N. hop, ' a small, land-locked 
bay, an inlet,' as in St. Margaret's Hope (Sc). Cf. Hopehotjse 
(Hartley), 1275 ' John de Hope.' Hope (Denbigh) is now in 
W. Yr Hob, ' the hope,' or Hoben, ' 2 hopes.' Hope-Mansel 
(For. of Dean) is 1263 Hope Maloysell, an O.Fr. proper name. 

HoPTON (Mirfield and Great Yarmouth). Mi. H. Dom. Hoptone; 
Ya. H. sic c. 1080. The plant hops is not found till c. 1440. 
This is prob. for hope, as above; or it may be, like Hop- 
wooD (Alvechurch), 848 chart. Hopwuda, fr. O.E. hop, ' the 

HopwAS (Tamworth). a. 1100 Hopewaes, Dom. Opewas, a. 1200 
Hopwas. O.E. Jiop wase, wees, ' valley of the swamp or marsh.' 
Of. Albewas ; and see -hope. 

HoEBUHY (Wakefield). Dom. Orberie. Doubtful. There seems no 
likely name in Onom. It may be as next. See -bury. Horfield. 
(Bristol), Dom. Horefelle, Baddeley derives fr. O.E. horh, M.E. 
hore, ' mire.' Cf. Hormead, same shire. 

HoRHAM (Eye, Suffolk). Sic c. 1150, but Dom. Horam, -an. Prob. 
like HoBEHAM (Sussex), ' home of the whore ' or ' harlot/ O.E. 
hor, O.N. Mra. Dom.'s Horan may be an old loc, ' at the 
whore's.' See -ham. 

HoBNBLOTTON (E. Somerset). Dom. Horblawetone, a. 1145 Wm. 
Malmesb. Homblawerton, ' Horn-blower town.' Already in the 
Corpus Glossary, c. 725, we find horn blauwere. 

Hornby (Lancaster). Dom. Hornebi, 1278 Horneby; also more 
than one in Yorks, Dom. Hornebi. ' Dwelling of Horn.' Cf. 
Homcastle, and King Horn, perh. orig. Horm, a Dan. Viking 
of the 9th cny., who fought for the Ir. King Cearbhall. But 
Hornby in Smeaton (Yorks) is Dom. Horenbodebi, Horebodebi, 
where the man's name is now hardly recognizable. See -by. 

HoRNCASTLE (Lincs). Dom. Hornecastre, 1161-62 Pipe Horne- 
castra. ' Camp of Horn.' See above. The ending -caster, 
q.v., rarely becomes -castle. 

HoRNiNGSEA (Cambridge), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Homingeseie. 
' Isle ' and ' home of the Homings ' or ' descendants of Horn. 
Cf. Hormer (Berks), B.C.S., iii. 520, Horninga msere (lake, mere), 
Chron. Abing. Hornigmere; also Horninglow (Burton-on-T.), 
sic a. 1300, See -low, ' burial-mound.' Cf., too, Dom. Essex 
Horminduna, and Norfk. Hornincgetof t ; also Hornington 
(Ainsty), Dom. Horninc-, Hornin-, Horni- tone. See -ing. On 
Horn, see above. 

HoRNnsTGSHAM (Warminster) . Dom. Horningesha. ' Home of the 
sons of Horn.' See above, and -ing. 


HoENSEY (N. London), a. 1300 Haringee, with the hard g still 
preserved in Harbin gay. Hornsea is a corrup. which has 
arisen through softening of the g into Harnjy, and then Hornsea. 
But Hornsea (E. Riding) is Dom. Hornesse, ' isle^ peninsula of 
Horn.' See Hornby and -ay. 

HoRRiDGE (Glouc). Prob. 'hoar, grey ridge/ O.E. Mr/ 'hoary, 
grey, old,' 3-5 hor. But c/. Horton. Dom, Glouc. has only 

Horseord (Norwich) {Dom. Hosforda, also Horsha) and Hors- 
EORTH (Leeds). Le. H. Dom. Horseforde, Hoseforde. There 
are coins of K. Alfred which seem to read Orsnaforda as well as 
Oksnaforda (Oxford). ' Horse ford." See -forth. 

Horsham (Sussex). Prob. 'home of Horsa'; perh. the Jute who 
came over with Hengest, 449 a.d . There is also one in Worstrsh. 
sic. 1275, which may be the same, or else ' horse's enclosure ' ; 
O.E. hors hamm. See -ham 2, and cf. Dom. Bucks Horsedene. 
Dom. Sussex has only Horselie and Horstede. 

HoRSLEY (8 in P.G.). Leatherhead H. perh. 871-89 chart. Horsa 
leh, Dom. Horslei, ib. Derby, Glouc . and Sussex Horselei. Rather 
' Horsa's ' than ' horse meadow.' See above, and -ley. 

HoRSMONDEN (Kent). Not in Dom. 1570-76 Lamharde Hors- 
mundene. ' The Dean or (woody) vale of the ward of Horsa.' 
O.E. mund, ' protection.' 

HoRSTED Keynes (E. Grinstead). Dom. Horstede. Prob. as in 
Horsham, 'Horsa's place'; O.E. stede. Keynes is the Nor. 
family, de Cahanges. 

Horton (10 in P.G.). 972 chart. Horton (Wore), Dom. Yorks, 
Salop, Worcr., Bucks, Hortone, -tune; a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Hore- 
tun. Doubtful. It might be ' hoary, grey -looking town.' See 
Horridge. Duignan prefers O.E. horh tun, ' dirty, muddy town,' 
and says c/. Hormead (Herts), which Skeat makes ' muddy mead.' 

HoRwiCH (Bolton and Stockport). Cf. Dom. Wore. Horwich. 
= Horton. See -wich. 

HoTHAM (Yorks). Dom. Holde twice, Hode 5 times. O.E. 
heald is only found in sense of ' holding, keeping, possessing.' 
Holde, ' a lair, lurking-place,' is not found recorded till c. 1205, 
and as ' fort, fortress ' not till a. 1300. The -ham has been 
added after Dom. But Dom. has once Hodhu'. With Dom. 'a 
Hode cf. the Sc. hand, hod, for ' hold.' 

Houghton (11 in P.O.). A difficult name, with several origins. 
Those in the N. seem often to be fr. North. Eng. how, ' hill, 
hillock, tumulus, barrow'; O.N. haug-r, 'cairn, mound,' in 
7 hough. E.g., H., Heddon-on-the-WaU, is 1200 Yorks Fines 
Houton, while H. (E. Riding) is Dom. Houe-, Oueton. Cf., too, 
Hougon, a loc, ' at the mounds,' name in Dom. for Holme on 


the Wolds. Glass Houghton (S. Yorks), Dom. Hoctun, Hough- 
ton-le-Side, 1200 Yorhs Fines Hoctona, H. (K's. Lynn) Dom. 
Hodtune, and the many Hohtones in Dom. Northants, are 
prob. fr. Hoe, ' height, promontory/ 3-6 hogh. See Hockley. 
Houghton (Beds and Hants) will be the same, being both 
Hou8ton(e) in Dom., st being Dom.'s regular ' avoidance ' of 
guttural gh. Qreat Houghton (Barnsley) is Dom. Halton, and 
so= Houghton or halhtun, 'river-meadow town'; whilst Hanging 
Houghton may possibly be fr. a man Hout. Old forms are 
always needed. 

HouNSLow (London). O.E. chart. Hundeshlaew, Dom. Honeslowe. 
' Burial-mound of Bund ' or ' Hiinda.' See -low. But Hound - 
HILL (Uttoxeter) is a. 1300 Hogenhull, a. 1400 Howenhull, as 
well as Hunhyle, Hounhull, suggesting origin fr. a man Hoga, 
-an, ' the prudent.' 

Howden-le'-Weab (Co. Durham). 1130 Houendena, and Howden 
and Howden Dyke (Yorks), Dom. Houeden, c. 1200 Hoveden, 
1635 Hovenden (prob. not a. 1130 8im. Dur. Offedene). Doubt- 
ful. Very hkely fr. an unrecorded Hofa. Cf. Hovingham 
(Yorks), sic. in Dom., giving its patronymic; only Ojfa and Ofa 
in Onom. It might \)Q ' wooded vale of the plant hove ' (spelt 
so c. 1440), O.E. hofe, which may be the violet or ground ivy. 
A EroUof Rich. I. has Houedensir', or Howdenshire. Of course, 
in North. Eng. how is ' a hill,' found in Eng. fr. a. 1340 (see 
-how), whilst HowTHOKP (Yorks), Dom. Holtorp, is ' village in 
the hollow ' or ' hole.' See -den. 

HowLE Hill (Ross, Hereford). W. hywel, 'conspicuous.' C/. 

HowsHAM (E. Riding and Lincoln). E. Ri. H. Dom. Huson, O.E. 
loc. huson, ' at the houses.' Gf. Hallam and Newsham. 
Housen (Cotheridge) is just the M.E. pi. ' houses.' See -ham. 

Howtel (N.W. of Wooler). 1525 Howtell Swyre (O.E. swira 
'neck'; cf. Manor Swaee, Sc). How will be O.N. haug-r, 
' mound, hill ' ; the -tel must remain doubtful. Cf. Houghton. 

Hoxne (Eye, Sfk.). Dom. Hoxana, Hund. Roll Hoxene, 1473 
Hoxon. Doubtful. O.Fris. hoxene,. hoxne is ' a hamstring ' 
(see Oxf. Diet. s.v. hox sb.); but this seems unlikely. Skeat 
adopts the suggestion of Mr. Anscombe, that here we have an 
O.E. Hoxena, gen. pi. of Hoxan, possibly the name of some small 
tribe of settlers, just as we find mention of the tribe Wixan 
and' the famous tribe of Seaxan or ' Saxons.' The name in any 
case seems abnormal. 

HoxTON (London). Dom. Hochestone, c. 1350 Hoggeston, later 
Hog&ton, 1610 jB. Jonson Hogsdon. ' Town of Hocca' (R.oga is 
found once). Cf. Dom. Bucks Hochestone, and 1179-80 Pipe 
Hokesgarth (Yorks). 


HoYLAKE (Birkenhead). Dom. Hoiloch. The 'HoyleLake' was 
formed by the ' Hoyle Bank/ sic a. 1600, still visible at certain 
states of the tide. Hoyle is an inflected form of O.E. Jiol, ' hole, 
hollow place/ given in Oxf. Diet, as 5-6 hoil{e), and Yorks dial. 
hoil. The Oxf. Did. calls lac ' lake' early M.E., but it is found 
in O.E. Chron. ann, 656, and once or twice in Dom. The Sc. 
form loch is not recorded till Barbour, 1375. 

HoYLAJSTD (Barnsley). Dom. Holland, Holant (another in Derby), 
1242 Hoyland. Cf.a.l 100 chart. ' Hoylandia ' (Lines) . ' Hollow, 
low-lying land.' See Hoylake and Holland. Hoyland 
SwAiNE (Sheffield) is Dom. Holan and Holande; but Dom. Holun 
and Holam is Hollytn (Yorks), an O.E. loc. holun, ' at the holes.' 

Hubberholme (W. Riding) and Hubberstone (Milford Haven), 
Dom. Yorks Huburgheha' (for -ham, which often interchanges 
with -holm) . ' River -meadow ' and ' stone of Hunbeorht, 
Humberht, Hunburh, or Hubert,' all names on record. The 
Rubber in Pembroke is said to have been the viking who with 
his brother Hingua led the great invasion of 866. But this can 
hardly be the same, for the 866 man is in O.E. Chron. Hubba or 
Ubba. There is a Hubberst' recorded in Derbyshire, and a 
Hobrichtebi in 1167-68 Pi'pe Cumbld. 

Htjby (Leeds and Easingwold). Dom. Hobi. 'Dwelling on the 
Hoe ' or ' hill.' C/. Hoby; and see -by. 

HuccLECOTE (Glouc). Dom. Hochilicote, 1221 Hukelingcote, 
later Hokelin- and Hokelcote. ' Cot of Hocel ' or his sons. 
Onom. has only Hicel (see Hickling) ; and c/. 1231-34 Close R. 
Hukels-, Hucliscot (Leicester). See -ing. 

Hucknall Toekabd (Nottingham). Dom. Hochenale, 1160 Pipe 
Hochenhala, 1287 Hokenale Torkard. .E . H ocean heal, ' nook of 
Hocca.' Cf. Hockwold, and Dom.Bncks Huchdene and Hucheha. 
The Nor, family of Torkard is found here ia 1284. See -hall. 

Huddbrsfield. Dom. Oderesfelte, Odresfeld. ' Field of Odhere ' 
or ' Oderus,' one such, and one Northern Udardus, 12th cny., 
are found in Onom. Htjd swell (Richmond, Yorks), Dom. 
Hudreswelle, is prob. fr. the same name. But Huddiknoll 
(Glouc), old Hodenknole, is fr. Hoda or Hudda. 

HuiSH Champflower (WiveHscombe, Smst.). Huish is O.E. hig-, 
hivnsc, 'a household, then, a hide of land.' Cf. K.C.D. 107. 
On Cotenes felde an hywysce, and Melhuish. Champflower 
is a Nor. name, Fr. champ fleuri, ' flowery field.' We find 
Richard de Hywis of Lod Hywis (Smst.), in time of K. John; 
1253 Hywish, 1298 Hyuhyshe. 

Hulam (Hartlepool), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Holum, a loc, 'at the 
holes,' O.E. hoi. Cf. Hallam. 

Hull (formerly Kingston-on-Hull). Nam« of a small river. 
Prob. connected with O.E. hoi, mod. dial, holl, howl{e), ' hollow, 



depressed, lying in a hollow/ Named Kingston-on-H. by 
Edw. I. 1299; in a. 1552 Leland simply Kingston. 

HuMBER. Bede Humbra, Hymbra, c. 890 Alfred Humbre (in Lat. 
vsn. Abus fl.). Prob. aspirated form of cumber, 'confluence^ 
of Ouse and Trent, W. cymmer, G. comar ; the -ber is prob. the 
same root as in Aber. Cf. Combebbach, etc., also Cumber- 
nauld (Sc), and Dom. Sffk. Humbresfelda. This last, with 
HuMBERSTONE (N. Lincs and Leicstr.), will be fr. Humbert or 
Hunbeorht. See Homers field and Hubbebstone. 

HuMBLETON (Hull). Dom. Humeltone. 'Town of Humel/ var. 
of Homel (see Homildon). The letter b readily intrudes itself. 
Cf. Dom. Norfk. Humiliat (-iat=yet, ' gate '). 

HuNCOAT (Accrington), Dom. Hunnicot, and Hundcot (Leicester). 
Dom. Hunecote, 1124 O.E. Chron. Hundehoge (see -how). ' Cot, 
dwelling of Hunda ' or ' Huna.' O.E. hund means, of course, ' a 
hound.' Cf. ' Hunditone ' (Cheshire) in Dom. 

HuNGEREORD. The oldest (14th-15th cny.) forms all have Hunger-, 

Hungre-, but this can have nothing to do with Eng. hunger. It 

is O.E. hongra, hangra, ' a hanging wood on a hillside.' Cf. Clay- 

[ HANGER (1300 Cleyhunger), Hungerfield (Glouc), old Hanger-, 

HuNGERHTTiT., and also ' Hungrewenitune ' (Chesh.) in Dom. 

HuNGERHTLL (Nottingham, Henley - in - Arden, and Somerset) . 

Nott. H. old HongerhiU. O.E. hangra, hongra, ' a wood on a 

hill slope.' Cf. BiRCHANGER, Clayhanger, and above. There 

[tare also 2 Hungry Hills in Wore, and a Honger Grove 


Hunmanby (Yorks). Dom. Hundemanebi, 'Dwelling of Eune- 
man,' one in Onom. See -by. 

HuNNiNGHAM (Leamington). Dom. Huningeham, a. 1200 Honyng- 
ham. ' Home of the sons of Huna ' or ' Hun,' a common name in 
Onom. C/.HuNNiNGTON (Halesowen), 1402 Honyngton. See-ing. 

HuNSiNGORE (Wetherby). Dom. Holsingoure. More old forms 
>.:??; needed ; but the Hquids I and n not uncommonly interchange. 
•j;^ The ending is prob. not Gore, ' triangular wedge of land,' but 

rather ' bank,' O.E. ofr, obr, M.E. oure (see -over), ' of Hunsige,' 

a common O.E. name. 

Hunslet and H. Carr (Leeds). Sic Dom., but 1202 Hunesflet. 
' River of Huna.' See above and Fleet. The same man's 
name is seen in Hunshelf (S. Yorks), Dom. Hunescelf. Shelf 
in names often has the meaning ' ledge of rock.' For Carr 
'rock,' cf. Rbdcar; also cf. Hunscote (Wwksh.), 1327 Hun- 
stanscote, a. 1400 Huntscote. But Hunsley (N. Yorks) is 
Dom. Hundeslege, ' meadow of Hund ' or ' the Dog.' 

Hunstanton (The Wash). 1038 and c. 1150 cJuirt. Hunstanestun. 
Local pron. Hunston. ' Town of Hunstan.' There are 5 such 
in Onom. 


HuRSTMONCEAUX (Pevensey) is called after a Nor., Monceaux, who 
came over with the Conqueror. 


Huntingdon (also near Chester, Dom. Hunditone.) O.E. Chron. 
ann. 656, Huntendune, 921 ib. Huntandune, 1011 ib. Hunta- 
dunscir, c. 1175 Huntedune. ' Hill, down, of the hunter,' 
O.E. hunta, 2-6 hunte. Cf. Huntington (Cannock), 1262 Hun- 
tingdon, 1300 Huntyndon, and Dom. Yorks Huntindune. 
Hunta and Hunting were also men's names. See -ing, -don, 
and -ton. 

HuNTiNGTRAP CoMMON (Hadsor, Wore), a. 1300 Hounting- 
thrope, Huntingdrope, ' hunting village.' See -thorpe. 

HuNTON (Bedale and Maidstone). Be. H, Dom. Huntone. ' Town 
of Huna.' See Htjnslet and next. So Hunworth (Melton 
Constable), Dom. Huneworda. See -worth, ' farm.' 

Htjntspill (Highbridge) . Dom. Hunespil, a. 1500 Honys-, Hons- 
pill. ' Pool of Huna,' as above. Pill is often found in S. Wales 
for ' pool,' and the Dom. form here shows it is an O.E. variant, 
and not W. Cf. Htjntsham (For. of Dean), c. 1145 Honsum, 
c. 1200 Hunstone, 1298 Hondsum. ' Huna's home.' See -ham. 

HtniLEY (Atherstone arid Marlow). Ath. H. cMrt. Hurnlega, 1199 
Hurnlege, -lei. Mar. H. Dom. Herlei, 1316 Hurle. Skeat 
derives both fr. O.E. Tiyrne, ' a corner, a nook.' The Marlow H. 
is doubtful. See -ley. Hukcot (Kidderminster) is also puzz- 
ling. Dom. Worcote (W for H), a. 1200 Hurchote, -cote, 1275 
Horecote, a. 1600 Hurdcote. Here Duignan prefers ' cot of 
the herd or shepherd,' O.E. Jiyrde. Much more likely is O.E. 
horh or hore, ' dirt, filth,' 4 hoore, here used adjectivally as in 

HuRLiNGHAM (Putney). K.G.D. 782 Herlinga ham. 'Home of 
the Herhngs.' ? descendants of Herlewin. Cf. Roll. Rich. I. 
HurUngebure (Notts). 

Hurstbourne (3 in Hants). Not in Dom. Winchester H. 961 
chart. Hysseburna. ' Brook of Hyse,' 3 in Onom., var. of Husa; 
the corrup. is unusual. Of course. Hurst is O.E. hyrst, ' a wood, 
a grove, and also a sandy place.' See -bourne. 

Hurworth-on-Tees. 1183 Hurdewurd, 1344 Hurreworth. ' Farm 
of Hyrde ' or ' Hirde/ 2 in Onom. See -worth. 

Husthwaite (Easingwold). Not in Dom. Prob. 'farm, croft of 
Husa,' or ' Husi,' names in Onom. C//Huthwaite (Mansfield), 
no old forms, and Dom. Bucks Huscott. See -thwaite. 

HuTTON (13 inP.G.). Dom. Somst. Hutone, Dom. Yorks Hoton, 
Hottune over 40 times, nearly all for some Hutton, while 1202 
YorJcs Fines has Hoton, Hottun, a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Hotun, 
1183 Hotona — i.e., Hutton Henry. ' Town, village on the Hob 
or projecting height.' Cf. Hooton and Sheriff Hutton. 
Huthwaite (Mansfield and Sheffield) prob. has the same origin; 
but perh. fr. a man Huti or Hutto, seen in 'Hutisted ' (Staffs), 
Roll. Rich. I. The Sheff. H. is not in Dom. See -thwaite. 


Huxley (Chester) . Said to be cTiart. Hodeslea. ' Meadow of Hod ' 
or ' Hoda.' Cf. B.C.S. 1282 Hodes ac. But this is abnormal. 
The names Hue, Huch, or Hucco, all in Onom., seem more likely 
origins. See -ley. 

Hyde (Cheshire, Staffs, Wwksh., and Glouc). Hyde Heath (Bucks), 
and Hyde Park (London). O.E. higid, later hid, hide, hyde, 
an O.E. measure of land, orig. as much as would support one 
family and their dependents. The spelling of the place-name 
seems almost always Hyde, and the London H. goes back to 
Dom. The hida or ' hide ' is often referred to in Dom, 

Hydon Heath (W. Surrey) is wrongly spelt High Down, as it is 
1453 Hyddeneshethe, ' heath of ? Hyddan/ Onom. has only 
Hidda and Hiddi. On the Heath is Hydons Ball. 

Hylton (Sunderland). Prob. ' town on the slope or incline.' O.E. 
hylde, helde, cognate with hyll, ' a hill.' 

Hythe (Kent). 1051 O.E. Chron. HitSe, 1228 Close B. Heth, Heia, 
1234 ib. Hee. A hithe is ' a landing-rise, a quay,' a. 700 hydde, 
later hy^. Cf. Rotherhithe, etc. The old forms are exactly 
paralleled by those of O.E. rith, ' a stream.' See Rye, Ryde, etc. 

Ibstone (Wallingford). Dom. Ypestan. Prob. ^ Ipa's stone.' 
Onom. gives Ibba, Ibc, Ipa, Ipo, Ippa. Possibly ' look-out 
stone, fr. O.E. yppe, ' a raised or look-out place.' Cf. Ibstock 
(Leicester) — see Stoke — and Ipstones. See -ton. 

IcKENHAM (Uxbridge). Dom. Ticheham, also Tykenham. 'Home 
of Tica ' or ' Tican,' a name in Onom. O.E. ticcen, Ger. zieJce, 
is ' a goat, a kid.' Cf. Titchbobne. The loss of the initial Ms 
curious; but Norm, scribes regularly softened c into ch. But 
IcOMBE (Stow-on-Wold) is 781 chart. Icancumb, ' Icca's valley.' 

IcKHAM (Canterbury). 785 chart. loccham, Dom. Gecham, ' Home 
of locca,' a name not in Onom., but lea, Icca, and Ycca are. 
The O.E. charter name of R. Ock (Berks) is Eoccen. 

IcKLEFORb (Hitchin) and Ickleton (S. Cambs). Bamsey Chart. 
Icklingford, Bams. Chron. Iclesforde. B.C.S. iii. 630 Icelingtun. 
Dom. Hichelintone, Inchelintone, 1210 Iclintone. Patronymics. 
' Ford and village of the sons of Icel.' Cf. next and Giggles- 
wick. We get the same name in Icklesham (Winchelsea), 
1160-61 Pipe Ichelesha, 'home of Icel.' Kickle (Bucks) was 
1236 Close B. Ykel'. See -ham, -ing, and -ton. 

Ickni(e)ld Street or Way runs fr. ibsLiNGHAM (Bury St. Ed- 
munds) to Wantage. 854 chart. Icenhilde weg, 903 ib. Iccen- 
hilde wege, a. 1200 Ad regalem viam quae vocatur Ikenhilde- 
strete; Stratam regiam quae appellatur Ykenild; via regia vel 
le Ricnelde strete, a. 1300 Rikehnge strete, a. 1^00 Rykenylde- 
strete. Also a. 100 chart. Cinges strsete. Commonly said to 
come fr. the tribe Iceni {\k7)voI), who occupied all E. Anglia in 
1st cny. a.d. This is denied by Duignan in his full and valuable 


arts. s.v. The ending -hylt, -hilde, -ild may be O.E. TiyUe, ' the 
slope of a hill/ The rest of the name must remain doubtful. 
IcKWORTH (Bury St. E.) will be like Ickham (Canterbury), 
' farm of lea,' not fr. the Iceni ; whilst Icklingham will be ' home 
of the sons of Icel.' See above. 

Iddesleigh (Winkleigh, Devon). Dom. Edeslege. 'Meadow of 
Eda ' or ' Ida,' or ' Iddi,' all in Onom. Cf. 836 chart. Iddeshale 
{i.e., nook), and Idbuby (Oxon), Dom. Ideberie. See -bury and 

Idle R. (Notts, trib. of Trent). Bede Idla, c. 1120 Henry Hunt. 
Idle, 1200 chart. Yddil. There seems no likely W. root, so 
possibly it may be fr, O.E. idel, 'idle,' in its orig. meaning, 
' empty.' Cf. Elstree. There is also an Idle (Bradford), not 
in Dom. Idlicote (Shipston) is actually Dom. EteUncote, or 
' Mthelwyn'^ cot' ! Idelsbuby (Pinswick), a. 1125 Idelberge, 
is fr. a man Idel ; the name is found in 1199, and Rhys thinks 
it may be orig. W. Ithel for Juddhael, found on one of the 
Llantwit stones as Juthahels. Thus the man's name will be the 
same as in Giggleswick and Ickleeob,d. 

Ieithon E,. (Radnorsh.). Anwyl thinks this is perh. the Keltic 
goddess of speech. 

Iffley (Oxford). 1004 chart. Gifetelea, Dom. Givetelei, 1165 
Ivittelai, 1233 Iftel', 1234 Ghyitele, 1316 Yiftele. H. Alexander 
says origin unknown. Certainly it is not likely to be ' gift- 
meadow,' O.E. gift, gyft. Curiously there is in B.C.S. 834 an 
* Yffeles leah.' 

Ilam (Ashbourne). 1006 chart. Hilum, Dom. Ylum, a. 1300 Hylum, 
Ilium. Prob. O.E. loc. Ylon, ' at the Yl,' old name of the 
brook Manifold, trib. of R. Dove, on which it stands. Perh. 
same root as R^ IsiA (Sc), which Whitley Stokes thought perh. 
cognate with Old High Ger. Hen, mod. Ger. eilen, ' to hurry.' 
However, Duignan thinks Ilam is O.E. hyllum, ' at, among the 
hills.' ' The whole manor is hill and dale.' Cf. Hallam, 
HtTLAM, etc. Oxf. Diet, gives only one reference to a spelling 
of hill without h, and that c. 1580 ; so Duignan's origin is doubt- 
ful. Illey (Halesowen), a. 1200 Hilleley, Yleley, 1250 HiUeleye, 
is prob. ' mead of Tlla,' one such known. Cf. an Illey ge or 
lUanley in Kentish charters, and Monks Eleigh. 

Ilchester (Taunton). Perh. Ptolemy's IskaHs. Dom. and 1155 
Givelcestre, c. 1097 Flor. W. Givelceastra, 1158 luelcestre. 
' Camp on the R. Ivel, He, or Isle,' O.E. geafol, geafl, G. gahhal, 
*a fork' (of a river). Cf. Yeovil. Contraction began early, 
because already in Dom. we have I vie, and even Ile-minstre. 
See -Chester. 

Ilford (Essex). Dom. Ilefort, 1166-67 Pipe Heford. Prob. 'ford 
of Ilia, Illo,' or ' Ilo,' all names in Onom. Ile= isle, O.Fr. He, is 
not inEng. till 1290. But see above; it may be ' ford at the fork,' 


iLrnACOMBB (N. Devon). Dom. Alfreincome, 1233 Close R. Afiride-, 
Aufredecumbe, 1234 ih. Alfridecumbe. ' Valley of Ealhfrith,' a 
common O.E. name, spelt later Alfrith and Alfrid. See -combe. 

Ilkerton (Devon). Dom. Incrintona. Prob. 'village of Ilgcer/ 
one in Onom. The Inc- in Dom. will be due to the common 
interchange of liquids. 

iLKETSHALii (Buugay). Dom. Ilchesteshala. M'Clure thinks 
' Ulfketel's hall or mansion.' More old forms needed. It may 
be 1225 Patent B. Kilketeleshal. ? Ki error for U or Wi. 

Ilkley (Yorks). Thought to be Ptolemy OUcana. Dom. Illicleia, 
nuclei, IllecUve {i.e., 'cUff'). 'Meadow of ? ' If the name 
be O.E. it may be fr. Ulfach, Ulfeg, Willac or Willoc, all these are 
in Onom. See -ley. 

Ilmington (Shipston-on-Stour). c. 1010 chart. Ylmandune, Dom. 
Edelmitone, llmedone, a. 1200 Illamedone, 1326 llmyndon. 
' Hall, down of Eadhelm,' though some of the forms suggest 
JElmin, also in Onom. Endings -don and -ton often inter- 
change, q.v. 

Ilminsteb, (Somerset). Dom. Ileminstre. 'Church on the He' or 
' Isle.' See Ilchester and -minster. 

Ilsington (Newton Abbot). Dom. has only Ilesham. Cf. Dom. 
Nfk. Ilsinghetuna. ' Town of the Ilsings/ ? ' sons of Ylla,' 
one in Onom. Cf. Elsing and next. See -ing. 

Il(s)ton (Swansea). 1340 Iltwiteston; in W. Llanilltyd, a. 1400 
Lanyltwyt, -iltwyt. ' Town ' or ' church of St. IlUyd/ 5th cny. 
Cf. Llajsttwit. But Ilsley (Berks) is Dom. Hildeslei, ' Eild's 
mead,' and Ilton (N. Yorks) is Dom. Ilche-, Hilchetun, where 
the man's name seems already corrupted beyond recognition. 

Immingham (Grimsby). Dom. Imungeha. Patronymic. 'Home 
of the sons of Imma.' See -ing. The same man's name is seen 
in Impney (Droitwich), a. 1200 Imney, a. 1300 Ymenege, 
Imeneye, ' Isle of Imma.' See -ey. 

Ince (S. of R. Mersey). Dom. and c. 1380 Inise, a. 1200 Ynys, 
W. ynys, ' an island/ ;] or, as it does not seem ever to have been 
an island, G. innis, ' an inch,' ' a meadow by a river.' It seems 
to have this meaning in W. too, though not in the ordinary 
dictionaries. Cf. ' Ynichebeche ' (For. of Dean), cited by 
Baddeley, s.v. Inchbrook, which has no old forms. 

Ingatestone (W. Essex). The original name in Dom. is simply 
Ginge, Ing. It is regular for initial g to fall away (see I 'passim). 
Thus originally this must be the same as Ginge (Hendred, Berks), 
B.C.S. iii. 257 Gseging, later ib. iii. 173 Gainge, iii. 67 Gaincg, 
i. 506 Geinge, Dom. and Pipe (1155-56) Gain3, 1125 Estgeyng. 
Patronymic. 'Place of the sons of Gcega.' Cf. Gaydon. 
Gate is presumably O.E. geat, 'gate.' See -ing. Inglestone 


(Hawkesbury) is also spelt Ingateston, and 1610 Inguston. Older 
forms unknown. 

Ingbirohworth (Sheffield). Dom. Berceworde, which also stands 
for Rough Birchworth. ' Farm of Ingebiorg/ or ' Ingelbeorht/ 
Long names readily contract. See -worth. 

Ingestbe (Stafford). Dom. Gestreon, a. 1300 Ing-, Yngestre, Inge- 
straund, -trent. Prob. ' Inga'a tree/ O.E. treo, treow. Cf. 
Oswestry. But -straund is O.E. strand, ' shore, bank of a 
river/ here the Trent, which accounts for Ingestrent. The Dom. 
form is corrupt, but represents a pi. of treo. 

Ingham (Lincoln and Norwich), Inqwobth (Norwich). Dom. Lin. 
Ingeha; Nfk., Ingewrda. 'Home' and 'farm of Inga,' 2 in 
Onom. See -ham and -worth. Duignan thinks Ingon (Strat- 
ford, Wwk.), 704 chart. Ingin, must be O.E. in gin, ' in the gap ' ; 
while tfGTHOiiP (Yorks) is Dom. Ucnetorp, or ' Ycca'a village ' ; 
the -ne represents the .E . gen. -an, ne sounding en. See -thorpe. 

LsroLEBOBOUGH (hill, W. Yorks). Said to be 'beacon-borrow or 
hill.' Only inghj ' fire,' is not found till 1508, and in the 16th 
cny. only in Sc. Ingle -is prob. for Angle, O.E. Engle, ' barrow 
of the Angle,' or 'Enghsh' man. Cf. next, -borough is O.E. 
biorg, beorh, 2 beoruh, 4 borw, burgh, 7 barrough, ' hill, mound-Uke 
hill, barrow. Cf. Barbow and Whitbarrow (N. Lanes). 

Ingleby Cboss and Gbeenhow (Yorks) and Ingleton (Darlington 
and Kirby Lonsdale). Dom. Englebi, 1179-80 Ynglebi. Dar 
I. a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Ingeltun. 'Abode of the Angle,' O.E. 
Engle, or ' Englishman.' See -by and -ton. The -how will 
mean 'hill.' See Houghton. Cf. Inglestone (Hawkesbury). 

Inglewhite (Preston). This must surely be the same name as 
Dom. Yorks Ingulf vestuet, ' Ingulph's village' or -thwaite, q.v. 

Ingoldisthobpe (King's Lynn), a. 1300 chart. Ingoldesthorp, and 
Ingoldsby (Grantham). Dom. Ingoldesbi. 'Village' and 
' dwelling of Ingold,' in Onom. See -thorpe and -by. 

Inkbebbow (Worcester). 789 chart. Intanbeorgas, 803 ib. Intan- 
bergum, Intanbeorgan, Intebeorgas, Dom. inteberge, 1275 
Inkbarewe. ' Babbow, mound-Hke hill of Inta,' 3 in Onom. 
Cf. Inglebobough. 

Inkpen Beacon (Hungerf ord) . 931 chart. Ingepenne, Dom. Hinge- 
pene, 1298 Ingepenne, 1316 Tnkepenne. ' Inga'a pen,' O.E. 
'penn, ' a fold for cattle,' Cf. Inkford (Wore.) and Pambeb. , 

Inlade R. (N. Kent). Bede Genlade. ? W. gwen, gwyn Hoed, 
' white, clear place.' 

Inskip (Preston). Dom. Inscip. Prob. 'Zwe's or Ini'a hut,' Da. 
kippe, ' hut, low alehouse.' Oxf. Diet, does not give kip, ' a 
sharp-pointed hill,' before 1815. Possible also is ' Ine's skep ' 
or 'beehive.' O.N. sheppa, 'a basket,' is found once in O.E., 


and, after 1225, is common as skep, aXso 4-9 skipipe), though not 
found for ' beehive ' till 1494. Gf. Mtnskip. 

Instow (N. Devon). Old forms needed; not in Dom. Perh. 
' place,' O.E. stow, ' of Ine or Ini.' Cf. Dom. Bucks Instofald. 

Ipplepen (Newton Abbot). Dom. Iplepene, 1230 Ipelepenn. 
Prob. 'pen, enclosure (O.E. penn) of Ipele,' var. of Ypwine, 
the base name of Ebbsfleet, called in Life of St. Mildred Ypples 
fleet. The liquids I and n not seldom interchange. 

Ipsley (Redditch). 963 chart. Mpa leage, Dom. Epeslei, a. 1200 
Ippeslei. Either 'aspen-tree (O.E. ceps) meadow'; cf. Apps 
Couht and Apsley. Or perh. 'Mppa'a mead.' Cf. Epsom. 

Ipstones (Cheadle). a. 1200 Yppestan, a. 1300 Ippestanes. May 
be fr. a man as above. Duignan prefers ' look-out stones,' fr. 
O.E. yppe, ' a raised or look-out place.' Cf. Ibstone. 

Ipswioh. 993 O.E. Chron. Gipeswic, Dom. Gyppeswik, Guppewicus, 
c. 1097 Orderic Gepesuicum, 1455 Yepiswiche, 1463 Ipysweche, 
'DweUing of Gipa or Gyppa.' The name of the R. Oipe or 
Gipping is a back-formation. Por loss of initial g cf. Ilchbster 
and Isleham; also cf. Islip and Gibsmere (Notts), Dom. Gipes- 
mare, 1302 Gyppesmere. See -wich. 

Irby (Yorks, Burgh, and Birkenhead) and Ibeby (Kirkby Lonsdale 
and Carlisle). Yo. I. Dom. Irebi, 1202 Yorks Fines Yrebi. 
Kir. I. Dom. Irebi. ' Dwelling of Ira.' Cf. B.C.S. 1297 Yran 
ceaster, now Ibchesteb, (Wellingborough) and Ibton (E. Riding), 
Dom. Iretune. See -by and -ton. 

Ireleth (Askam, Lanes) . Dom. Gerleuuorde. ' Farm of ' ? The 
old ending is clear (see -worth), but the man's name quite doubt- 
ful. Perh. it is Girweald or Giroldus, perh. Gerl, implied in the 
patronymic Gerling, of which Onom. has one case. The present 
ending -leth has been influenced by N. hlith, ' a slope.' Cf. 
Holleth, also Lanes. 

Ibt R. and iBTLma R. (Cumbld.). ? W. iarth, ' a long rod, a goad.' 
Cf. next. 

Irthungborough (Northampton), a. 1100 chart. Irtelingburge, 
1135 O.E. Chron. HyrtUngberi. Presumably a patronymic; 
nothing likely in Onom. Cf. above and Haetlebury. See 

Irwbll R. (S. Lanes), c. 1200 Irewill. Doubtful, prob. Keltic. 
Perh. ' vigorous river,' W. ir gwili. Cf. Abergwili and Erewash. 

IsHAM (Kettering). Sic a. 1100; not in Dom. It is uncertain what 
man's name Is- will represent. The R. Isbome (Evesham) is 
709 chart. Esigburn, 777 Esegburn, ' brook of Esig, Ese, or Esi,' 
all forms are found; and Isham may come fr. this name too, as 
certainly does 1160-01 Pipe Sussex, Eisewrda {Dom. Isiwirde), 
' farm oiEse.' Cf Isfield, Uckfield (not in Dom.), and Essendon. 

ISIS R. 321 rVEL 

Isis R., name of R.. Thames above Oxford. Sic 1537 Leland, but 
c. 1387 Higden Ysa, 1603 Yshnyver (see Nevern). It is almost 
certain that this is a Keltic name for ' river ' or ' water/ as in 
OusE, and G. uisge. Cf. Wisbeach and the Wissey, trib. of Ouse. 
Skeat thinks that Ismere House, Kidderminster, c. 757 clmrt. 
Usmere, may show the same root. H. Alexander asserts that 
Isis is merely a ' fanciful separation ' of the L. name for Thames 
— Tarn -esis. This is contrary to our evidence, esp. that of 
Higden; and the form Esis never seems to occur. 

IsLEHAM (Soham) and Isleworth (R. Thames). Pron. I-zelworth. 
Dom. Gisleham, 1284 Isilham, 1321 Yeselham. Dom. Ghistel- 
worde, later Yhistelworth, Istelworth, c. 1600 Thistleworth. 
' Home ' and ' farm of the hostage,' O.E. gisel. Islebeok 
(N. Yorks), Dom. Iselbec, is presumably ' brook of the hostage ' 
too. But Islehampstead is prob. 1230 Close R. Ysenhamested, 
' homestead of Isen-.' There are several possible names, Isenbard, 
Isengrim, etc. See -worth. 

Isle op Dogs (London). Formerly Stepney Marsh. 1588 Ames' 
Map, He of Dogges; 1593 Norden's Map, ' Isle of Doges Ferme.' 
The origin of the name is quite unknown to history. See Thorn- 
bury and Walford's Grreater London, i. 535-37. Possibly because 
so many dogs were drowned in the Thames here. 

Islington (London). Old Isendune. The I, as in island, is said to 
be quite mod. Prob. ' hill of Isena.' Cf. B.C.S. 144 Isenan 
sewylm (' spring '); and see -ing, -don, and -ton. 

IsLip (Oxford and Thrapston). Ox. I. a. 1100 chart. Githslep. 
Thr. I. Dom. and c. 1240 Islep. ' Githa's leap,' O.E. hlyp, 
3 leep, Up, 4-6 lepe. There are 4 GitJuz's in Onom. Cf. 

Itchen R. (Hants and Warwick). Ha. I. 961 chart. Icena; Wa. I. 
998 chart, on Ycsenan, 1001 ib. on Ycenan. Some identify the 
Hants R. with Ytene, which Flor. W., c. 1097, says is the 
Angles' name for the New Forest. If so, we prob. have the 
common scribe's error t for c; and origin fr. O.E. etan, 3rd sing, 
pres. ytt, ' to devour, consume,' is not to be thought of. Prob. 
both rivers are pre-Kelt. Cf. R. Ithon (Radnor), R. Ythan 
(Aberdeensh.), Ythancsestir (Essex) in Bede iii. 22, Bp's Itch- 
INGTON, and IcKNTELD St. Long Itchington (Southam) is 
1001 chart. Yceantune, Dom. Icentone, Itchington (Thombury), 
is 967 chart. Icenantmie, Dom. Icetune; whilst Itchington 
(Suffolk) is also fr. a R. Icenan. Cf. K.C.D., iii. 316. 

Itteringham (Norfolk). Sic 1504, also Iteryngham. 'Home of 
Wihthering, Withering, or Witherwine,' all names in Onom. 
Dom. has only a Witeingeham. Cf. Withernsea. See -ing. 

IvEL (or Ile) R. (Somerset, and trib. of Great Ouse). See II- 


IvER (Uxbridge). a. 1300 Evere, Evre. Not in Dom. Ivor is an 
old Brit, name found in Geoffrey of Monmouth and Giraldus 
Cambrensis. But here it is prob. O.E. ifig ofr, M.E. ivi-over, 
' ivy bank/ It is on a bank. Cf. Asher, Beecher, Hasler, etc. ; 
and see -over. 

IxHULL (Oakley, Bucks). Not in Dom. 1240 Close R. Yxenhull. 
Prob. ' hiU of Ycca/ 2 in Onom. Cf. Ixworth (Bury St. E.). 
Dom. Icsewurda', ' Icca'B farm.' Hull is regular Midland Eng. 
for hill. 

Jackments Bottom (Kemble, Cirencester). Old Jakemans, Jacu- 
mans, called fr. a man. A Walter Jakemxins is known in 1355. 
Bottom is O.E. hotm, found with the secondary meaning, ' dell, 
low-lying land,' fr. c. 1325. 

Jacobstow (Cornwall). ' Place (O.E. stow) of Jacob,' brother of 
Winwaloe. See Gtjnwalloe. 

Jakkow, on Tyne. Bede In Gyrvum, Gyrwum; a. 1130 Sim. Dur. 
Girva, 1593 Southe Yarowe. W. garw, geirw, 'rough'; also 'a 
torrent.' Cf. G. garbh, ' rough,' and Yarrow (Sc). But M'Clure 
thinks fr. Kelt, gyrwe, ' fen, marsh.' Cf. Wear. 

Jersey, c. 380 Anton. Itin. Csesarea, c. 1070 Wm. Jumieges 
Gersus, a. 1170 Wace Gersui, 1218 Patent B. Geresye, 1219 ib. 
Gerese, 1447 Jersey, 1454 Gersey, 1587 larzie. Caesarea is 
' place named in honour of Coesar/ the ending being L. -ea, and 
not N. -ey. The present form is due to N. influence, and may 
be meant for O.N. *gers-ej, ' grass-covered isle ' ; O.E. grces, gross ; 
O.Fris. gers ; Dan. grces, 'grass.' But, all the same, it must be 
corrup. of Caesarea. Cherburg, close by, is 1237 Close B. 
Cesariburg; whilst Caithness — i.e., Norse-blooded — Hps to-day 
always call Jews Chews. Cf. Jerbourq, Guernsey. See -ey. 

Jervaulx or Joreval (Yorks, N. Riding). Pron. Jarvis. 1297 
JerovaUe. Er. val, mod. pi. vaux, is ' a valley'; but Jer(o)- is 
doubtfid. Cf. Jarrow. The Cistercian abbey was founded 
here in 1156. For the ending -val, cf. the name Furnivall, 
found fr. 13th cny., from Fournival, Normandy. 

Jesmond (Newcastle). Sic a. 1270. As above, the latter half 
seems clear enough, Fr. mont, ' mount, hiU,' but the former is 
quite doubtful. Cf. Richmond. 

Johnston (Pembroke). Sic 1603. Founded by Flemish settlers 
early in the 12th cny. Cf. Jameston, Jordanston (1516 
Jordanyston, W. Tref Wrdan), and Williamston, in same shire. 

Jump (Barnsley). Modern. The word jwwjp is not found in Eng. 
till 1511. 

Kedington (Haverhill, Suffolk) . Dom. Kidituna. Cf. Dom. Keding- 
ton (Wore.) . ' Town of Cedd, Cedda, or Ceadda,' gen. -an. Cf., too, 
Dom. Cedeslai (Wore.) . Kedsley is still a surname. See -ing. 


Keel (2 in Montgomery) and Keele (Newcastle-under-L.) . New. K. 
a. 1200 Kiel. Duignan is prob. right in calling all these Keltic. 
G. cille, * graveyard, church/ comes very near in sound; but G. 
words are unknown hereabouts, so it is prob. W. cil, ' a comer, 
a nook.' ' But Kbelby (N. Lines) must be fr. a man, as in 
Kelmarsh, Kelloe, etc.; so also Nun Keeling (Yorks), Dom. 
Chehnge, plainly a patronymic fr. a man. Keel or Cele. 

Keevil (Trowbridge). Dom. Chivele, 1217 Patent E. ELivele. The 
ending -ley, q.v., very rarely falls away to I only. But this is 
prob. ' meadow of Cifa/ Cf. Chevenage, Kiveton Park, 
Sheffield, etc. 

Kegworth (Derby). Not in Z>om. ' Farm oi Ceagga/ Cf.B.C.8. 
762 Ceaggan heal, and 939 chart. Cagbroc (Shaftesbury). See 

Keiqhley (Yorks). Now pron. Keithly. Dom. Chichelai, 1300 
Kighelye, 1303 Kighley. This is the same name as the well- 
known Abp. Chichele (c. 1362-1443), and must be ' meadow of 
CyJcell ' (var. of Cytel or Ketel, a common name), a name found 
once in Sim. Dur. The present pron. curiously confirms the 
fact that Cykell is var. of Cytel. See -ley. 

Kekewich or -wick (Runcorn) . See Kenswick, and c/. Checkjley, 
and 1286 Close R. Kekaller, ' Cec's alder-tree.' 

Keld (Richmond, Yorks). O.N. kelda, 'a well, a spring.' Cf. 
GuNNEBSKELD, Thrclkeld, etc.; also Dom,. Wore. ' Celdeslai,' 
and ih. Bucks, Celdenuella and Celdestone. 

Kelfield (York). Dom. Chelchefeld. The name represented by 
Chelche- is doubtful. It may be Ceollach or Cellah, found once 
in Onom. 

Kellet, Over and Nether (Carnforth) . Dom. Chellet, a. 1400 
Keldehth. O.N. kelda-hlith, ' spring, well on the hill-slope.' 
How early the name contracted, yet how late the true form 
lingered ! 

Kellington (Normanton). Z)om. Chellinctone, Chelintune. 'Town 
of Celling/ a recorded name, or ' of the sons of Ceolla.' See 

Kelloe (Coxhoe, Durham). 1522 Kellowe. Prob. ' CeoVs hill ' or 
' how,' O.N. haug-r, ' a mound, a cairn,' found in Eng. as how 
a. 1340. See -how. 

Kelmarsh (Northampton). Dom. Keilmersc. 'Marsh,' O.E. 
mer{i)sc, ' of Ceol.' Cf. Kelby (S. Lines), Dom. Chelebi, and 

Kelston (Bath). Old forms needed. Not in Dow. But cf. Dom. 
Bucks Celdestane — i.e., ' stone at the well ' or ' spring,' O.E. 
celde, O.N. Jcelda. Cf. Kilham, also Kelmstow, Halesowen, 
1327 Kelmestowe, ' place ' of a chapel to St. Kenelm or Coenhelm. 


Kelvedon (Essex). 998 chart. Cynlaue dyne, Dom. Keluenduna, 
1298 Kelwendon. Prob. 'hill of Cynelaf/ 6 in Onom. The 
change here is unusual. See -don. 

Kemerton (Tewkesbury). Said to be 840 chart. Cyneburgincgtun 
{B.C.S. 430), ' dwelhng of the sons of Gyneburh/ a woman. See 
-ing. But Dom. Chin-, Chenemertune, ' dweUing of CynemcBr* 

Kemmaes Head. See Cemmaes. 

Kempley (W. Glouc). Dom. Chenepelei, 1221 Kenepelege, 1239 
-pelega. Some think, O.E. cyne-ceppel-leah, ' royal apple- 
meadow,' an interesting corruption. Norm, scribes, esp. in 
Dom., have a habit of turning c into the softer ch. But it is 
already 1195 Kempelee, and Baddeley may be right in making 
it ' Gnapa'a lea,.' 

Kempsey (Worcester). 799 chart. Kemesei, 977 ib. Cymesige, 
Dom. Chemesege (Norm, spelling), 1275 Kemesey. Prob. ' isle 
of Ceomma.' A p often intrudes, cf. Bampton, Brompton, etc. 
See next and -ey. 

Kempsfobd (Glouc). O.E. Chron. 800 Cynemaeresford, 1236 
Kynemeresford, 1541 Kamyseford. ' Ford of Cynemcer.' But 
Kempston (Bedford), Dom. Cameston (4 times), 1242 Close R. 
Kemes-, Kemstun, is prob. fr. a man Ceomma, in Onom. The 
letter p is a common intruder. 

Kempton (Sunbury). Dom. Chenetone; 1222 Patent R. Kenintun; 
1238 Kenni-, Kenyton, Kenet' ; 1331 Kenyngton. Prob. ' town 
of Coen or Coena,' both in Onom. 

Ken CHESTER (Hereford), c. 380 Anton. Itin. Magnis, Dom. Chene- 
cestre. O.E. cyne ceaster, ' royal camp or town.' Cf. Kempley. 

Kendal, a. 1199 Kirkeby in Kendal, 1303 Brunne Kendale, 1575 
Kirkbie Kendall. 'Dale, vaUey of R. Kent,' which must be 
the same as R. Kennet — at least so thinks Skeat. This K. 
is not in Dom., but we have there a ' Cheldale ' — i.e., Kendall 
Farm (Driffield)— on the R. Kell, trib. of the Hull. The liquids 
I and n occasionally interchange. KeU may be W. celli, ' a 
wood, a grove.' See -dale and Ktrkby. 

Kenfig Hill (Bridgend, Glam.). Chart. Kenefeg. W. cefnyffyg, 
' at the head of the swamp,' now mostly buried in the sand, but 
once famous. Caen or Ken Wood (Hampstead) might be fr. 
cefn too ; but it does not seem mentioned till 1661, which is far 
too late for us to be sure of anything. 

Kenilworth (Warwick). Dom. Chinewrde, a. 1199 Roll. Rich. I. 
Kenilleworhe, 1229 Kenillewurth, 1297 R. Glouc. Keningwrthe, 
Kiningwurthe, 1298 Kenilworthe. The true form is found only 
in the other and now defunct Kenilworth, near Worcester, 974 
chart. Cynelde weorthe, 980 ib. Cinilde wyrthe. 'Farm of 
Cynehild,' a woman. Cf. Dom. Salop Cheneltone. The word 


kennel is fr. Nor. Fr., and not found in Eng. till c. 1350. See 

Kenley (Shrewsbury and Surrey). Shr. K. Dom. CheneUe. 
' Coena'a meadow.' Several of this name in Onom. See -ley. 
But Kenneblby (Oswestry) and Kennebsley (Wellington, 
Salop, and Hereford), Dom. Chenardelei, Oswestry, are fr. 
Coenweard. The surname Kenward is still in use. 

Kennet R. (Berks) and town and R. (Newmarket) ; also old name 
of Marlboro, which is 1223 Kenet. Be. K. is c. 380 Ant. Itin. 
Cunetio, 1006 O.E. Chron. and B.C.S., ii. 367, Cyneta; Ne. K. 
c. 1080 Kenet, Dom. Chenet. Keltic root of unknown meaning. 
Cf. Kennet (Sc), Kent R. (Wstmld.), Kentford (Sussex) 
{Chron. Ramsey Chenetheford), and Kintbuby. 

Keistnington (London and Berks). Lo. K. Dom. Chenintone, 
c. 1390 Kennyngton. Be. K. O.E. chart. Cenintune, Cenigtune; 
later Ohenig-, Chenitun; c. 1290 Keninton. Seems to be O.E. 
Coenantun, ' town of Coena ' (3 in Onom., and 1 Goen), or else 
' of Coena's descendants.' Skeat prefers to derive fr. Keen or 
the Keenings, O.E. cene, ' bold, valiant, keen.' Cf. Dom, 
Devon, Chenigedone, ' Keening's hill,' and Kensworth (Beds). 
KJBNNINGHALL (Thetford), Dom. Cheninchala, Chenighehala, has 
prob. the same origin. The -ighe- is the common -incg, sign of 
the patronymic. See -ing and -hall. 

Kensington (London). Dom. Chenesitune. Prob. 'town of 
Coensige ' or ' Gensige ' (2 in Onom.). See -ing. 

Kenswick (Worcester). Dom. Checinwiche, a. 1200 Checkingwic, 
a. 1400 Kekingwik, Kekingewyke, Kekeswych. Prob. ' dwell- 
ing of the sons of Cecca,' cf. Checkley, or ' of Cygincg,' one 
in Onom. Cf. Kekewich and Kensworth, Beds (not in Dom.), 
and see -wick. 

Kent. 55 b.c. Jul. Ccesar Cantium, c. 30 b.o. Diod. Sicul. Kavnov, 
? a. 600 Gregory Tours Cantia, JSede Cant-uarii, a. 810 Nennius 
Ghent, O.E. Chron. 676 Centlond, Dom. Ghent; also c. 930 
Lett, to Athelstan Gantescyre. E. Nicholson conjectured an 
O.Kelt, root meaning ' white,' fr. the chalk cHfEs. Cf. W. gwyn, 
gwen. Possibly it means ' headland.' Cf. G. ceann, ' head,' 
and Gabrosenti, O.Kelt, form of Gateshead. For R. Kent 
see Kendal and Kennet. 

Kentchubch and Kendebchtjbch (Hereford) are only 1 mile 
apart. Not in Dom. Prob. both are=LLANGYNiDE. 

Kentisbueyfoed (Barnstaple). Dom. Ghentesberie, Exon. Dom. 
Ghentisberia. The Kenti- may represent some such O.E. name 
as G entwine or Gintswine, a common name, or perh. Goenstan 
or Ghenestan. Cf. Kentchubch. 1160-61 Pipe Glouc. has a 
Gantebohhan, which may be for ' Ganta's bow ' or ' arch.' O.E. 
bo^a has this sense. There is a Canta in Onom., and this may be 


the name in Kentisbury too. Cf. Kentisbeare (CuUompton), 
Dom. Chentesbere. See Beer, ' a wood/ 

Kentish Town (London). Old Kanteloues Town, later Kentes- 
towne. Named fr. the family of Cantlow, formerly Kaunteloe, 
Norm. Chanteloup, or champ de lov/p, 'wolf's field.' Inter- 
esting example of ' popular ' etymology. 

Kenton (Exeter and 2) . Dom. Devon and Bucks Chentone, Sffk. 
Kenetona; 1157 Pipe Chenton (Devon). Older forms needed. 
May be fr. a man Coen, in Onom. Perh. fr. the common 
name G entwine, contracted. 

Keresley (Coventry). 1275 Keresleye. 'Meadow of the water- 
cress,' O.E. ccBTse, cerse. Cf. Cresswell and Abbot's Kers- 
WELL; also Kersewell (Wstrsh.), 1275 Kersewelle. 

Kersey (Suffolk). O.E. chart. Caersige, 1342 Kersey; also 1262 
' panni cersegi,' Kersey cloths. ' Isle of watercresses.' See 
above and -ey. Dom. has only Keresfelda and -halla. 

Kessingland (Lowestoft). Dom. Kessinga-, Kessingeland ; 1225 
Patent E. Cassinge-, Casingland. ' Land of the sons of Casa,' one 
in Onom. Cf. B.C.S. 341 Kasingburne and Chesham. See -ing. 

Kesteven (E. Lines). Dom. Chetsteven, a. 1200 chart. Ketstefena, 
1242 Ketsteven'. Looks like ' Cetta's stem or stock,' O.E. stefn, 
stemn. But for Chet- cf. also Chetwood. 

Kestle Mill (St. Columb Minor, Cornwall). There is in Dom. 
Salop a Cestulle, or ' hill of Cest/ an unknown man. But it is 
quite uncertain if this is the same. 

Keswick (Cumberland, and Taverham, Norfolk) ; also East Kes- 
wick, near Leeds {Dom. Chesuic). Tav. K. Dom. Kesewic, 
c. 1150 Casewic, and so = Cheswardine and Chiswick, ^cheese 
farm,' ' house where cheese is made.' See -wick. Keston 
(Hayes, Kent), Dom. Chestan, may be similarly ' cheese stone ' or 
* cheese-press ' ; otherwise it will be 'stone of Cis,' a name in Onom. 

Ketley (Wellington, Salop). Not in Dom. Cf. 1158-59 Chateleia, 
Pipe Norfk. and Suffk., ' Meadow of Cetil, Chetel/ or ' Ketil '; 
all forms in Onom. The seat of the Curzons of Keddleston was 
a. 1400 Ketilston. See -ley. But Ketford (Dymock), Dom. 
Chitiford, is fr. a man Cyta. 

Kettering. 963 O.E. Chron. Ketering, 1125 Kateringes (pL), 
and Ketteringham (Norwich), 956 chart. iEt Cytringan, Dom. 
Ketrincham. Patronymics. ' Abode of the sons of Kater,' 
still in use as a surname. See -ing and -ham (where the -an of 
956, a possible loc, will be found referred to). 

Kettleburgh (Wickham Mket.). 1224 Ketelbergh. ' Burgh, 
castle of Cetel or Cytel '; a common name. See -burgh. 

Ketton (Stamford). Not in Dom. Cf. 1183 Boldon Bk. Kettona 
(Durham). Prob. ' village of Cetta '; one in Onom. Cf. Ket- 
EORD ; see -ton. 


Keverne (Cornwall). Not in Dom. 1536 Keweyn. Prob. fr. 
St. Keynwen or Kenew, daughter of Brychan of Brecknock, and 
aunt of St. Cadoc. Kenwyn is the name of the parish of which 
Truro stands. Cf. St. Keyne (Cornwall), but not Keynsham. 

Kew (London) . Old Kayhough, Kayhoo, Keye ; 1749 Kew. ' Pro- 
montory, point of land at the quay or wharf '; O.Fr. kay, cai ; 
in Eng. 4 keye, and see Hoe, Hoc. 

Kewstoke (Weston-super-Mare). Dom. Chiwestoch. Said to be 
' place of St. Kew.' St. Ciwg or Cwick was patron saint of 
Llangwick, on E.. Tafl, possibly Exon. Dom. Lancichuc. There 
is also a St. Kywa or Ciwa in the Exeter Martyrology, Feb. 8. 
Cj. Roll Rich. I., ' Kiweshope ' (Hereford). 

Keyham (Leicester and Devonport). Lei. K. Dom. Caiham and 
Caitorp. Cf. Dom. Surrey and Salop Ceiha. ' Home of ?' perh. 
Ceawa. Cf. B.G.S. 833 Ceawan hlaew. There is a well-known 
Pict. name Ce or Keth, now Kay. Cf. Key^orth (Notts), Dom. 
Caworde, 1200 Kye-, c. 1294 Keword, which Mutschmann takes 
for O.E. cy worth, 'cow farm,' O.E. cu, pi. cy, Sc. kye. 

Keymer (Hassocks, Sussex). Dom. Chemere. Prob. ^ Ceommn'a 
mere ' or ' lake.' Cf. Cromer, etc. 

Keynor (Selsea). O.E.Chron. 4:11 Cymenesore, ' Cymen's shore,' 
Dom. Coonore, -nare ; where the Saxon ^lle and his 3 sons, Cissa, 
Cymen, and Wlencing, landed in 477. Cf. the Cumensora 
near W. Wittering (Sussex), mentioned in a spurious charter. 
See -or. 

Keynsham (Bristol), c. 990 Ethdweard re 871 Coeginesham, Dom. 
Cainesham, 1223 Patent R. Keinesham. ' Home of Keigwin,' 
a surname, prob. Cornish, still in use. Cf. Caijwell. 

KsYNTON (Dorset} Wilts, Salop). Do. K. formerly Chintone, Con-, 
Cuntone; Wi. K. Contone; Sa. K. Cantune. O.E. Coenantun, 
' town of Coena ' (3 in Onom.). 

KiBWORTH (Leicester). Dom. Chiburde. Cf. 1208 Torks Fines 
Kybbewordhe. 'Farm of Cybba.' Cf. B.C.S. 1002 Cybban 
stan. See -worth. 

KroDAL. See Cheadle. 

Kidderminster. Dom. Chideminstre, 1223 Elideminstre, a. 1300 
Kyder-, Kydelminstr, c. 1350 Kiderminestere. In a grant of 
736 lands at ' Chideminstre ' (Norm, scribe's spelling) are given 
by K. u3i]thelbald to Earl Cyneberght on which to bmld a 
monastery (see -minster). So the name is ' Monastery, monas- 
tery-church of Cydda.' There are 3 in Onom,., also a Cyda, a 
Cydd, and a Cyddi. The r is a later insertion, so M'Clure's deriva- 
tion fr. O.W. cyddwfr {= cyn-dwfr), ' confluence of the rivers,' is 
barred out. Besides, the confluence of Stow with Severn is 
4 miles away. But there is a Kiddermore Green (Wolverhamp- 


ton), which may have a W. origin. For ' cockney ' insertion of 
r cf. Tattershall. 

KiDUNGTON (Oxon). Dom. Chedelintona, Cedelintona (also in 
Devon), 1149 Cudelyngton, 1214Kedelinton, 1227-28 Cudelinton, 
Kedelyngton. ' Town of the sons of Cydel,' or perh. ' of Ceadela.' 
But KiDDiNGTON (Oxon.) is Dom. Chidintone, ' town of Cydda.' 


KiDSGROVE (Stoke-on-T.)- No old forms; but cf. Dom. Northants 
Chidesbi. ' Grove, wood of Cydda.' Cf. above. 

Kidwelly (Csermarthen). a. 810 Nennius and a. 1130 Lib. 
Landav. Cetgueli; Brut y Twys. ann. 991 Cydweli; Ann. Cambr. 
KedweH ; 1401 Kedewelly. In mod. W. Ced-, Cadweli. A little 
doubtful; prob. a tribal name fr. a chief Cadwal. 

KiELDER (Cheviots). G. caol dobhar (W. dwr). 'Narrow stream.' 
In G. ao is pron. ii, but on Eng. lips varies greatly in sound; 
with the sound in Kielder cf. Eddrachilis (Sc.)=G. eadar-a- 
chaolais, and pron. by English people EddraheeUs. 

KiLBURN (London), c. 1134 chart. Kuneburna, Keneburna; later, 
Kele-, Keelebum, Caleburn; 1536 Kilnborne. ' Burn, brook 
of Cuna or Coena or Coen ' ; several in Onom. But later forms 
indicate some comparison with O.E. ceol, ' a keel, a ship.' As 
we often see, any liquid may interchange with any other ; hence 
the n becoming I. Cf. Killinghall. 

KiLCOT (Gloucester). Dom. Chilecot, 1307 Kulkotte. Prob.= 
Chilcott (Wells), and so Keltic for ' narrow wood.' It is 
difficult to account for the Chile- otherwise, unless it be similar 
to KiLHAM, with chile for O.E. celde, ' a spring.' Cf. Killpeek 
(Herefd.), 1219 Kilpec. However, there is one Killa, or Cylla, 
in a Mercian chart. 

KiLHAM (Driffield). Dom. Chillon (6 times), 1179-80 Pipe Chillum. 
An old loc, chillon or cyllum, ' at the sources or springs ' of 
R. Hull; O.E. celde, O.N. kelda, ' a spring, a well.' Cf. Kelham 
(Notts), Dom. Calun, 1189 Pipe Kelum, and Welham. There is 
another near Coldstream (Sc). 

Killinghall (Harrogate). Dom. Chenehalle, Chilingale. 'Nook 
of Coena ' or ' Cilia,' with gen. -an. Dom. is perpetually inter- 
changing I and n. Cf. CtttTiTiTNGBam, Kilburn, etc. See -hall. 

KiLLiNGWORTH (Newcastle), c. 1330 B. Brunne Kilyngworth, 
1424 KyUynworth, and Kilworth, South (Lutterworth), 1288 
Close B. Suth-Kevelingwrth, 1307 Kivelingworth. The ending, 
of course, is ' farm.' See -worth. The prefix seems a patrony- 
mic otherwise unrecorded, perh. fr. vb. kevel, O.N. kejla, ' to 
bit or bridle,' and so this might be ' bridling-place.' Cf. above. 
But Kilworth is in Dom. Chiveleswordc, which postulates a 
man Cifel, or the like. 


KiLMiNGTON (Bath and Axminster). Dom. Chelmetone, Ex. Dom. 
Chilmatona. Ax. K. 1219 Patent B. Kelmeton. * Town of 
Gelm/ one in Onom., or ' of Oelm's sons/ See -ing. 

KiLNSEA (Spurn Hd.). Dom. Chilnesse. Perh. 'isle, peninsula of 
the kiln ' ; O.E. cyline, cyln, O.N. kylna. Cf. Kilnhurst (Rother- 
ham). The sign of the gen. in Kilnsea suggests a man's name, 
but there is nothing in Onom. except Cylm ; Cyln might be a 
variant. Kilnwick (Beverley) is Dom. Chelingewie, Chilewid, 
a patronymic fr. Gil or Cele, the name seen in Kelby (S. Lines), 
Dom. Chelebi. See -wick, 'dwelhng.' 

KiLSBY (Rugby). Not in Dom. 1155-62 c^arf.Kylesbya. 'Dwelling 
of CilU or Cilia ' ; several in Onom. Of. 1155 Pipe Cheleswuyda, 
' Cille's farm,' and Kelby (S. Lines), Dom. Chelebi. See -by. 

KiLViNGTON (Thirsk). Dom. Cheluintun, c. 1190 Kilvingtone, 1200 
Kilvintone. Prob. 'town of Ceolwynn'; one in Onom. But 
KiLvnsrQTON (Notts), Dom. ChUvintun, Chelvinctun. Mutsch- 
mann would make ' home of the sons of Cylfa ' ; one in Onom.) 
See -ing. Kilve (Bridgwater), not in Dom., 1221 Patent R. 
Kelve, seems to be one of the rare cases, like Goodrich, etc., 
where a place-name is simply a man's name, here Ceolf, short 
form of the common Geolwulf. 

KiMBERLEY occurs 3 timcs, each a different name, and none fr. 
KiMBER, name of R. Pang (Berks) near its source, Kelt, cumber, 
W. cymmer, ' a confluence.' K., Nottingham, is Dom. Chi- 
nemar(e)Lie, ^ Gynemcer's mead.' K., Warwksh., is 1311 Cyne- 
baldeleye, ^ Gynebald's mead'; and K. near R. Yare (Norfk.) 
is Dom. Chineburlai, 1237 Kyneburl', 'mead of Gynebeorht,' a 
very common O.E. name. Gf. Kilmersdon (Bath), 1235 Kyne- 
merdon, and Kimsbury (Gloster), c. 1230 Kinemeresbur. 

KiMBOLTON (Hunts and Leominster). Hu. K. Dom. Chenebaltone, 
1297 Kynebauton. ' Town of Gynebald ' ; m and n often inter- 
change. Gf. Great Kimble, and Kilmeston (Southampton), 
Dom. Chenehnestune, ' Kenelm'a town.' 

KiMPTON (Andover and Welwyn). An. K. Dom. Chementune. We. 
K. Dom. Kamintone, 1210 Kentone, later Kymi-, Kemitone, 
1346 Kumynton. Skeat is clear that this last is O.E. Gyman 
tun, ' town of Cyma.' It is on the R. Kime, but this must be a 
back formation. Gf. Kyme and Dom. Devon Chiempabera, 
perh. fr. Gempa — i.e., ' warrior.' 

Kinder Scout (The Peak). Scout is Oxf. Diet, sb^, fr. O.N. sJmte, 
'a high, overhanging rock.' Kinder is doubtful; old forms, 
needed. It looks like G. cinn dobhair (W. dwr), ' at the head 
of the stream,' but this would be a very rare type of name for 
this region. So prob. it is fr. kind, sic in O.E. and O.N., in 
mod. Icel. Jcind-r, ' sheep,' though in older usage it seems to 
mean only ' kind, sort.' 



KiNETON or Kington (Warwksh.). 969 chart. CyTigtune, Dom. 
Cintone. Plainly ' royal town, town'of the king '; O.E. cyning. 
Cf. Dom. Lines Chinetorp, O.E. cyne, ' royal ' village. 

Kingsbury (Tamworth). Dom. Chinesburie, a. 1200 Kinesburi, 
1322 Kinesbury. ' Burgh, town of Cyne ' — i.e., ' the royal/ Said 
to have been a residence of the Mercian kings. See -bury. 

Kingsclere (Newbury). See Burghclere. 

KiNGSCLiFFE (Wansford, Northants). 1202 Y or Jcs Fines Cunigges- 
clive super Teisam, must be the same name. 

King's Langley (Herts). 'King's long meadow'; O.E. lang Uah. 
The land here was in royal possession from Hen. I. to Cromwell, 
and a house was built here by Hen. III. Kjengsnorton (Bir- 
mingham), Dom. Nortune, also belonged to the Crown from 
the Conquest to Hen. III. 

Kjng's Lynn. Dom. Lena, c. 1100 Lun, 1314-15 Lenne, 1450 
LjTine. O.E. hlynn means usually ' a torrent running over 
rocks,' which does not exist here. Its later meaning, ' a pool,' 
is not recorded till 1577-87, Hohnshed's Chron. Cognate with 
W. llyn. Com. lin, G. linne, ' a pool '; so the origin here may be 
Keltic. The town's history goes back at least to 1100, prob. 
earUer. Originally it was a fief of the Bp. of Norwich, and so 
called Lynn Episcopi; but it was emancipated by Hen. VIII., 
and at that time received its present name, Lynn Regis or 
King's Lynn. 

KiNGSLEY (Cheshire and Hanley). Ches. K. sic a. 1128. Han. 
K. Dom. Chingeslei, a. 1300 Kynggesley. 'King's meadow.' 
See -ley. 

King's Nympton (Chulmleigh). 1287 Kingesnemeton. Hybrid. 
See Nymphsfield. 

KiNGSTHORPE (Northampton). Dom. Chingestorp. 'King's vil- 
lage.' See -thorpe. 

Kingston (13 in P.G.). Surrey K. 619 Cingestun, 838 Cyningestun. 
Camb. K. Dom. Chingestone, 1210 Kingestone. Notts K. Dom. 
Chinestan, 1291 Kynstan. Warwk. K. 1327 Kyngestone. ' King's 
town.' Sur. K. was the usual place for the consecration of the 
Saxon Kings. The Notts name is O.E. cyne stan, ' royal stone.' 
Kingston Lisle (Wantage), 1288 Kingeston Lisle, was called 
after William de Insula or De L'Isle, in the time of Hen. II. 

KiNGSTONE Bagpuize (Berks). Dom. Chingestune in Merceham 
(Marcham) ; also in chart. Kingestun, Cingestun. Called after a 
Norman Bachepuiz (Chron. Abingdon, temp. Wm. II.), 1316 
Bakepus, 1428 Bagepuys. Prob. fr. O.Fr. hache, ' a gulley, a 
watercourse,' cf. Eng. bach, and O.Fr. puz, puiz, Fr. puits, L. 
puteus, ' a well.' The Fr. place is now Bacquepuis, Eure. 

KiNGSwiNFORD (Dudley). 1023 chart. Swinford, Dom. Suinesford. 
' Ford of the swine '; O.E. swin. It was a royal manor in Dom. 


KiNGSWOOD (5 in P.O.). 1160 Pipe Chingeswuda, Kent. Dom. 
Glouc. has only Chingescote, now Kingscote. 

KiNGWESTON (Somerset). Dom. Kenwardston, an interesting cor- 
ruption. Cyneweard is a very common O.E. name. 

KiNNERLEY (Oswestry) and Kinnersley (W. Hereford, Severn- 
Stoke, and Wellington, Salop). 1223 Patent R. Kinardeseia 
(see -ey), ? which. Wei. K. Dom. Chinardelei, Chinardeseie. 
' Meadow of Cyneheard/ a common O.E. name. Cf. next and 
1155 Pipe Oxon. Chenewardberge, ' hill of Coenweard ' or 
' Kenward '; also Kingerby (Lines), 1218 Patent R. Kyngorby, 
prob. ' dwelling of Cynegar ' ; one in Onom. See -by and -ley. 

KiNNERTON (Cheshire). Dom. Cinbretune. ^ Cynebeorht's town.' 
Cf. above. 

KiNTBURY (Hungerford). Dom. Cheneteberie, chart, set Cynetan 
byrig, 1316Kenetbm-y. ' Burgh ontheR. Keknet.' See -burgh. 

Kesiton (Hereford and Salop). He. K. Dom. Chingtune; also 
Kington (Worcester). Dom. Chintune, 1275 Kyngton, 1340 
Kynton, which Duignan renders O.E. cyne tun, ' royal town.' 
Cf. 1167-68 Pipe Sussex Cunton. 

Kinver Forest (Stourbridge). 736 chart, 'the wood called 
Cynibre,' 964 Cynefare, Dom. Chenefare, 1222 Kenefer, Testa 
de Nevill Kinefar, 1282 Kynefare. M'Clure thinks this may 
represent an early Cunobriga, ' high burgh.' The origin is quite 
uncertain. It is very Hkely Kelt., ? W. cwn y bre, 'height, top 
of the brae ' or ' slope.' O.E. cyne means ' royal,' and cyne 
fare (or fcer) ' royal road ' ; but this may have been a Saxon 
corrup. of a W. name. 

KrppAX (Pontefract). Dowi. Chipesch. The local pron. is Kippis. 
O.E. ceap-cesc,' market ash-tree.' Cf. Chepstow and Borrowash. 

KiRBY (11 in P.O.). Dom. Leicr. Cherchebi. Contracted fr. 
KiRK-BY, ' dwelling by the church.' Kirby Wiske (Thirsk) 
is 1212 Kirkeby super Wise. See Appleton Wiske. 

Kirby Cross and Kirby-le-Soken (Walton-on-Naze) . See above. 
Not in Dom. These are among the most southerly of names 
in -by. Soken is a district held by socage, in O.E. socn, fr. 
soc, ' the right of holding a court in a district.' All dwellers in a 
soken were under the jurisdiction of the lord of the manor there. 

KiRDFORD (Petworth). Not in Dom. Cf. c. 1030 ' Cyrdeslea,' 
Hereford. ' Ford of Cyrd,' contraction of Ceolred, a common 
O.E. name. 

KiRKBRiDE (Carlisle). 1189 Kirkebride. ' Church of St. Bride,' 
or Bridget or Brigida of Kildare. 

KiRKBY (16 in P.G.). Dom. Yorks Chirchebi or Cherchbi 35 times, 
and Kirkebi once, all for some Kirkby or Kirby — i.e., ' dwelling 
by the church.' Cf. Kendal; see -by. 


KniKHAM (N. of R. Ribble). Dom. Chicheham (r omitted by error), 
c. 1141 Chircheham, the name as written by a Norman or 
Southern scribe. ' Home, house by the Tcirh,' N. Eng. and Sc. 
for church. 

KiRKLiNGTON (Bedale and Southwell). Be. K. Dom. ChercHnton, 
Cherdinton, 1212 Torhs Fines Kertlinton. So. K. Dom. Cherlin- 
ton, Cherluintone, 1291 Kirtelyngton. These may be same as 
KniTLiNGTON ; but prob. they are mostly Kirk-linton, ' the Lyn- 
TON by the church.'' However, Kirklinton (Carlisle) is c. 1120 
Kirklevington, prob. 'church of the village of Lewine' or ^Leof- 
wine/ or his descendants. Cf. Livingstone (Sc.) ; and see -ing. 

KniKOSWALD (Chimbld.). 1166-67 Pipe Karcoswald. 'Church of 
Oswald.' Cf. Oswestry. 

KmKSTALL Abbey (Leeds). Founded 1147-52. 1237 Close B. 
Kirkestal. c. 1540 Leland Qiristal. ' Kirk ' or ' church place.' 
O.E. steel 

KJEETLiNG (Newmarket) and Kirtltngton (Oxford), c. 1080 
CurteHnge, Dom. CherteUnge, 977 O.E. Chron. Kyrtlingtune, 
a. 1130 Sim. Dur. CirtHng, 1230 Close B. Kurt-, KertUnton, 1241 
ib. Curlinton. This must be a patronymic, * place of the sons of 
Cyrtel' though no name Hke this is given in Onom. Cf. KniK- 
LESTGTON ; and see -ing. 

Kjeton Lindsey (Lines). 1156 Pipe Chirchetune. 'Kirk or 
church town of the Lindsays." Cf. Kirkham. Randolph de 
Limesay or Lindeseye — i.e., ' isle of lime-trees ' — came over 
with the Conqueror. 

Knapton (York and N. Walsham) and Knapwell (Suffk.). Yo. 
K. Dom. Cnapetone, others not in Dom., 'town of Cnapa'; 
whilst Suf . K. is sic 1230, ' well of Cnapa.' Cf. Knapthorpe 
(Caunton), Dom. Chenapetorp. But Knap Farm, Cold Knap 
Wood, etc. (Wstrsh.), are fr. O.E. cncep, M.E. knap, 'a hillock.' 
So also Knappe (Sussex), 1218 Cnappe. 

Knabesbobough. Dom. Chenaresburg (5 times) . 1 155 Pipe Chanar- 
desburc, 1156 Canardsburc, 1158 Cnardesburc, 1179-80 C!narre- 
buri, c. 1180 Ben. Peterb. Chiaresburgus. The orig. name was 
' burgh, castle of Kenward ' or ' Cyneweard.' But as it stands 
on a rocky slope it seems early to have been thought ' fort of 
the rugged rock,' M.E. hnarre, found a. 1250. 

Knaves Castle (Lickfield). a. 1300 'a place called Cnaven 
castle,' now a small mound. O.E. cnafa, ' a boy, a servant '; 
later, ' a knave, a rogue.' Cf. Knavenhtll (Alderminster) . 

Knayton (Thirsk). Dom. Cheneve-, Chenivetune, Chennieton, 
1235 Cneveton. ' Town of Coengifu,' a woman's name, only 
found here. Cf. Kneveton (Notts), Dom. Chenivetone, c. 1190 
Chnivetun, which Mutschmann prefers to derive from O.E. cniht, 
' a servant,' which explains the Kn-, but not the -ev. 


Knebworth (Stevenage). Dom. Ohenepeuorde, a. 1300 Kenebbes- 
wrth, 1303 Knebbeworth. ' Cnehba'a farm.' See -worth. 

Kneesworth (Royston, Herts). 1276 Knesworth, 1346 Knees- 
worthe. 'Farm of Knee'; O.E. cneo, 'a knee'; not recorded 
as a personal name. Cf. Knebsall (Notts), Dom. Cbeneshale, 
1189 Pi'pe Cneeshala. See -hall. 

Knighton (4 in P.G.) Lei. K. Dom. Cnihtetone. K.-on-Teme 
957 Cnihtatune, Dom. Cnistetun {Dom. almost regularly has 
st for gh), 1108 Cnihtetun, 1218 Cnigheton. ' Servants' town.' 
On Knight see next. Cf. Knightwick (Worcester), 738 chart, 
Cnihtwic. See -wick, ' dwelling.' 

Knightsbridge (London) . c. 1 150 Cnihtbriga ; later, Knyghtsbrigg. 
O.E. cniht meant orig. ' a boy, a lad, an attendant, a servant.' 
Its mod. usage as ' knight ' is not recorded till O.E. Chron. 1086. 

Knockin (Salop). Prob. dimin. of W. cnwc, G. cnoc, 'a hillock.' 
Cf. Knook and Knucexas. One would like to see the old 
forms of Knock holt or ' wood ' (Sevenoaks) , It is not in Dom. 

KInoddishall (Saxmundham) . Dom. Chenotessala, 1225 Patent 
R. Kenodeshal. ' Nook, comer of Cnod, Gnut,' or ' Canute.' 
Of. Knottingley and ILnutsford. See -hall. 

Knolton Bryn (EUesmere). Tautological hybrid. ' Town on 
the knoll.' O.E. cnoll, Dan. hnold, W. cnol, Sc. knowe, and W. 
bron, Corn, bryn, 'a hill.' Of. KInowle and Notting Hill. 
But Kinoulton (Notts), Dom. Chineltune, 1152 Cheneldestoa, is 
' Cyneweald's town.' 

Knook -(Wilts), a 800 chart. Nox gaga, Dom. Cunuche, 1236 Cnuke. 
W. cnuch, ' a junction ' ; or cnuwch, ' a junction, a bush.' 

Knottingley (Yorks). Z)om. Notingelai, 1202 Cnottinglai. Patro- 
nymic. ' Meadow of the sons of Cnot ' or ' Gnut.' See -ley. 
But Knott in Gumbld. and Westmld. means ' a hill,' as in 
Amside Elnott, Hark Knot, Scald Knot, etc. O.E. cnotta, see 
Oxf. Diet., knot sb. 14. 

Knowl(e) (Birmingham, Bristol, etc.). Bir. K. Dom. Gnolle, a. 
1300 La CnoUe, a. 1400 Knole. Wednesfield K. a. 1300 le 
Knolle. Alvechurch K. 1275 la Cnolle. O.E. cnoll, ' a round- 
topped hillock' or '^hill,' a knoll; Sc. knowe. Two 'Cnolle' 
in Dom. Dorset. 

Knowsley (Liverpool). Dom. Phenulweslei (P error for C7) . 'Lea, 
meadow of Goenwulf,' a name common in Onom. See -ley. 

Kjstoyle (Salisbury). 948 chart. Cunugl, Cnugel, 1228 Stepel Knoel. 
Gf. B.G.S. i. 240 Cunugl-ae (= ' isle '), which Birch identifies 
with CoLNE (Glouc), q.v. This cannot be the same as knoll, 
O.E. cnoll, ' hill-top, hillock,' though M'Clure declares that the 
Oxf. Diet, says this is the origin of Knoyle. Where does it say 
that ? Nor is it likely to be O.E. cnucel, ' knuckle, hill like a 
knuckle.' This would not have become Knoyle. Cunugl looks 


like W. cwn uchel, ' lofty height ' or ' hill-top/ the O.W. ugl 
thus being cognate with Ogle, and Sc. Ochils, and Ogil-vie. It 
is only fair to add that the Gazetteers speak of no hill here, so 
the name may be pre -Kelt. 

Knucklas (Radnor). In W., Cnwcglas, 1246 Patent R. Cnuclays. 
'Green hill/ fr. W. cnwc, 'lump, hillock/ and glas (lias), ' green, 
blue." Cf. KJNOCKCN and Knook. 

Knutsfobd (Cheshire). Dom. Cunetesford. 'Ford of K. Cnut 
or Canuti.' Cf. Knuston (Northants), Dom. Cnutestone, and 

Knutton (Newcastle, Staffs). Dom. Clotone (error), a. 1300 
Cnot(t)on^ Kjiotton. ' Village on the hillock '; O.E. cnotta, ' a 
knot,' found fr. 14th cny. used as ' a hiU.' See Knott. 

Kyloe (Belford). 1272 Kilei, 1561 Kilhowe, Killowe, 1636 Kilo. 
Hybrid. G. cill{e), ' church, churchyard,' and howe, O.N. 
ha/ug-r, 'mound, cairn'; in Eng. as how, a. 1340, 'a hill, a 
hillock.' Cf. Tysoe, etc. 

Kyme (Lincoba). Sic 1136, 1233 Kima. O.E. cyme vbl. sb. means 
' coming.' But this seems to be the W. C7jme, ' lovely, beauti- 
ful.' Skeat thinks that this Kyme and others must all come 
fr. a man Cyma, 5 in Onom., but this type of name is rare. 
Cf. KiMPTON. There is also a R. Kym, trib. of the Gt. Ouse. 

Kynance Cove- (The Lizard). Corn. Kyne sans, 'holy Kyne,' a 
Corn, saint who lived c. 490. Cf. ICeverne and Penzance. 

Kyndelyn (Wales). Prob. not same word as Cunobellinus (see 
Kjmble), though M'Clure thinks so. Much more likely W. 
cwn Velyn, ' height of Velyn,' aspirated form of Melyn. Cf. 
Helvellyn. Cwn is cognate with the G. ceann, loc. cinn, 
' head, height,' so often found in Sc. names as Ken-, Kin-. Cf. 
Kinvee. and Knoyle. 

Kybb Wyre (Tenbury). Dom. Cuer, Chuer, 1108 Cyr, 1275 Cure 
Wyard. W. cwr, ' border, edge, limit ' ; it is on the border 
between Worcester and Hereford. The Wyards were its early 
Nor. lords. 

Laceby (Grimsby). Dom. Levesbi, 1234 Lesseby. 'Dwelling of 
Lefa ' or ' Leofa,' common in Onom. See -by. 

Lackenby (Redcar). Dom. Lachenebi, Lachebi, 1202 Lackenbi. 
' Dwelling of Lacen,' a name still found as Laking. See -by. 

Lackeord (Bury St. Edmunds). Dom. Lacforda, Lacheforda. 
Prob. 'ford at the pool'; O.E. lace. Cf. Mobtlake, Dom. 
Suffk. Lacheleia, and Hants Lacherne. 

Ladbroke (Southam, Wwksh.). 980 chart. Hlodbroce, Dom. 
Lodbroc, a. 1200 Lodebroc(h). Looks Hke 'brook of Hlod ' or 
' Hloth ' ; but Lodbroc or Lothhroc is name of a well-known hero 
of the Sagas. Cf. Dom. Chesh. Latbroc. , 


Ladock or Landoc (Grampound Rd., Cornwall). ' Church/ Com. 
Ian, W. llan, ' of St. Cadoc' See Caradoo and Llangadoo. 

Laleham (Staines) . Dom. Leleham,1237Estlalham. ' Home of LeZa ' 
or ' Lilla.' Cf. Lawford, and Laleston (Bridgend). See -ham. 

Lambeth (London). 1041 O.E. Chron. Lambhythe, 1088 Lam- 
hytha, c. 1130 Eadmer Lambetha, -beta, 1217 Lamheye, -heth, 
1588 Lambehith. O.E. lamb-hi^e, ' landing-place for lambs.' 
See Hythe. Derivation fr. O.E. Mm, ' loam,' is inadmissible. 
Cf. next and Lamcote (Notts), Dom. Lanbecote. 

Lambotjrn (Berks). K. Alfred's Will Lamb-burna, 943 cMrf. 
Lamburna. ' Lamb's burn or brook.' See -bourne. 

Lamorna Cove (Penzance). Corn. Ian mornader, 'enclosure for 
the lampreys ' or ' pilchards '; L. murcena. 

Lampeter (Cardigan). In W. Llanbedr Pont Stephan. The W. 
Llan bedr is ' church of Peter.' Cf. next. On llan cf. Llana- 
TAN. We find the Lam- very early — e.g., Dom. Glouc, ' Li Wales 
sunt iii hard vices (herds' farms), Lamecare (? llan y caer, ' church 
by the castle '), & Porteschivet (Portskewett) & Dinan.' 

Lamphey (Pembroke). Old Llandyfei, 1603 Lantfey; forms Llan- 
faith and -feth are also found, as if W. llan ffydd, ' church of 
faith.' But the name is ' church of St. Tyfai,' seen also in Foy 
(Herefd.), Lib. Land. Lanntiuoi, and in Lampha (Glam.). 

Lamport (Northampton). 1158-59 Pipe Laport, Cf. Dom. Kent 
Lamport. The Lam- is doubtful, but is prob. O.E. lamb, as in 
Lambeth; and so 'lamb's gate,' L. porta, in Eng. as port, fr. 
c. 950. See also Oxf. Diet, port sb^, ' a town.' 

Lanarth (Cornwall). 1285 Close R. Lannarth. Corn.= 'high 
enclosure.' The orig. meaning of Ian, llan, lam, lann, in all Kelt, 
languages is ' enclosed place.' ' Church ' is a later meaning. 

Lancarf (Cornwall). Corn. = 'graveyard '; Corn, corf, L. corpus, 
' a body, a corpse.' 

Lancarrow (Cornwall). Corn.= 'deerpark,' carw, 'a hart'; L. 
cerws, ' a stag.' Dom. has a Lancharet. 

Lancaster. Sic 1399, but Dom. and 1198 Loncastre, 1161-62 
Lancastria. ' Camp on the R. Lthste.' See -caster. Lancashire 
is first mentioned in 1169; in 1523 we have it in its mod. form, 
' Lancasshyre.' Till after Dom. Lancashire S- of the Ribble was 
in Cheshire, and Lancaster itself in Yorks. 

Lancaut (Chepstow). 956 chart. Landcawet, 1221 Langcaut. The 
956 form is O.Kelt for ' enclosed land,' W. llan cauad. Kelt 
Ian, W. llan, means ' enclosure,' and is cognate with Eng. land. 

Lancherly (Somerset). Perh. 801 chart. Lancherpille. LancJier 
is 'land share'; K.C.D. 706 Brisnodes Land-share; ib. 419 
Hebelmes Landschere. The ledges at Worth Maltravers (Dorset) 
are also called Lanchers. 


Lanohestbr (Durham). 1183 Boldon Bh. Langchestre, 'long 
camp/ O.E. and N.Eng. laTig, ' long/ See -Chester. 

Lancing (Sussex). Dom. Lancinges. Named fr. WUncing, son of 
^lla, O.E. Chron. 4:11. Cf. Keynob, and Dom. Surrey Lanchei. 
See -ing. 

Land-ahe (Cornwall). Dom. Lander. Corn. Ian dar, 'enclosure of 
the oaks.' Cf. O.G. dair, ' an oak.' 

Landbeach (Cambridge). Dom. XJtbech — i.e., a little farther away 
or out from the old shore of the Wash than Waterbeach — 
1235 Close B. Londbech'. Beach is a curious word. It must 
mean ' shingle ' or simply ' shore/ but is not recorded in Oxf. 
Did. till the 16th cny. Cf. Wisbech. 

Landewednack (The Lizard). Dom. has Langenewit, and Lan 
wenehoc. Com.= ' church of 8t. Devinicus/ said to be a con- 
temporary of St. Columba. Cf. Banchory Devenick (Sc). 

Landican (Wirral). Dom. Landechene. Prob. 'church of the 
deacon/ referring to Woodchurch near by. W. diacon, in Eng. 
a. 1300 deken, ' a deacon/ one not in full orders. 

Landicle (Cornwall). Sic in Dom. Com.= ' Church of St. Teela.' 
Cf. ' Lantocal/ B.C. 8. 47. Tecla was a Roman abbess in the 
days of Gregory the Great. Landkey (Barnstaple) seems to 
be 1235 Close R. Landegeye; cf. Keverne. 

Landoc. See Ladock. 

Land's End. 997 O.E. Chron. Penwiht Steort; a. 1130 Sim. Dur. 
Penwithsteort. Welsh Triads Penbryn Penwaeth, Welsh Laws 
Pengwaeth or -waed, Myrv. Archaeol. Penwedic yng Ngherniw. 
Pen is Keltic for ' head, headland ' ; wiht, with, or waeth must 
be W. gwydd, Corn, gwedh, ' woods/ while steort is O.E. for ' tail.' 
Of. Start Point. The name Penwith is still applied to this 
whole district. 

Landtje (Cornwall). Corn, lan dew, ' black, dark church/ 

Landuit (Cornwall). Corn. = ' church of Ulf or 'St. Olaf/ one 
of the most saintly of the Norse Kings, 995-1030, patron saint 
of Norway. 

Landywood (Walsall). No old forms. Duignan thinks 'launde 
i' th' wode,' M.E. launde, O.Fr. land, launde, ' a plain sprinkled 
with bush or tree,' then ' a lawn.' 

Langeord (Oxford). 1155-58 chart. Langeford. 'Long ford.' 
Similarly there are 6 Langtons in P.O., Dom. Yorks Langeton 
and Lanton, Lines Langtone. There are also several Langdales ; 
one in 1160-61 Pipe Notts and Derby, has the curious reduplica- 
tion Langedala Dala. 

Langley (Bromley). 862 chart. To langan lea3e. . ' Long meadow.' 
So Langley, Henley-in-Arden, 1150 Langelleie, a. 1200 Langeleg, 
a. 1300 Langele. But Langley Park (Cumberland) is old Lang- 


lif erga, ' shieling, dairy hut of Langlif,' a N. woman. For erga 
see Arklid. See -ley. 

Langport (Central Somerset). Prob. Llywarch Hen Llongborth, 
1160-01 Pi'pe Laport. As it stands, ' Long Harbour/ O.E. lang, 
long, also 4-5 lang, ' long/ while port is a very early loan fr. L. 
partus. But evidently the orig. name was Keltic, the common 
Ir. Longphort, ' ship's harbour,' then ' encampment,' seen about 
20 times in Ireland to-day as Longford, and also, says K. Meyer, 
in the Sc. Luncarty, 1250 Lumphortyn. Ir. and G. long, luing 
is ' a ship,' also a loan fr. L. longa (navis), ' a war-ship.' The 
meaning in Somerset must be ' encampment.' 

Langrigg (Aspatria). 1189 Langrug. Cf. 896 ' Langenhrycge ' 
(Glouc.) ; this is O.E. for ' long ridge '; in North. Eng. and Sc. 
lang rigg. There is a Longridge (Preston). 

Langthorpe (Yorks). Dom. Lambetorp, La'betorp, Lanbetorp. 
' Lambi's place.' No Lamhi in Onom., but m and n often inter- 
change; cf. KiMBOLTON. But Langthwaite (Yorks) is Dom. 
Langetouet, Langetouft, ' long place.' See -thwaite and Torr. 

Langwathby (Cumberland). 1189 Langwadebi. 'Dwelling by 
the long ford.' Cf. Langwith (Notts), 1291 Langwaith, and 
Wadeford. See -by. 

Lantern Marshes (Orford). Dangerous to mariners, and so a 
lantern was once placed here, whilst now there are two light- 

Lapley (Frocester and Stafford) and Lapworth (Birmingham). 
Fr. L. 1315 Lappeleye. St. L. Dom. Lepelie, a. 1200 Lapehe, 
Lappely. 816 chart. Hlappawurthin {cf. -warden), Dom. Lape- 
forde, ' Hlappa's lea ' and ' farm.' See -ley and -worth. 

Larkbeare (Exeter). Dom. Laurochebere, Exon. Dom. Lauroca- 
bera, 1237 Laverk ber, ' Lark wood,' O.E. Idwerce or Idferce beam. 
Of. Beer, and the personal name Conybeare; also 1160 Pipe 
Lauerchestoc (Essex), and Larkborough (Worcestersh.), 709 
chart. Lauerkeboerge — i.e., ' lark hill.' See Barrow. Lark- 
meld (Maidstone) is Dom. Laurochesfel'. The R. Lark, Suffk., 
is a back-formation fr. Lackeord. 

Lartington (Barnard Castle), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Lyrtingtun. Cf. 
B.S.C. Lortan hlaew. ' Town of ' some unknown man, Lurta, 
Lorta, or Larta. Very prob. a patronymic. See -ing. 

Lasham (Alton, Hants). Dom. Esseham'. 'Home, house by the 
ash-trees.' Cf. Ashby, etc. The L. comes fr. the Fr. la, ' the,' 
prefixed by a Nor. scribe, 1284 L-asham. Cf. Lappal, Hales- 
owen, 1335 Lappole, ' the pool,' 1342 Thomas atte Pole, also Dom. 
Essex, Lassendene, where the La- prob. has the same origin. 
Thereisboth anEssendine (Stamford), and an Essendon (Hatfield). 

Lasket (Cumberland) and Lasket Grove (Monmouth). Perh. W. 
glas'coed, ' green wood '; cf. Chetwood. But Lasboro' (Glouc), 


c. 1220 Lasseberewe, is ' lesser mound ' or ' tumulus/ O.E. Icessa, 
M.E. lasse, ' less.' 

Lastingham (Cleveland). Bede iii. 23 Lestingau, but in pref. 
Lsestinga ea. Dom. Lestingeham. Patronymic; ' home of the 
Lestings '; ea is O.E. for ' river.' 

Latchford (Warrington). Fr. letch sb^, Oxf. Diet. 6-9 lache. 
9 latch, ' a muddy ditch, a stream through a bog, a bog/ cognate 
with leach v., ' to water, to wet,' prob. fr. O.E. leccan, ' to water.' 
Cf. 1138 Newminster Cart. ' Appeltreleche,' and see Lbchlade. 

Lathom (Ormskirk). Dom. Latune, 1201-56 Lathun, 1225 Patent 
R. Lathum, 1535-43 Latham, Latheham. This is a corrupt loc, 
' at the barns,' O.N. hla^a, loaned in O.E. Cf. Hallam, Kel- 
HAM, etc., also the common and puzzling Sc. Letham, sic a. 1200, 
1284 Latham. Horsfall Turner gives Latun in Dom. for 
Amoundemess as now Layton, Ladon in E. Riding as now 
Lathom, and Ladon in Cave Hundred (Yorks) as Laytham. All 
these names may have a similar origin to what Wyld and Hirst 
give above. Cf. Latton. But Lathbuby (Bucks), 1225 Late- 
biry, is fr. a man Leot ; that and Leotan are in Onom. 

Latimer (Chesham). Not in Dom., a. 1440 Latemer. It would be 
a very unlikely thing if formed fr. the personal name Latimer, 
sic in Eng. c. 1205, fr. O.Fr. Latim{m)ier, ' an interpreter,' corrup. 
of latinier or Latiner. The sb. latimer is already found in Dom. 
It may be ' mere, lake of Leot,' a man in Onom. 

Latton (Swindon). Dom. Latone; cf. Dom. Essex Lattuna. It 
may be ' village of Leot,' one in Onom. ; eo regularly becomes a. 
As likely = Lathom, Dom. Latune, ' at the barns,' 

Laughabne (W. of Caermarthen). Pron. Larn, 1603 Talagharn. 
In W. Tallacharn or Talycoran, ' at the end of R. Coran,' ? W. 
corafon, ' a rivulet.' The origin of Laughame is doubtful. One 
might guess, ' the low alder tree'; see Oxf. Diet. s.v. low (early 
M.E. lah, 4 lagh, 5 lawghe), and am; but prob. it is corrup. fr. 
the W. name. There is a R. Latjghern (Worcestersh.), 757 
chart. Lawern(e). This is O.W. llawern, Corn, lowern, 'a fox/ 
Lavemock (CardifE), old Llywernog, is the dimin., 'little fox.' 

Laughton (Rotherham, and 3). Ro. L. Dom. Lastone {Dom. regu- 
larly replaces a guttural by st). Prob. ' low town,' fr. O.N. lag-r 
' low,' early M.E. lah, 3-4 la-^h, 4 laghe, loghe, 5 lough, Sc. laigh. 
Cf. Dom. Hereford Lautone. Lastun in Dom. Yorks also stands 
for W. Layton. 

Latjnceston. Dom. Lanscavetone, Lancauetone, 1154-89 Lan- 
ceston, 1199 Lanstaveton, 1220 Lanzavetun, 1224 Lancaveton, 
1227 Lanstone (the mod. pron. ; how early it was reached !), 1245 
Lanstaueton, Lanceueton, 1260 Launcetton; also said to be a. 
1176 chart. ' The town of St. Stephen at Lanstone.' Commonly 
said to be ' church (Corn. Ian) of St. Stephen,' but this seems far 


fr. certain. Scave or Stave could with difficulty represent 
Stephen, a name always spelt in O.E. Chron. Stephne, and prob. 
represents some Com. word now lost. An older name was 
DuNHEVED. Lansdown (Glouc.) is a doubtful name; some of 
its old forms (Launtes-, Lantesdon) look as if they might orig. 
be something similar to Launceston. 

Launton (Bicester). Dom. Lantone, 1274 Langetun, 1525 Lawn- 
ton. O.E. king tun, ' long village.' 

Lavan Sands (Conway). A tautology. W. llafan, 'a strand, a 
sandy beach." 

Lavenham (Suffolk). Dom. Lauenham. Cf. B.C.S. 1288-89 Lauan 
ham. ' Village, dwelling of Lafa, Leofe, or Lawa' all forms are 
known. O/. Bom. Norfk. Lawendic, and Lavington. 

Laverstock (SaHsbury). Bom. Lawrecestokes and Lavertestoch, 
1221 Patent R. Laverkestok. ' Place of Lawerce ' — i.e., ' the 
lark.' See Stoke. 

Laverton (Yorks and Broadway, Worcestersh.). Yo. L. Bom. 
Laureton, Lavretone. Br. L. c. 1240 Lawertune. Prob. ' town 
of Leofgar or Leuegams,' or 'of Leofweard,' a common name. 
More old forms needed. Cf. Laverhay, Wamphray (Scotland). 

Lavington (Chichester). 725 chart. Lavingtune, Bom. Laventone. 
Patronymic. ' Town, village of the descendants of Lafa ' or 
' Leofa.' Cf. Bom. Bucks Lauuendene, and Lavenham. 

Lawford (Manningtree and Rugby). Man. L. Bom. Laleforda, 
Ru. L. Bom. Leile-, Lelle-, Lilleford, 1086 Ledleford, 1161 Ledes- 
forde, 1236 Lalleford. Fine proof of the liquidity of I. ' Ford 
of Lil ' or ' Lilla,' names in Onom. Cf. Laleham. 

Lawhitton (Launceston) . Bom. Longvitetone, Ex. Bom. Languite- 
tona, which is simply ' long white town,' O.E. hwit, O.N. hvit-r, 

' white.' Cf. CUMWHITTON. 

Lawrenny (Pembrokesh.). c. 1190 Gir. Camb. Leurenni, -eni, 
1603 Owen Lawrenny. The first syll. is W. llawr, ' floor, bottom,' 
but Enni is unknown. Cf. Ystrad Enni on the Ithon. 

Laxheld (Framlingham). Bom. Suffk. and Essex, Laxefelda. 
' Field of Leaxa.' Similarly, Laxton, Howden and Newark, 
Bom. Yorks and Notts Laxintun, New. L. 1278 Lexington. 
See Lbxden. 

Laycock (Keighley). Bom. Lacoc, 1237 Close R. Lacok.' Prob. 
' low cock ' or ' heap,' O.N. lag-r kokk-r, Norw. kok, ' a heap.' 
Cock in the sense of hay-cock, etc., is not found in Oxf. Bict. 
till 1598. On Lay- cf. next, Laughton, and the mod. sur- 
name Locock. 

Layer Marney (Essex). Bom. and a. 1300 chart. Legra, which is 
gen. plur. of O.E. leger, 'a lair, a camp/ in M.E. ' a place for 
animals to lie down in ' ; cf. 1573 Tusser Husband, ' Borne I 


was ... in Essex laier, in village faier, that Riuenhall hight.' 
Marney is fr. Marigny in Normandy. There are also Layer 
Breton and Layer de la Haye, near Colchester. One of 
these is 1217 Patent R. Lawefare, 1235 Close R. Laghefar, which 
must be 'low road.' See Laughton and c/. thorough/are. 

Layton (N. Riding). East and West. Dom. Lastun, Lattun. As 
Dom. regularly replaces a guttural by st, prob. ' low town/ Sc. 
laigh toun, and so = Laughton {q.v.). But Layton (Amounder- 
ness) is Dom. Latun, and so it may be= Lathom, ' at the barns.' 

Lazonby (Cumberland and Northallerton) . No. L. Dom. Lesingebi, 
Leisenebi, Lesinghebi, Leisingbi, 1179-80 Pi'pe Lagenebi, 1203 
Fines Leysingeby. ' Dwelling of the Les{s)ings,' a patronymic; 
one Lesing in Onom. See -by. 

Lea R. (Essex). 891 O.E. Chron. Lyga, 913 ib. Lygea(n), Ligene, 
c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Luye. M'Clure connects with the Keltic 
river-name Logana^ but the origin is quite doubtful. Hen. Hunt. 
gives another R. Luye near Hereford; there is to-day a village. 
Lea, near Ross, but very hkely this is the common O.E. leak, 
' meadow.' P.G. has 6 places called Lea; For. of Dean L. 1195 
La lega. 

Lbadenham (Lincoln), a. 1150Langledenham. ' Home of LetZa,' 
one such in Onom. Cf. Ledbury. 

Lea Marston (Coleshill). Two hamlets, 1257 Waure Merston, 
1573 Waver Merstone, The Wavers were lords of this ' marsh 
town,' O.E. mersc tun, for a considerable time. For Lea, see -ley. 

Leamington. Dom. Lunintone {un error for em), 1242 Leminton. 
' Town on R. Leam,' which may be O.E. leom(a), ' a flash, a 
gleam,' less hkely fr. O.E. lAm, ' mud,' Du. leem, Eng. loam. 
Leamington Priors (of Kenilworth) is Dom. Lamintone, 1327 
Lemynton Prioris. Lemington (Moreton-in-Marsh), Dom. Lemin- 
ingtune, Limen-, Lemintone, is ' town of (the sons of) Leofman' 
common name, found shortened to Leman. See -ing. 

Leatherhead (Surrey). Sic c. 1670. Dom. Lered, a puzzling 
form. Leather is the O.E. ZetSer, Icel. Mr, O.Fris. leer, Breton 
ler ; but it is doubtful if this is the real origin of the name. More 
old forms are needed. There is an O.E. loefer, ' a plant,' see 
Oxf. Diet. s.v. LEVERS ; and Liverpool is 1222 Litherpool, 
whilst Larford (Stourport), was 706 Leverford; so the name is 
prob. ' head, height with the rushes or sword-bladed plants,' 
O.E. Icefer, leber. It may be fr. Leod-, Leothere, a well-known 
name, cognate with Luther, cf. Leatherbarrow. Also cf. 
Lbtheringsett . 

Leathley (Otley). Dom. Ledelai {Dom. regularly makes th into d). 
' Meadow on the slope,' O.E. hlith. Cf. Leith Hill, and Kirk- 
leatham (N. Yorks), Dom. Westhdu'. 

Leaven R. See Leven. 


Lbavenino (York). Dom. Ledlinghe, -inge. Dom'a forms seem 
corrup. of ' place of Leofwine's or Leofwynn's sons.' See -ing. 

Lebbeeston (Filey). Dom. Ledbeztun, -bestun, 1206 Ledbrizton, 
1208 Ledbristone. ' Leodbeorhfs town '; this is prob. the origin 
of Liberton (IVIidlothian) . Dom. prefers to use z and st instead 
of a harsh guttural. 

Lechlade (Glouc). 872 chart. Lecche, Dom. Lecelade, 1221 Liche- 
lade. 'Way, path/ O.E. geldd, 'by or over' — i.e., ferry over 'the 
R. Leach/ whose old forms are seen also in Eastleach, Dom. 
Lece, 1347 Estlecche, and Northleach, Dom. Lecce. This is 
prob. O.E. Icece, ' a stream/ fr. leccan, ' to water.' Cf. Latch- 

Leck (N. Lanes). Dom. Lech. Prob. N. loecJc-r, ' a brook.' Cf. 
Leek and Lucker. It may be Eng. Cf. Latchtord. 

Leckford Abbas (Stockbridge, Hants). 947 chart. Legh-, Leaht- 
ford. Prob. ' ford in the meadow/ O.E. Uah. See -leigh. 

Leckham(p) STEAD (Berks and Bucks). Ber. L. B.C.S. ii. 534 
Leachamstede ; Dom. Lecanestede, Lekehamstede, 1316 Leck- 
hampsted. Dom. Bucks Lechastede. ' Homestead, Hamp- 
STEAD, with a kitchen-garden.' O.E. Uac, 3 lee, is ' a leek/ 
then, any garden herb. Cf. Leighton. Similarly, Leckhamp- 
TON (Glouc.) is Dom. Lechantone. See Hampton. 

Leconfield (Beverley). Dom. Lachinfeld, -felt. ' Field of ' some 
unknown man, ? Lecca, -can. Laking is a personal name to-day. 

Ledbury (Malvern). Dom. Liedeberge, 1235 Lidebir; cf. Dom. 
Salop Ledewic. ^ Leoda'a burgh.' Cf. Leadenham, also Lat- 
COMBB, Dom. Bucks Ledingberge, a patronymic, and ib. Surrey 
Ladesorde. Duignan derives Ledbury fr. the E,. Leaden, 972 
chart, and Dom. Ledene, on which it stands, is also does Up- 
leadon (N.-W. Glouc). This is doubtful, and the origin of 
Leaden is unknown. Perh. connected with W. lledan, ' breadth,' 
or Iliad, ' flooding, streaming.' 

Leeds. Bede Loidis, Dom. Ledes. Doubtful; ? W. lloed, ' a place.' 
There are also Lede Chapel (Tadcaster), Dom. Lede, and a 
Leeds (Maidstone), 1235 Close B. Lhedes. Lede or lead,= ' water- 
course,' is not found till 1541. 

Leek (StafEs). Dom. Lee, a. 1200 Lech, 1284 Leyc. Prob. N. 
loech-r, ' a brook.' Cf. Leckford. Leake (Boston), Dom. 
Leche, 1216 Leake, 1313 Lek, 1320 Leek, and E. and W. Leake 
(Notts), Dom. Lec(c)he, a. 1277 Leyk, must be the same name. 
It may be Eng.; see Lechlade. For Leek Duignan prefers 
W. llech, 'a flagstone.' Leek Wootton (q.v.) (Kenilworth), is 
1327 Lekwottone. There is also a Lee in 1183 Boldon Bh., 
Durham. All these names are doubtful. The forms in Oxf. 
Dict.s.y. lea sb^ do not encourage us to call them hardened forms 
of O.E. Uah, ' meadow.' 


Leicester, pron. Lester, a. 800 Legoracensis civitas, c. 800 
Nenniibs Caer Lerion, 918 O.E. Chron. Legraceaster, Ligran- 
ceaster, 980 ib. Legeceasterscir (here, as in several other places, 
this means Cheshire, q.v.), 1120 Legrecestrie, c. 1145 Geoff r. 
Mon. and c. 1175 Fantosme Leircestre, 1173 Leicestria, c. 1205 
Layamon Leirchestre, but c. 1275 Leycestre, 1258 Henry III. 
Leirchestr. ' Camp, fort on R. Leir," old name of R. Soar (1253 
Sor) . Leir may be the same as Layer, but this is quite doubt- 
ful. Connexion with K.Lear is even more so. In Mabinogion 
he is Llyr, and he is first named in Geoffr. Mon. Possible is a 
connexion with W. llithro, ' to slip, to glide.' See -caster. 

Leigh (12 in P.G.). Dom. Lecie (prob. near Cricklade) and Lege 
(Salop and Worcester), O.E. Uah, dat. leage, ' a piece of culti- 
vated land, a meadow,' so common in the ending -ley, q.v. 

Leighterton (Tetbury) c. 1140 Letthrinton, 1273 Lettrinthone. 
Perh. ' village of (the sons of) ^ Leather e.' See -ing. 

Leighton (Hunts, Salop, Welshpool). 956 chart. Wilmanlehtune 
(see Wormleiohton). Hun. L. 1260 Lechton, 1291 Legheton, 
but men of the name Leighton hved in this barony a. 1066. Cf., 
too, 1154-61 chart. Lectona (Lines), and a. 1199 Lecton (Beds). 
O.E. leahtun, lehtune, ' a herb garden,' fr. Uac, ' a leek.' See 
Leckhamstead ; and cf. next. 

Leighton Buzzard. 917 O.E. Chron. Lygtun; later, Lygetun; 
a. 1700 L. Beaudezert. See above. The Norm, family Beau- 
desert or Bosard were influential here in 14th cny. Cf. Beau- 
desert (Henley-in-Arden), c. 1135 Beldesert, and in Cannock 

Leintwardeste (N. Hereford). Dom. Lentevrde (Salop), which is 
' farm of Lenta,' an unknown man. See -wardine. 

Leith Hill (S. Surrey). Tautology. O.E. hlith, 'a slope, a hill- 
side.' Cf. Lytham. 

Lenborough (Bucks). O.E. Chron. 571 Liggeanburh, Lygeanbirg; 
not in Dom. Prob. the burgh or fort of some man, whose name 
is now unrecognizable. 

Lenham, West (Maidstone). 804 chart. Westra Leanham. ' House, 
home given as a reward or gift,' O.E. lean. 

Leominster. 1046 O.E. Chron. Leomynstre, Dom. Leominstre, 
1233 Leminstr', c. 1600 Camden Lemester; in W. Llanllieni. 
Said to be ' church of Leof ' or ' Leofric' It is doubtful who he 
was ; perh. the W. Mercian earl, husband of Lady Godiva, c. 1030. 

Leonard Stanley (Stonehouse, Glouc). Not in Dom., but cf. 
Dom . Linor = a Leonard in Devon . Doubtful . There is a Burton 
Leonard in S. Yorks. St. Leonard was a confessor of the 6th 
cny. at Corbigny (Autun, France), a reputed miracle-worker, but 
not otherwise famous, and not likely to be denoted in our Eng. 


names. These may be connected with W. llenu, 'to veil or en- 

Lepton (Huddersfield) . Dom. Leptone. 'Town of Leppa/ 3 in 

Lesnewth (CameKord). Com. les newydh, 'new hall.' W. llys, 
' court, hall/ G. lios. Dom. has a Lisniwen. 

Letcombe Regis and Basset (Wantage). Dom. Ledencumbe, 
Ledecumbe, 1161-62 Pipe Ledecuba; later Letecoumb. ' Deep 
valley of Leoda.' Cf. Ledbury, and see -combe. The Bassets 
were a Norman family of many possessions. Cf. Bassett. 

Lethebingsett (Holt, Norfk.), a. 1300 Eccleston Leveringsot. 
Prob. ' seat, residence,' O.E. scet, ' of the descendants of Leofgar.' 
For foTv becoming th, cf. Liverpool. See -ing. But Letters- 
ton (Pembroke), c. 1300 Letarston is prob. fr. the name Leod- 
heard or Leothere, in Onom. However, in 1516 it is Littardiston, 
and was then held by a John Littard. 

Letton (Hereford). Dom. Letune. Prob. 'town on the leat/ 
7 let, O.E. gelcet, ' an open conduit, a water charmel '; but it may 


Leven (N. Yorks), Dom. Levene, Leven R. (N. Lanes), and Leaven 
R. (Yorks) ; and prob. same name, Levant R. (S. W. Sussex), as 
t would easily suffix itself. Cf. Darwen and Derwent, both the 
same root. W. llevn, 'smooth'; also cf. Leven (Sc). But 
Leven (Hornsea), old forms needed, is prob. an O.E. gen. Leofan 
' Leofa's' place; cf. Beedon, ' Leventon' (Cumberland) in 1189 
Pipe, and Levenhull. Levens (Milnthorpe, Westmorland), 
Dom. Lefuenes, looks like another gen., ' Lefwen's, or Leofwen's ' 
(place), 4 of this name in Onom. 

Levenhull (Leamington). A curious name, not in Duignan. Its 
form suggests W. llevn hel, ' smooth bank.' But -hull in Mid- 
lands stands for hill, 2-5 hull{e) ; cf. Aspull and SoLiBnjLL ; so 
that this should be ' hill of Leofa,' gen. -fan ; several named 
Leof, Leofa, and Leofe in Onom. Cf. above. 

Levebington (Wisbech). 1285 Liverington, 1302 Leveryngtone. 
Patronymic. ' Village of the sons of Leof ere or Leof here.' Cf. 
Liverpool. See -ing. 

Leverton (Boston) may be fr. Leof here or Lifere, 2 such in Onom. 
Leverton N. and S. (Notts) is Dom. Legretune, 1189 Leirton, 
c. 1200 Legherton, and Mutschmann doubtfully derives fr. 
Leofhere ; cf. Layer and Liverpool. But Great and Little 
Lever (Bolton) will prob. be fr. O.E. Icefer, some plant, now 
'levers,' a rush, an iris, or the like. The forms are a. 1200 
Leuer, 1212 Little Lefre, 1227 Leoure, 1326 Great Leure. 

Leverton (Boston). Dom. Levretune. Said to be fr. Leofric, 
seneschall of Earl Algar the younger, who d. fighting the Danes 
in 870. But more prob. fr. Leofhere ; cf. Liverton. Kirk 


Levington (N. Riding) is Dom. Levetona, * town of Leofa.' Cf. 
Dom. Devon, Levestone. 

Lewan(n)ick (Launceston). * Church (Com. Ian) of St. Wethenoc ' 
or ' Winoch/ brother of Winwaloe. See Gunwalloe. 

Lewdown (N. Devon). Prob. Keltic leu dyn, ' lion hill/ hill like a 
lion, such as Arthur's Seat (Edinburgh) . 

Lewes. Sic Dom. O.E. chart. Loewas; a. 1200 Lib. de Hyda Leu- 
wias ; also Loewen, Leswas, Laquis, Perh. fr. an O.E. *hleoiv, M.E. 
lewej 'warm, sunny '; found as sb in hus-hleow, 'house-shelter.' 
The variants are somewhat puzzhng ; in the last qu will stand for 
w, as in old Scots. 

Lewisham (Surrey). O.E. chart. Liofshema. ' Enclosure of ' some 
man with a name beginning Leof- or Lex)fw-. There were many 
such. See -ham, ' enclosure.' But Levisham (Yorks) is Dom. 
Lewe-, Levecen, where the ending is prob. a corrupt loc, ' at 
Leoveca's/ a known name; cf. Hall am and -ham, also next. 
Lewston (Pembrokesh.) is 1324 Lewelestoun, prob. ' Leofweald's 

Lewknor (WaUingford), Dom. Levecanol, -chanole, 1154-89 Leo- 
vecachanoran (inflected), 1178 Levechenore, -eckenore, 1224 
Leuekenor. ' Shore, bank of Leofeca/ only one in Onom. ; O.E. 
era, 'bank, edge'; cf. Windsor, etc. The -ol(e) in Dom. is but 
another instance of its constant confusion of the liquids. 

Lexden (Colchester). Dom. Laxendena, 1157 Pipe Lexeden(e). 
' The den ' or 'dean of Leaxan.' Cf. Laxmeld and O.E. chart. 

Leybubn (Yorks). Pom. Leborne. c. 1330 Leyborne. Prob. ' shel- 
tered brook,' O.E. hleo, ' protection, shelter,' 4-6 le, 7 ley, lay, our 
word ' lee ' ; it is not recorded as an adj. till c. 1400. Cf. Libbery 
(Worcestersh.), 972 chart. Hleobyri, ' refuge, shelter town.' 

Leyland (Preston). Dom. Lailand, 1140-49 Leilande. O.N. Idg-r, 
early M.E. lah, 3 laih, Sc. laigh, ' low land.' 

Leyton (Essex) . ? Dom. Leiendune. ' Town on R. Lea.' Leyton- 
stone seems modern. 

Lichtield. Bede Lyceitfeldensis, a. 900 O.E. vers. Liccetfelda, 
c. 800 Nenyiius Licitcsith, 803 chart. Liceidfeld; O.E. Chron. 
731 Licetfelda, 1053 ih. Licedfelde, c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Lichfeld; 
perh. also a. 700 Rav. Geogr. Le(c)tocetum, and c. 800 
Nennius Cair Luit Coyt, mod. W. caer llwyd coed, ' fort in the 
grey wood.' This, however, was prob. near Welshpool. The 
popular derivation, 'church-yard,' lit. 'field of corpses,' fr. O.E. 
lie, 4-5 liche, fails to explain the early f. But lic-cet-feld is O.E. 
for ' corpse-hut-field,' field with the mortuary, O.E. cete, ' a cot, 
a hut,' as in Datchet, Watchet, etc. 

Lickey Hills (BniMrNGHAM) . 1330 Leckheye. W. llechQU, pron. 
leckay, plur. of llech, ' a flag or flat §tone/ G, l^ac^ 


LiDFORD or Lydford (Bridestowe, Devon). 997 O.E. Chron. 
Hlidaford, 1018 cliart. Lidauorde, Exon. Dom. Lidefort, a. 1130 
Sim. Dur. Lideforda. ' Ford on B. Lid,' W. lied,' ' broad/ 
There is no O.E. hlida, whilst hlid means ' a lid ' ; but liye means 
'gentle/ which is not impossible. 

LiDGATE (Newmarket). Not in Dom. O.E. hlid^eat, 'a postern/ 
fr. hlid, ' a gate, a lid." Cf. Ludgate and Foxlydiate. There 
is a Hlidgeat in 963 chart, re Wasing (Berks). 

LiFTON (Devon) . 1157 Pipe Lif tuna, 1283 Lyf ton. ' Town of Leof ' 
or ' Leof a ' ; common in Onom. Dom. Has only Levestone. Cf. 
Kirk Levinqton. 

LiGHTHORNE (Warwick). Dom. Listecorne {Dom. scribes hated a 
combination like ght), 1252 Lychtehirn, c. 1300 Liththorn, 
1327 Lighttethume, O.E. leoht thorn or thyme, ' light thorn.* 
? Thorn-bush with a lamp hung on it. But Duignan derives Light- 
wood (Cotheridge) fr. O.E. hlith, M.E. lith, lyth, ' a slope, a hill- 

LiLLESHALL (Newport, Salop). Dom. Linleshalle. It is difficult 

to say what name is represented here. There is one Lunling 

in Onom. But Dom. may be in error, and the man's name be 

Lilla, as in next and in Lhjjesleaf (Sc), 1116 Lillescliva, 

' LiUa's cHff.' 

LiLLiNGTON (Sherborne and Warwicksh.). War. L. Dom. Lillin- 
tone, later Liletun. ' Village of Lilla.' Cf. Laleham and 2 Lil- 
hngstones in Bucks; also LrLLUNG (Yorks), Dom. Lil(l)inge, 
patronymic fr. Lilla. See -ing and -ton. 

Limehouse (Stepney) . 1536 Limehowse Reche. Said to be corrup. 
of lime-oast, O.E. dst, 4-7 host, 8 ovst, ' a kiln.' Older forms 
needed. Cf. Dom. Surrey Limevrde (= -worth). 

Limen R. (Kent). Sic 893 O.E. Chron., but a. 716 chart. Limming, 
? W. llym, ' sharp, keen,' from the air there. It can hardly be 
llyman, ' naked one.' There is also a R. Limin (Hunts), seen in 
Limining, old form of Lymage, where -ing {q.v.) wiU have its 
meaning, ' place on a stream ' ; -age is usually late and trouble- 

Limpley Stoke (Bath) and Limpsfield (Surrey). Not in Dom. 
'Meadow, field of Limpa,' an unrecorded man; but cf. Dom. 
Norf k. Limpeho (ho ^ ' height ') and Dom. Essex Limpwella ; 
also see Stoke and -ley. 

Lincoln, c. 150 Ptolemy Lindon; c. 380 Ant, Itin. Lindum; 
Bede Lindocolina civitas, a. 900 O.E. tr. Lindcylene; 942 O.E. 
Chron. Lindcylene, Lindcolne, 1093 ih. Lincolne; Dom. Lincolia, 
Lincolescire ; c. 1100 Flor. Wore. LindicoHnensis ; 1461 Linde- 
colnea. In W. Caer Iwydgoed ('castle of the grey wood'). 
Lindum colonia, says Freeman, is a unique name for England. 
As Lindon is found in Ptolemy, it cannot be, as is often said, 



fr. O.E. lind, 'lime tree/ but is prob. fr. a Keltic lind, 'water.' 
W. llynn, G. linne, ' a pool, a lake ' ; and the name will mean 
* Roman settlement by the pool/ Cf. next. 

LiNDiSFAHNE 01 Holy Island (Northumberland). Bede Provincia 
Lindisfarorum, Lindisfarnenses incolse; a. 800 chart. Lindes- 
farona. Doubtful. M'Clure thinks fr. Celt, lind, ' water ' (see 
above and next), and, perh., fr. same root as Lombardic fara, 
' race, family ' — ' dwellers in the water.' The rivulet opposite 
is still called Lind or Lindis. The -fame may come fr. G. fearann, 
' land, estate, farm.' 

LiNDSEY (Lines). Bede Lindissi; c. 1000 Mljric Lindesig, c. 1190 
Oir. Camb. Lindeseia; c. 1300 Lindeseye. Quite possibly this 
may contain the same root as Lincoln, and so be ' isle in the 
water ■" ; see -ay. But here it is more likely to be ' isle of the 
lime-tree, or linden,' O.E. and O.N. lind. Lindley (Hudders- 
field) is Dom. Lillai, prob. a corrupt form. But Lindridge 
(Tenbury) is Dom. Linde, 1275 Linderugge. 

Lineord (Stanford-le-Hope). Not in Dom., but cf. Dom. Bucks 
Linforde. This must go with Linton. 

LiNKiNHOBNE (Callington, Cornwall). Not in Dom. Said to be 
corrup. of Ian tighern, Kelt, for ' church of the King ' or ' lord ' — 
i.e., St. Melw, son of Melyan, prince of Devon. One would like 
a little more proof of this. 

Linton (5 in P.G.). K.C.D. iii. 368 Lin tun, Dom. Yorks Linton, 
Devon Lintone. Prob. O.E. lin tun, ' flax-enclosure/ L. linum. 
Cf. Eng. Unseed; also Linfobd, Linehill Green, Penkridge, 
a. 1300 LynhuU, and Linton (So.)., 1127 Lintun. 

LiSKEABD (Cornwall). Dom. Liscarret, a. 1199 Liscaret, -chared, 
1474 Leskirde, 1536 Lyscarde. Les-, Lis-, or Lys- is Kelt, for 
' court, haU, enclosure ' ; the second part is doubtful, but cf. 
W. cariad, ' a lover, a sweetheart,' G. caraid, ' a friend, a rela- 
tion.' G. caraid is 'a pair, a couple.' The meaning quite 
possibly is ' lover's hall.' 

LiTHERSKEW (N. Riding, Yorks). Not in Dom. Lither- is perh. 
Eng. adj. litTier, O.E. ly^re, ' bad, foul, pestilential,' while -skew 
is fr. O.E. sceaga or O.N. skog-r, ' a wood, a copse.' Cf. Askew, 
' ash-wood,' now only a personal name, and Shaw. Lither- is as 
likely to be O.E. Icefer, ' any sword-bladed plant.' Cf. Liver- 
pool, etc. ; V can become th. 

LiTLENGTON (Roystou, Hcrts). c. 1080 Lidlingtone, Litlingtona, 
Dom. Lidlintone, 1316 Lutlingtone. ' Village of the LitUings/ 
or sons of the ' Kttle ' (O.E. lytel) ' man.' 

Little Bbedy. See Bridport. 

Littlebury (Saffron Walden and Notts). Saf. L. Dom. Litelbyria. 
Not. L. Dom. Liteiburg, ' Little burgh.' See -bury. 


Little Hay (Lichfield), a. 1300 Luttelhay, 'little hedge/ or 
' fence/ See Hay. 

LiTTLEPOBT (Ely). Dom. Litelport. O.E. 'port is rarely fr. L. 
porta, ' a gate/ generally as here fr. L. partus, ' a harbour.' The 
sea once came right up past here. 

Little E-lbston (Wetherby). Dom. Ripestain, -sten, c. 1505 
Rybstone. ' Stone of Rippa,' one in Onom. See -ton. 

Little Salkeld (Cumberland). 1167-68 Pipe Aide (Old) Sale- 
child, 1189 Salekil. The latter part is O.N. kelda, ' a spring.' 
Cf. Threlkeld (Penrith) ; the former perh. represents some man's 
name in Sele- or Sal-; there are several such in Onom. But it 
may be O.E. seel, sal, 4-7 sale, O.N. sal-r, ' a hall, spacious 
chamber, castle.' Sale- could hardly represent salt. 

Little Snobing. See Snoreham. 

Littleton (7 in P.G.). Dom. Surrey Liteltone. ' Little village.' 

Littlewob-th (Faringdon, Wstrsh., and Staffs), no old forms in 
Duignan, is presumably 'Httle farm.' But L. in S. Yorks is 
Dom. Scitelesworde, ' farm of Scytel ' or ' Sceotweald ' ; 1 in 
Onom. See -worth. 

Litton (Bath, Buxton, Skipton). a. 1067 chart. Hlytton (? Bath), 
Dom. Yorks Litone. ' Town on the slope ' or ' hill-side.' O.E. 
hli^. But Litton Cheney (Dorset) is 940 cMrt. Lidentune, 
' town of Lida '; 1 in Onom. 

LrvERMEBE Pabva and IVIagna (Bury St. Edmunds). 'Rushy 
lake.' See next. Parva and Magna are L. for ' Little ' and 
' Great.' 

Liverpool. 1189-99 Leverpol, 11 90-94 Liuerpul, 1222-26 Litherpol, 
1229 Leverpul. In W. Llerpwll. Nothing to do with any 
imaginary bird called liver. Not impossibly W. llyvr pwl, 
' expanse or confluence at the pool.' But it is prob. Eng., mean- 
ing ' rushy pool ' ; fr. O.E. Icefer, leber, ' any rush-like or sword- 
bladed plant.' See Oxf. Diet. s.v. levers. This is confirmed 
by Livermere, also by Larford (Stourport) in 706 chart, (of 
really later date) Leverford, and by Leatherhead, Dom. Lered, 
which gives the same contraction as W. Llerpwll, whilst in its 
mod. form we get a th corresponding to 1222 Litherpol {cf. 
Litherskew). W. and H. are confident it is ' pool of Leofhere,' 
which is certainly possible, and is confirmed by Leverington ; 
prob. also by Leverton and Liverton. Cf. K.G.D. vi. 243 
Leofereshagan, near the Thames. But this cannot be the same 
as LrvERSEDGE (Yorks), Dom. Livresec and -sech. This last 
must be simply (place of) ' rushy sedge,' O.E. soecg, secg, sech, 
seic; 1222 Patent R. has a Livredal. 

LrvERTON (Newton Abbot) and Liverton Mines (Loftus, Yorks). 
Lo. L. Dom. Livreton, Liureton, 1179-80 Pipe Liuerton. 


' Village of Leofhere.' Dom. Devon, has only Leovricestone, 
somewhere in the S., fr. Leofric, but prob. not Liverton. See 
above, Levebton and -ton. 

LiZAUD Pt. Dom. Lisart. Corn, lis arth, 'court, hall on the 
height.' C/. W. llys, G. lios; also WESTON-imDEii-LizARD. 

Llanapan (Aberystwith). W. llan A fan, ' church of St. Afan 
Buallt, disciple of St. Padarn, 6th cny., and himself a bp. and 
brother of King Dogged. W. llan, O.W. Ian, ' enclosure,' then 
' church/ Corn. Ian, Ir. land, lann, G. lann (c/. Lhanbeide, 
Sc), is the same root as Eng. land and Bret. Icunn, ' a heath,' 
seen also in the Fr. Landes. The earhest instance we have noted 
in England is in a Grant of 680 (copy later), to the Abbot of 
Glastonbury, B.C. 8. 47 ' Lantocal,' ? = ' church of St. Tecla.' 
Cf. Landicle, also Lampeter. In some W. names llan or Ian 
is ioiglan, ' a bank,' as in Llanhaithog (Kentchurch, Hereford), 
which is prob. Ian haiddog, ' bank of oats.' 

Llanabmon (Ruabon) and Llan aemon-yn -Yale (Mold). W. llan 
Oarmon, ' church of St. Germanus,' Bp. of Auxerre, sent to 
Britain by Pope Celestine, c. 430. Cf. Maes Gabmon. The 
yn Yale is better yn lal, fr. ial, ' an open space or region.' Cf. 

Llanbabo (Anglesea). ' Church of St. Pabo.' Cf. M'Clure, pp. 57 
and 59. Pabo Post Prydain was a great warrior, who latterly 
became very devout. 

Llanbadabn (Aberystwith and Radnor). ' Church of St. Padarn,' 
a Breton, companion of St. David. Cf. Llanaean. L. in 
Radnor is L. Mawr, ' the great L.'; there are at least 2 others, 

Llanbebis (Caernarvon). ' Church of St. Peris,' said to have been 
a cardinal sent as a missioner from Rome in 6th cny. Close by 
there are Llyn Peris and Llyn Padarn. Cf. Llanbadabn. 

Llanbol (Anglesea). Old Llanvol. 'Church of St. Bol.' Cf. 
Cors y Bol (' marsh of Bol ') and Rhos y Bol (' heath of Bol ') 
near by. The Diet. Christ. Biog. records only a Bolcan, who was 
baptized by St. Patrick, and was one of his helpers. 

Llancabfan (Cowbridge). c. 1145 Geoffr. Mon. epil. Lancarvan. 
' Church of St. Carfan or Corbagni '; said to be corrup. of Ger- 
manus, who is said to have built the first monastery in Britain 
here. Cf. Llanabmon. The church is now dedicated to St. 

Llandaff. c. 1130 Lib. Land. Landavia. * Church on the Taff.' 

Llanddewi (4 in P.G.). 1346 Llandewivrevi, or L. Brefi (Cardi- 
gansh). ' Church of St. David,' Bp. of St. David's, d. 601, 
patron St. of Wales. Cf. Dewchtjbch. 

Llanddogget (Denbighsh.). Founded by K. Dogged, who died 
c. 542. See Mabinogion, and cf. Llanafan. 


Llandduw or -ddew (Brecon), g. 1180 Gir. Camb. Landu. W. llan 
duw, ' dark church/ and not ' church of St. David ' or Dewi. 

Llandegfajst (Menai Br.). Fr. St. Tegfan, of whom little seems 

Llandeilo (Caermarthensh.). c. 1130 Lib. Land. Lanteliau Penn 
litgart ('head, end of the grey ridge/ now Llwydabth). 
'Church of St. Teilo/ Bp. of Llandaff in 7th cny.; also called 
Tiliaus; a very popular saint. Cf. Llanthjo, also Llandeilo 
Tref y Cernyw {Lib. Land. Cemiu), where the latter part means 
' house of Cornishmen.' 

Llandovery (Caermarthen) . c. 1550 Leland Llanameueri. In 
W. llan ym Ddyfri, ' church beyond or among the waters.' 

Llandeindod Wells. W. = ' church of the Trinity.' It was 
dedicated in 1603. 

Llandudno. 'Church of St. Tudno,' son of Seithengu; he was 
a W. saint early in the 6th cny. 

Llandyssul (Cardigan). Lib. Communis Llandowssuld, -dussuld. 
See St. Issell's, and cf. Llandyssil (Mont.). 

LLANELLA.N (Colwyn Bay). Here also is Elian's Well. Elian 
Geimiad was a saint of 6th cny. 

Llanelly (Caermarthen and Brecknock) . Caer. L. 1788 Llanelhw. 
From St. Elliw, granddaughter of Brychan of Brycheiniog. 
There is also a Llanelieu (Breck.). 

Llanerchymbdd ( Anglesea) . This has nothing to do with church, 
though there has long been a church here. It is W. llanerch 
y medd, ' forest glade or clearing where they drank mead.' Cf. 
Lanark (So.). 

Llanfair (8 in P.G.). 'Church of Mary,' the Virgin. Such 
churches show the rise of Latin influence. Cf. Builth. 

Llanfihangel Din Sylwy (Anglesea). The first part is ' church 
of the Archangel' (Michael). The second seems to mean 'on 
the hill of the wide view,' fr. syllu, ' to gaze.' 

Llangadoc (Caermarthen). 1285 CZose -R. Lancaddok. 'Church 
of St. Gadoc,' c. 500, who lived on an islet in the Bristol Channel, 
but d. in Brittany. Cf. Caradoc. 

Llangefni (Anglesea). 'Church on R. Cefni,' prob fr. W. cefn, 
' a ridge.' 

Llangollen. ' Church of St. Collen/ son of Gwynawc, abbot of 
Glastonbury, and then an austere hermit; 7th cny. 

Llangovan (Monmth.). Fr. St. Cofen, of whom httle seems known. 

Llangrove (Ross, Herefd.). A post-oflS.ce and ignorant local 
corruption. In all old documents ' Long grove,' which exactly 
describes the place as seen from a distance. 


Llangewyney (Crickhowell) . 1603 Owen lion y grwyne. ' Church 
of Grewyn.' But who was he ? ? Gwrwan or Gurvan, bp. of 
Llandaff, who excommunicated Tewdwr, K. of Dyfed. 

Llangynidb (Crickhowell). It has an Eng. form Kender church ; 
' church of St. Gynidr/ or in O.W. Lanncinitir. The saint was 
of the 5th cny. Also old Lannicruc, W. llan y Crug, ' church at 
the heap or barrow.' 

Llanillty (Glamorgan), c. 1150 chart. Landiltwit, c. 1350 ib. 
Launlltwyt. ' Church of St. IlUyd/ or Iltutus, orig. a Breton 
knight, who came over to the court of K. Arthur, and nephew 
of St. Gannon. Cf. Ilston and Llai^twit. Llantyd (Pembroke) 
gives the same name in a contracted form. 

Llanoveb (Monmouth). 'Church of St. Govor' or Gower, a W. 
saint, of whom little seems known. 

Llanehian (Pembroke), c. 1190 Gir. Camb. Lanrian. * Church of 
St. Rhian,' who seems unknown. Can it be fr. Reafhun or 
Hrethun, abbot of Abingdon and bp. of Leicester, who died 
c. 835 ? 

Llansatntfeaidd (Monmouth). 'Church of Saint Bride/ or 
Bridget of Kildare, 453-523. 

Llanstadwell (Pembroke). Sic 1594, but c. 1190 Gir. Camb. 
Lanstadhewal. W. llan ystad hywel, ' church of the conspicuous 
stadium or furlong,' which seems a curious name. More ex- 
planation is needed. Cf. St. Tudwall's I., Caernarvon. 

Llanstinan (Letterston, Pembroke). Sic 1594. 'Church of St. 
Justinian/ said to have come fr. Brittany to Wales in the time 
of St. David. 

LLANTH02«ry (Abergavenny), a. 1196 Gir. Camb. Lanthotheni. He 
also says : * The English corruptly call it Lanthoni, whereas it 
should either be called Nanthodeni — i.e., the brook Hodeni — 
or else Lanhodeni, the church upon the Hodeni,' now the Hondu, 
origin unknown. For change of nxint to Ikm see Nantwich. 
The other old forms intermingle with those of the offshoot from 
this priory, at Gloucester — 1160-61 Pi'pe Lantoeni, 1221 Laun- 
toney, 1223 Lantonay, 1225 Lantoeny. 

Llanthjo Ceossekny (Abergavenny). Prob. 1285 Close B. 
Lanthelyou, ' church of St. Teiliaw/ of the 6th cny. ; same as in 

Llanteisant (Glamorgan). W.= ' church of the three saints/ 
— viz., Illtyd, Tyfodwg, and Gwynno. 

Llantwit Majoe (Cardiff) or in W. Llanilltud Fawr. ' Church of 
St. Illtyd.' Fawr or mawr, ' big,' is the tr. of Major, L. for ' the 
greatsr.' There are 2 other Llantwits in Glam., as well as 
Llantood (Kernes), Valor. Eccl. Llantwyd. See Ilston and 


Llanweyno (Herefordsh.). Fr. St. Beuno, contemporary of 
Kentigem, who founded a religious society at Clynnog Fawr, 
Carnarvon, c. 616. Eleven churches are dedicated to him. 

Llan-y-Gwyddel (Holyhead). 'Church of the (Irish) Gaels.' 
Gwyddel lit. means ' dwellers in the forest, or, among the shrubs,' 
gwydd. Cf. TRWYN-y-GwYDDEL. 

Llithfaen (Pwllheli). ? W. llithr, ' a slide or glide,' and jQPaen, * a 
stone.' T. Morgan says llith implies attraction, and that there 
is a stone near here of the nature of a loadstone. 

Lliw R. (Bala and Loughor). Doubtfully derived fr. W. Uw, ' an 

Llwydarth (Glamorgan), c. 1130 Lib. Land. Litgart, 1603 Owen 
Lloydarch. W. llwyd garth, ' grey ridge ' or ' cape.' 

Llyncaws (Denbighsh.). W. = ' pool like a cheese ' ; while LlwyN'- 
CELYN (Rhondda) is, 'lake of the holly.' Sometimes llyn 
becomes llan, ' church,' as in Llangwathan or Llyn Gwaeddan, 
in c. 1130 Lib. Land. Luin Guaidan. This is perh. Gwarthan, who 
helped to establish the monastery at Bangor Iscoed, 6th cny. 

Llyn Cyri (Cader Idris). W. 'pool of the cauldron or Corrie'; 
cyri is hardly a Welsh! word, yet see Cyki. 

Llyn-yb-afrangc (pool on R. Conway). W. = ' pool of the 

Llysfaen (Abergele). W. ='hall, court made of stone.' W. 
and Com. maen, here aspirated ; /= v or mh. 

Llys Helig (now a sandbank oj5 Conway) . ' Palace of Helig,' 
now submerged. He was a great Cymric lord of the Middle Ages. 

LocKiNGTON (Derby and Beverley). Dom. Yorks Lochetun, 
Lecheton. Cf. Dom. Essex Lochintuna. ' Town, village of 
Log,' 1 in Onom. Cf. next. See -ing and -ton. 

Lock's Bottom (Orpington, Kent). A bottom, O.E. botm. is 'a 
low-lying valley.' Cf. Ramsbottom. Lock is the O.E. name 
Log, and is still a surname, Cf. above, 1158-59 Pipe Loches- 
wella (Wilts), and Loxwood. 

Lofthouse (Pateley Br. and Wakefield). Dom. Lofthuse, -tose. 
Lot- and Loct -huse. ' House with an upper room or garret,' 
O.N. and O.E. loft. This name has also become Loftus, in 
the same county. 

Lolworth (Cambridge). Chart. Lulleswyr^, Lollesworth. Dom. 
Lolesuuorde, 1284 Lulleworth. ' Farm of Lull' Cf. Lulworth 
(Dorset). The patronymic is seen in Lullington (Burton), and 
Dom. Kent Lolingestone. 

Londesborough (Mket. Weighton). Dom. Lodenesburg, 'Burgh 
of Lothan or Lothen,' both in Onom. The o has been nasalized; 
whilst Dom, regularly makes medial th into d. See -burgh. 


London, c. 100 Tacitus Londinium, c. 360 Amm. Marcell. Londinium 
vetus oppidmn quod Augustam posteritas appellavit ; c. 610 E, 
Saxon coin Lundx)nia, a. 810 Nennius Cair Londein. O.E. Chron. 
457 Lundenbyrig (=Londonburgh), c. 1175 Fantosme Lundres, 
c. 1250 Layamon Lundene, but * Frensca Lundres heo hehten ' ; 
1258-1450 Lunden, 1298 London, a. 1300 Mabinogion Lwndrys 
(q.v. p. 89, Everyman's Libry., for an early legend re the origin), 
c. 1460 Londyn ; also 1140 O.E. Chron. Lundenisce f olc. Commonly 
derived fr. a Keltic Ion din, ' marsh or pool with the fort,' W. 
llyn, ' pool, lake,' G. Idn, ' a marsh,' and W. din, G. diln, gen. d'Ain, 
' a hill, a fort.' This is quite possible. W. J. Watson identifies 
it with So. LxTNDiN and the commoner Lundy, G. lunndan, ' a 
green spot,' strictly ' green, wet place,' fr. a nasahzed form of 
lod, ' a puddle,' which he thinks is prob. same root as Lutetia 
Parisiorum. If so, it is very remarkable that both London and 
Paris should originally have names practically the same. The 
Saxons, at any rate, early made Lon- into Lun-, which, in pron., 
it has remained ever since. For this there is abimdant analogy. 
The sound is retained in Fr. Londres. Cf. Ludgate and Ltjne. 

LoNGMYND Range (Salop), c. 1285 Testa de Neville Foresta de 
Longe Munede. The -mynd seems W. mynydd, ' hill ' : the 
name may be a hybrid and the Long- be the common Eng. adj. 
O.E. lang, long. But Oxf. Diet, mentions a doubtful O.Ir. or 
Keltic long- in combinations, also meaning ' long.' But cf. 
Mtjnet, andMiNDTON. Longdon (Upton-on-Severn) is 972 cliart. 
Langdune, ' long hill.' Long Eye (Bromsgrove) is 972 chart. 
Longaneye (dat.), ' long island.' See -ey. Longthwaite 
(Cockermouth) may be translation of Longoviciimi in c. 400 
Notit. Dignit. See -thwaite. 

LoNGNOR (Buxton, Shrewsbury, Leek, and Penkridge). Pen. L. 
Dom. Longenalre, 1223 Langenalre, 1327 Longenolre. Le. L. 
a. 1300 Longenorle. Sh. L. a. 1300 Longenholre, Langenalre, 
Longenolre, Longnore. O.E. lang alor, air, ' long, tall alder -tree.' 
LoNGNEE-on-Sevem is also the same. Longboro' (Moreton-in- 
Marsh), Z)om. Langeberge, is ' long tumulus.' See Barrow ; whilst 
LoNGNEY (Gloster) , 972 chart. Longanege, is ' long island.' See -ey. 

LoNGSDON (Stoke-on-T.) a. 1300 Longesdon. ' Hill of Lang ' or 
' Long,' which have always been Eng. personal names. See -don. 

LoNGSHip (off Land's End). 1667 ' the rock called the Longship.' 

LoppiNGTON (Shrewsbury). Dom. Lopitone. ' Town of Loppa ' or 
' Loppo,' both in Onom. Cf. South Lopham (Thetford), 1225 

LosTOCK Gralam (Nantwi6h), Lostock Hall (Preston). Pres, L. 
1205 Lostok, 1296 Loes, -Lestok. Wyld thinks fr. an unre- 
corded O.E. hlos, same root as lot, O.E. hlot; and so perh. ' place 
where lots used to be cast; 'O.E. stoc, stocc, lit. ' a block or stake 
stuck into the ground.' Cf. Hlosstede {B.C.S. iii. 449) and 


Loscombe (both Dorset). This is doubtful. In Dom. Surrey 
we have Losele, which rather suggests ' mead of ' an unrecorded 
man ' Losa,' though it may be ' lot-nook.' See -hall. Gralam 
was son of Hugh de Bunchamp, c. 1080. 

LosTWiTMiEL (Cornwall). Pron. Los-withi-el. 1485 Lestwithiell, 
1536 Lostuthyell. Many absurd derivations have been given. 
It is quite simple. Com. lost withell, 'rump of the lion/ referring 
to the shape of a hill here. Cf. Withiel. 

LoTHBUBY (London), c. 1515 Cock Lorells Bh. Lothe bery. 
' Sheltered town/ fr. O.E. Ueow\, 1554 lothe, ' shelter, warmth.' 
Cf. L. Lothing, Lowestoft, and Louth. But, as we already have 
Lothingland in Dom., see Lowestoet, Loth- may well be the 
contracted form of a man's name. 

Lothersdalb and Lothersden (Craven). Dom. Lodresdene, 1202 
Lodderesden. A Lothewardus, or Lodewardus, or Erothweard 
was Abp. of York c. 925-930. See -dale and -den. 

Lothingland (Suffolk). Dom. Ludingalanda, 1158-59 Pipe Loinge- 
land, 1237 Patent B. Luddinglond, Ludingeland, 1459 Lodyng- 
lond. ' Land, territory of the sons of Luda ' or ' Loda.' See -ing. 

Loughborough. Dom. Lucteburne, and -burg, 1298 Luhteburge. 
Possibly this may be the same name as Lothbury. Or more 
prob. fr. a man's name, ' burgh, castle of LuTita ' or ' Luhha,' the 
latter a known form. See -borough. 

LouGHOR (Gliamorgan). Possibly c. 380 Anton. Itin. Leucaro. . In 
W. Cas Uywchyr. The Cos is said to be for castell, and llwchyr 
a word for a lake = G. loch. There is a lakelike expanse of water 
here, and a R. Llwchwr or Llychwr. Certainly W. llwch is ' pool.' 

LouND (Lowestoft and Retford). Dom. both Lund(a). Re. L. 
1302 Lound. O.N. lund-r, ' grove, wood.' But possibly, fr. 
phonetic reasons, same as hum or lound, ' calm, sheltered 
place '; also of N. origin. See Oxf. Diet. s.v. Lund (Beverley), 
Dom,. Lont, 1179-80 Pipe Lund, is the same name. Cf. Dom. 
Lines Lund. 

Louth (Lines) . Dom, Ludes, 1154-65 c^arf. Luda.' Croxden Chron. 
re 1210 Percolude — i.e., ' park of Louth,' 1225 Louth. Perh. fr. 
O.E. hlud, 'loud,' 'noisy place.' Much more likely, O.E. 
Meow]>, 1554 lothe, now in dial, lewth, ' shelter, warmth ' ; and 
so, 'sheltered, warm place.' The letters d and th very often 
interchange in old charters, through Norm, scribes. 

LowDHAM (Notts). Dom. Ludha, c. 1170 Ludam, 1302 Loudham. 
(It is near Ludcerce in Dom.). 'Home of Luda or iJude,' 
several in Onom. 

Lowestoft. Dom. Lothuwistoft, later Lowistoft, Loistoft. 1455 
Leystoft, c. 1600 Camden Lestoffenses. The curious Dom. form 
must represent ' toft ' or ' field of HlotTiewig,' a name found as 
that of a port reeve in Kent, B.C.S. 1212, same name as that of 


the famous K. of the Franks, O.Ger. Chlodwig, Ger. Ludwig, 
Fir. Lewis or Louis. This name exactly suits the phonetics of 
all the forms given above. Tojt is O.N. to^t, N. toft, tuft,^ ' a 
homestead, a house-site, a holding.' L. Lotlung, Dom. Lothing- 
land, beside Lowestoft, shows us a patronymic fr. Hlothewig, with 
its ending dropped, as often happens. Cf. Closworth. 

LowESWATER (Cumbld.). 1189 Laweswater. Perh. 'water, lake 
of HlcBwa'; 1 in Onom. 

LowTHEB R. (Westmorland). Perh. connected with O.Ir. lothur, 
' canalis,' Bret, laouer, ' a trench.' Cf. Sc. Lauder and Lowther. 

LowTHORPE (Driffield). Dom. Loghetorp, Logetorp, 1161-62 Pipe 
Leu-, Luitorp, 1179-80 Luuetorp. Prob. fr. low adj., early M.E. 
Uh (O.N. Idg-r), 2-3 hh, la^e. ' Low-lying village.' See -thorpe. 
Oxf. Diet, has no example of low, a. 1150. 

LoxLEY (Warwick, Uttoxeter, and Sheffield) . Wa. L. Dom. Loches- 
lei, 1151 Lochesle. Ut. L. Dom. ib., a. 1300 Lockesleye. A 
Warwick chart, of 985 also speaks of ' Locsetena gemsere,' 
' boundary of the Loc dwellers or settlers,' here in gen. pi. Cf. 
Dorset, etc. This is ' meadow of Loc.' Cf. next, and 1161-62 
Pipe Locheswell (Wilts). See -ley. 

LoxwooD (Billingshurst). Not in Dom., but cf. Exon. Dom. 
Lochesbera, where bera is ' wood.' Perh. 'wood of Loc' There 
is one Loc, and there are two Lucas in Onom. Cf. Lock's 
Bottom and above. 

LucKER (Belford). 1152 Lucre. This must simply be N. loeck-r, 
' a brook,' a very rare type of name in Northumberland. Cf. 
Leckford and Leek. 

Ltjdchurch (Narberth, Pembroke). 1353 Londeschirch, 1377 
Londchirch; but in Myv. Archaeol. Yr Eglwys Lwyd, ' the grey 
church.' The w is a common intrusion in the early spellings, 
due to the nasalizing of the wot u sound, a proceeding not rare. 
Some hold that Llwyd means ' the adorable, the blessed one.' 

Ltjddington (Stratford-on-A. and Garthorpe). St. L. c. 1000 
chart. Ludintune, Dom. Luditone, a. 1100 Ludintime. Ga. L. 
Dom. Ludintone. ' Village, town of Luda.' Cf. Ltjtton and 
947 chart. Ludanbeorh (Wilts). There are also Ludborough, 
Louth, and Ludham, Gt. Yarmouth, sic 1262. 

LuDGARS- LuDGERSHALL (Andover, Aylesbury, Gloster). An. L. 
a. 1200 Lutgershal. Ay. L. 1232 Close R, Lutegare-, Lutte- 
gartshal. Gl. L. 1220 Lutegares-, 1280 Letegareshale. ' Nook 
of LeodgcBr, Liutger, Ludegar,' the name occurs in many forms. 
See -hall. 

Ludgate (London). Sic 1585. It may possibly, though not prob., 
be O.E. hlidgeat, 6 lydyate, ' a postern, a swing-gate, a gate 
between meadow and ploughed land.' Lydiate Lane (Hales- 
owen) is a. 1300 Nonemonnes Lydegate, 'no man's gate.' 


But c. 1145 Geoffrey Monm., c. 1205 Layamon, and a. 1300 The 
Brut tell that Lud or Lhidd was a British king, brother of 
Cassibelaumis, and that London was called from him Caerlud; 
also that he was buried near this gate which now bears his name, 
called in the British language Porthlud, and in Saxon Ludesgate. 
Good authorities hold that Lludd was a Celtic deity. See, too, 
Mahinogion (Everyman's Libry.), p. 89. 

Lttdlow. Not in Dom., unless it be one of the Ludes — i.e., Lud's 
(place), there; 1223 Patent R. Ludelawe, 1497 Ludlowe. In W. 
Llwydlo. ' ffill of Lud.' See Ltjdgate and -low. 

LurwiCK (Northants). O.E. Chron. 675 (late MS.) Lufgeard, 
which is ' yard, court of Lufa/ 2 in Onom. But Dom. Luhwic, 
1166-67 Pipe LufEewich, fr. O.E. wic, 'dwelling.' Of. K.C.D. 
iv. 288 Lofintune, prob. Northants; and Luffenham (Stamford), 
1166 Luffenha. 

LuGQ R. (Leominster) . c. 1097 Flor. Wore. Lucge. Perh. connected 
with W. llwch, ' a lake, a pool.' As likely this is another case 
of river-worship. A god Lugus, li. Lug, seems to have been one 
of the ancient deities of the Kelt, family. Cf. Carlisle. For 
Ltjqwahdine 1233 Patent R. Lugwurthin, on this river, see 
-warden — i.e., ' farm.' 

LxTNDY I. (Bristol Channel). Not in Dom. Doubtful. May be 
same as Sc. Ltjndy; see London. This scarcely suits the 
site, so prob. Norse lund-ey, ' puffin island,' N. lunde, Icel. lundi. 
See -ey. For Lund see Lound. 

Lune R. (Lancaster and N. Yorks). Lan. L. prob. c. 150 Ptolemy 
Alona; also see Lancaster. Said to be fr. a Keltic lounx), 
' mud ' ; on Keltic Ion and lod, see London. 

LusTON (Leominster). Dom. Lustone. 'Town of Lusa.' Cf. 940 
chart. Lusebeorg (Wilts) and Lustleigh (Newton Abbott); the 
latter prob. fr. a man Lustwine; 3 in Onom. 

Luton (Beds and Chatham). Bed. L. sic a. 1199, but Dom. and 
1157 Loitone, 1155 Pipe Luitune. Prob. 'village, town of 
Lulia,' a name in Onom. But Lutley (Staffs), c. 1300 Lutteleye, 
and Lutley (Halesowen), Dom. Ludeleia, is ' mead of Ludxi ' or 
' Luta.' Lutley may be fr. O.E. lyt, 3-4 lut, 3-5 lute, ' little,' as 
in Luthebury, old form of Littlebury (Saffron Walden) . 

Lutterworth (Leicester). Dom. Lutresurde; also Lutrington 
(Co. Durham), 1183 Lutringtona. This must be ' farm ' and 
' village of Lutter ' or ' Luther,' or ' Lutter's descendants ' ; but 
there is no such name in Onom., only one Lothewardus, also a 
Leutherius or Hlothhere. See -ing, -ton, and -worth. 

LuTTON (Yorks, Oundle, and Wisbech). Dom. Yorks Ludton; not 
in others. ' Town of Luda ' or ' Lud.' Cf. Luddington. 

LuxuLYAN (Lostwithiel). Sic 1536 ; also called Lan Sxh^ian. 
Said to be corrup. of Corn. Lan lulian, ' church of St. Julian '; 


which of this name is doubtful. There are 115 Julians in Did. 
Christ. Biogr. It is now dedicated to Julitta ; hence the parish 
of St. Juliot, Cornwall. The story of Juhtta and her child 
Cjrric was very popular, and St. Basil wrote in praise of her. 

Lydbtjby North (Salop). Dom. Lideberie. Prob. ' Lida'a burgh.' 
See Lydney and -biiry. But Lydeaud St. Lawrence (Taun- 
ton) seems to be fr. a man Lidgeard. Dom. Lidegar, 1285 
Lydeyarde. Cf. 963 chart. Lidgeardes beorge, re Wasing, 
Berks. Only, of course Lidgeard will itself mean ' Lid's yard ' 
or ' garth.' LYDBROOK-on-Wye is a. 1300 Luddebrok, and there 
is a Dom. Glouc. Ludebroc ; perh. fr. a man Lydda ; but Baddeley 
suspects the first part to be a pre-Saxon river name. 

Lydd (Kent). 774 chart. Hlid; later, Lyde, Lide. O.E. hlid, ' a 

Lydpord (N. Devon). See LroroRD. 

Lydiard. There are places of this name at Wootton Basset and 
Swindon (Wilts). Dom Lidiarde, Lediar, also Lydeard St. 
Lawrence (Somst.), and Bp.'s Lydeard (Taunton). Dom. 
Lidiard, Lediart. 1224 Patent R. Lidiard is in Wilts. The 
name might be ' Lida'sjoxA,' or ' enclosure ' (O.E. geard) ; but is 
prob. O.E. Ud-geard, ' boat, ship-yard ' — at least in some cases. 

Lydnby (on Severn). 972 chart. Lidan ege, 1224 Lideneia, 1230 
Lideneya. ' Isle on R. Leden.' See Ledbury and -ey. 

Lydstep (Penally, Pembk.). 1603 Owen Ludsopp, ' Lud's place 
of refuge.' See Ludgate and -hope. 

Lye (Cradley). Old, Leeh, Lyegh, Lyghe, Lye, Lee, which show it 
var. of lea, 'meadow.' See -ley. Lye (Glouc.) has similar old 

Lyme Regis. Mentioned in 774. Dom. and 1234 Lym, 1184: Hist. 
Selhy Luma, which last suggests a possible derivation fr. O.E. 
leoma, 'a ray of hght, a flash, a gleam ' ; 4 lewme, lime, lym. 
But both here and in N. Staffs there is a R. Lyme, the latter 
a. 1200 Lima (other forms see Burslem), which seems to be 
simply O.E. hlimme, 'a stream, a river'; and this is quite pos- 
sibly the origin of this town too. Regis is L. for ' of the King.' 
Lyme received a royal charter from K. Edward I. in 1316, when 
it was surrendered to the Crown. Cf. Kjng's Lynn. 

Lyminge (Shomchffe). 804 chart. Limming, Dom. Leminges. 
Doubtful; prob. patronjrmic. There are two namedXwmngr in 
Onom. Cf. next ; and see -ing. 

Lymington (Hants). Not in Dom. c. 1450 Fortescue Limyngton. 
The man's name here is prob. Leofman, var. Leman and Low- 
man. Cf. above, and see -ing. 

Lyndhurst (Hants), a. 1100 cAar^ Lindhyrst, which is O.E. for 
' forest, wooded place with the limes or lindens.' Cf. Lyndon 


(Warwk.), a. 1300 Lynden, possibly fr. O.E. lin, 'flax/ as 
in Lyncroft (Lichfield). See -den and -don. 

Lynne or Lymne or Lympne (S. Kent). 77 Pliny Limnus, c. 150 
Ptolemy Portus Lemanis ; Dom. Lymne, 1392 Linne. Prob. 
Kelt, linn, ' pool, lake'; but for Lemanis c/. Lomond (Sc.) and 
L. Leman or L. of Geneva. Lynn (Lichfield), however, is 
c. 1300 la Lynd, Lynde, O.E. lind, ' the linden ' or ' lime-tree.' 

Lytham (Preston). Dom. Lidun. Prob. loc. of O.E. hli'6, 'on 
the slopes or hiU-sides.' Cf. Hallam, Ktt.wam, etc.; also 
Lythe (N. Yorks) , Dom. Lid. The Lyth (Ombersley) is the same. 

Mablethorpe (Lines). Dom. Malb'torp. 1202 Mapertorp, Mau- 
pertorp, Mautorp, 1318-1469 Malberthorpe, 1591 Mabberthorp. 
An interesting corrup., ' village of Malber/ or some such name. 
The nearest in Onom. are Marbert and Mcethelheorht or Madalbert. 
See -thorpe. 

Macclesfield. Dom. Maclesfeld, 1297 Makelesfelde, 1503 Maxfeld. 
Looks like ' Matchless, peerless field,' fr. wakeless, a. 1225 make- 
lese, ' matchless,' fr. O.E. gemaca, ' a peer, equal, match, a 
make.' There seems no name in Onom. which would yield 
Makele, but Malton (Cambs) is 1282 Makelton; and so it is 
prob. derived from a man's name, as all analogy suggests. 

Machynlleth ( Aberdovey) . W. ma Ghynlleth, ' field of Cyn Ueith,' 
in Geoff r. Mon. Kinhth map Neton. (7/. Mallwyd (Merioneth), 
field of Llywd '; Manest, ' field of Nest,' etc. 

Mackney (Wallingford). 957 chart. Maccanige, 1428 Mackeney. 
' Island of Macca.' See -ey. 

Madehurst (Sussex), not in Dom., and Madeley (Salop and Staffs). 
Sa. M. K.C.D. iii. 123 Madan leage, Dom. Madelie. St. M. 
975 chart. Madanlieg. Cf. Dom. Suss. Medelei. ' Wood ' and 
' meadow of Mada '; O.E. hyrst, ' a wood ' ; and see -ley. 
Madeley Uleac (Uttoxeter) is named fr. its Saxon possessor 
in Dom. 

Madingley (Cambridge). Dom. Madingelei, 1284 Maddingele. 
' Meadow of the descendants of Mada.' Cf. above, and Mad- 
dington (Wilts) ; and see -ley. 

Madley (on Wye, Hereford), c. 1130 Lib. Landav., pp. 323, 324, 
Madle, q.v., W. mad lie, 'good place.' Though, of course, some 
will hold it must be the same as Madeley. 

Madresmeld (Worcester), a. 1200 Medeleffeld, 1275 Madresfelde. 
Skeat thinks, ' Mceth-here's field ' ; Dom. regularly writes th as d. 

Madron (Penzance). Fr. St. Maiernus of Treves, in Chaucer 
Madryan; also Medhran, disciple of St. Piran or Kieran. 

Maer (Newcastle, Staffs). Dom. and later Mere, O.E. for 'mere, 


Maes Gaumon (Mold). W.= ' (battle)field of St. Oerman,' Bp. of 
Auxerre, France, who came to Britain in 429. We find a 
'Maisbeli' as early as c. 1145 Geoff r. Monm. ? = MAESBUBy 
(Oswestry). Cf. Llanaemon. 

Magor (Newport, Mon.). W. magwyr, 'a wall"; also found in 
Cornwall as Magor and Maker, old Macuir. 

Maidenhead. 1297-98 Mayden heth, c. 1350 Magdenhithe, 1538 
Maidenhedde. ' Maiden's hythe ' or ' landing-place ' — i.e., one 
very easy to land at, fr. O.E. hydde, later AytS, ' a haven, a land- 
ing-place.' Cf. Hythe. Maiden Castle (Dorchester), not in 
Dam., is claimed as a Keltic name, which is quite unlikely. 
The Maiden Castle is Edinburgh, found c. 1150 as ' Castellum 
puellarum.' Dorset also has Maiden Newton. 

Maidstone. Dom. Medwegestun; 1245 Patent B. Maidenestan; 
later Meddestane, Maydestan, which will mean ' rock ' rather 
than ' town on R. Med way," though its W. name is said to be 
Caer Meguaid or Medwig, ' fort on the Medway.' See -ton. 

Malden (Kingston, Surrey). Dom. Meldone, prob. ' sword hill ' or 
'dune,' O.E. dun; fr. O.E. mcel, 'sword, mark, ornament.' 
This wiU be the root also of Maldon (Essex), 993 O.E. Chron. 
Maeldiin, 1472 Maiden, rather than O.E. mdl, 3 male, 'tax, 
tribute.' But cf. Christian Malford. A man Mai, or the 
like, seems implied in such names as Malshanger and Mals- 
worth. See Birchanger and -worth. 

Malham (Leeds). Dom. Malgon, -un. These are clearly old 
locatives of the common Yorks Dom. type. But there seems 
no O.E. word to give us malg- ; mcele, mele, ' a cup, a basin,' 
seems the nearest — ' among the cup-shaped hollows.' But, then, 
the g must be an error. See -ham. 

Malling, South (Sussex). Sic 838, a. 1200 MeUinges, 1288 Contin. 
Gervase Suthmallinges. Patronymic. Cf. Melling. 

Mallwyd (Dinas Mawddy) . W. ma llwyd, ' grey plain ' or ' district.' 

Maimesbfry. Bede v. 18, Monasteriimi qnod Maildulfi urbem 
nominant, O.E. vers. Maldulfesburh, 940 chart. Matelmesburg, 
1015 O.E. Chron. Ealdehnesbyrig ; but, in latest MSS., Meal- 
delmesbyri, where the M. prob. stands for In. Cf. Inhrypum= 
RrpoN. Dom. Ecclesia Malmsburiensis, c. 1097 Flor. Wore. 
Malmesbyriensis, c. 1160 Gesta Steph. Malmesbiria. ' Burgh of 
Maldulf,' 7th cny. abbot and teacher here. He was succeeded 
by Ealdhelm ; hence arose a very curious confusion. 

Mat.p as (Chesh. and Truro). Former pron. Morpus, latter Mohpus. 
Same as the Fr. Mauvais pas (O.Fr. malpas), or ' bad path,' 
alongside the Mer de Glace. 

Maltby (Rotherham). Dom. and 1179-80 Maltebi, 1442 Mauteby. 
Perh. ' Malt town,' O.E. and O.N. malt, north dial., etc., mwut. 
But more likely it is ' dwelling of Malte,' 2 in Onom. Mallt is 
W. for ' Matilda.' See -by. 


Malton (Yorks). Dom. Maltun, Contin. Sim. Dur. ann. 1138 
Maaltun, 1202 Melton. Doubtful. Might be 'malt town' 
(c/. Maltby), but prob. ' tax, tribute town/ O.E. mdl, 3 male. 
See Maldbn. However, Malton (Cambs) is 1279 Malketon, 
1282 Makelton, and may come fr. the same man's name as is 
prob. seen in Macclesfield. 

Malvern. Dom. Malferna, Ann. Wore. 1085, Major Malvernia 
(' Great Malvern ') fundata est per Alwium ' orEaldwine, 1156 
Ptjje Maluerna, 1362Maluerne,W. moeZg^iuerw, ' hill of alders,' or 
' hill over the moor or plain.' 

Mamble (Wore). 957 chart. Momela (gen. pL). Dom. Mamele. 
Keltic mam, ' round, rounded,' G. mcLm, ' a round, breastlike 
hill'; the ending is uncertain. C/. Mambeg (Sc). 

Mamhtlad (Monmouthsh.). c. 1130 Lib. Landav. MamheiUad. 
Cf., in same book, Mamilet forest (Herefordsh.), evidently the 
same name ; and also Manchester. Mam will mean ' round, 
rounded ' ; and there is a W. heledd, ' a salt-pit ' ; but the name 
seems more likely to be W. maen heiliad, ' stone, rock for the 
serving [of liquor],' referring to some custom now forgotten. 

Man, I. OF. J. Ccesar Mona, c. 77 Pliny Monapia, c. 150 Ptolemy 
MovaptVa, v.r. MovaotSa (former = Movdnva, Nicholson, and same 
as Ptol.'s Mava7rto6, near Wicklow), Bede Mevaniae Insulse, a. 810 
Nennius Eubonia, id est Manau, 1000 O.E. Ghron. Mon ege 
(=Mona's Isle), c. 1110 Orderic Insula Man; in Manx Eilan 
Mhannin. Doubtful. Earle thought 0. Kelt, man, ' a place.' 
Cf. Akemanchester, old name of Bath, Akeman Street, Ayles- 
bury, and Manchester. 

Manacles (rocks near Lizard). Corrup. of Corn, men, mcen eglos, 
' rocks of the church,' perh. fr. the Church of St. Keverne on 
the high ground behind. 

MANCETTER(Atherstone). 1251 Mancestre. An old Rom. station, 
and = next. See -caster. 

MIanchester. c. 380 Ant. Itin. Mancunio, v.r. Mamucio; 923 
O.E. Ghron. Mameceaster; Dom. and on to 1421 Mamecestre. 
Perh. a hybrid, ' round hill camp ' (see Mamble and -Chester) ; 
but it may be fr. Kelt, man, maen, ' stone.' Cf. above and 
Mansfield, and Maumbury Rings, Dorchester. 

Manea (March) . This,, says Skeat, must be ' Manna's isle,' as it 
once was an island. Cf. Manley (Warrington) and Manton 
(Marlborough) ; and see -ey. 

Mangotsfield (Bristol). Dom. Manegodes felle. ' Field of Man- 
god, Mangold, or Managolt,' all forms in Onom. 

Manningtree. Not in Dom. ' Tree of,' Mann, Manna, Manne, 
Manni, Manno, Mannig, or Manning. All, except the two last, 
common names in Onom. Cf. Braintree, Oswestry, etc. ; and 
see -ing. 


Man of Wab (rock, Scilly) . Corrup. of Corn, men, maen an vawr, run 
into one word, Menavawr or Menawore, ' big rock/ C/. Manacles. 

Manobbiee (Pembrokesh.). c. 1188 Gir. Camb. says it is ' Mansio 
Pyrri/ manor, estate, mansion-house of a man Pyrr. Cf. Caldy. 
Some think the ending is the N. boe-r,' dwelling' (see -by), and 
so the name a tautology. Cf. c. 1130 Lib. Landav. Mainaur 
Garth Benni, and Manob fabon, ' manor of Mabon/ Cmrthnsh. 
Note, W. mcenor, ' district,' has nothing to do with Eng. manor. 

Mansebgh (S. Westmorld.). Dom. Manzserge. 'Hut, shiehng of 
Mann/ here a proper name. On -ergh see Anglesabk. Cf. 


Mansfield (Notts). Dom. Mamm-, Mamesfelde, 1162-65 cTiart. 
MamefEellt, 1189 Pipe Mamefeld, 1278 Man'efeld, Maunsfewd, 
1291 Mannesfeld. Difficult. It is on R,. Man or Maun, which 
may be a back formation, but not certainly, for we get it 1300 
Mainesheued {in prob. error for m), 1332 Mammesheued, ' head 
of R. Mam.' It may then be 'field on the Man, Maun, or 
Mam,' which according to. all analogy will be Kelt., either W. 
mamn, 'a bog,' or, transferred by some ignorant Saxon fr. 
some neighbouring hill, and so fr. warn, now only in G. mdm, 
maim, ' a low, rounded hill, like a mamm€, or breast.' But it 
may be fr. some man, unrecorded in O.E.; cf. Mammendorf, 
Bavaria, Mansfeld, Saxony, and Manchesteb. 

Manston (W. Riding and Sturminster Newton). Dom. Yorks 
Maines-, Manestun. ' Town of Man, Mana, or Mcena,' all in 
Onom. Cf. Mansebgh. 

Mapledtjbttam (Reading). 1217 Patent R. Mapeldureham. We 
have mapuldur as O.E. for 'maple-tree' as early as c. 725 
CorptLS Gloss. Cf., too, Maplebobough (Alcester), Dom. Mapel- 
berge, 940 cJiart. Mapildore (Wilts), and 1282 Close R. Mapel- 
treham (Chesh.) ; also Maplebeck (Notts), Dom. Mapelbec, and 
Dom. Kent Mapledescam. See next, and -ham. 

Mapledubwell (Basingstoke). Grant of a. 675 Mapeldure — i.e., 
' maple-tree.' Cf. the name Rowantree, and above. 

Mappleton (Hull and Ashbourne) . Hu. M. Dom. Mapleton. ' Town 
of a man called Maple,' O.E. mapel. Men are often called after 
trees — Ash, Birch, Beech, etc. It may be fr. the tree alone. 

Mabazion (Penzance). 1250 Marhasgon, 1309 Marhasyon, 1313 
Marhasion; c. 1470 Markysowe, Marchasyowe, c. 1540 Leland 
Markesju, 1595 Marghas-iewe (often to-day Market Jew — a 
curious example of popular etjrmology). The name is Corn. 
marhas Diow (fr. De Yew), ' market on Thursday.' But Diow 
must have had an older form Dion. 

Mabcham (Abingdon). B.C. 8. iii. 427 Merchamme, Dom. Merce- 
ham. ' Enclosure,' O.E. hamme, ' on the march or boundary,' 
O.E. mere, mearc. Mabch itself is c. 1080 Merc, 1169 Merch. 


Cf. next. But the cognate Eng. march is O.Fr. marche, first in 
Eng. c. 1290 in ' The Marche of Walis/ Cf. Mauk and Mark- 
ham (Notts). Dom. Marcham. 

Marohinqton (Uttoxeter) . 951 chart. Msercham, 1004 Mercham- 
tune, Dom. Marchamtone, a. 1300 Marchynton upon Nedwode. 
' Town with the house on the march ' or ' boundary/ between 
Staffs and Derby. See above and -ing. 

Makden (Hereford). Dom. Mawrdine, 1232 Close B. Maw-, Mau- 
worthin. ' Farm of '? perh. Jlfaw, one in Owom. See -warden. 

Margate. 1225 Patent B. Meregate; also Mergate; prob. 'road/ 
O.E. geat, ' by the mere ' or ' lake ', now drained. For e become a 
cf. Derby, pron. Darby. Cf. Mahfleet (Hull), Dom. Mereflet, 
' river by the mere.' See Fleet. 

Mark (Highbridge), Mark Beech (Eden Bridge), etc. O.E. 
mearc, Anghan were, 2 marc, 4- mark, ' boundary, frontier, 
Hmit, later, landmark.' Cf. 847 Grant (Dorset), on merce 
cumb, and Marcham. Markyate (Beds) is ' the boundary 
gate ' between Beds and Herts. 

Market Deeping (Peterboro') . a. 1100 Grant of 664 Depingge, 
c. 1200 Gervase Diepinge. There seems no Eng. sb. ' deeping ' 
or ' dippimg ' which will suit ; but cf. ' Depenbech ' in Cheshire 
Dom., now Malpas. There seems no helpful name in Onom; 
but see -ing as denotiug a place on a stream. The ' Market ' in 
all names with this prefix seems a late addition, though New- 
market goes back to the 12th cny. 

Market Harborough. Not in Dom. a. 1300 Haverberg, 1517 
Harborow. The Oxf. Diet, says = Market Harbour {q.v., s.v.). 
But a. 1300 shows this cannot be; it must be fr. Dan. havre, 
' oats.' See Havbrford and -burgh. Harberrow (Hagley) is a. 
1200 Hardberwe, a. 1300 Herdeberue, O.E. hierdan beorge, ' herds- 
man's barrow or burial mound ' ; also cf. Harberton (Totnes) . 

Market Weighton (Yorks). Pron. Weeton. Dom. Wicstun. 
1298 Wighton, Wyhton, Wyghton. From some man; Weah, 
Wigheah, and Wiht are possible names in Onom. Dom. regularly 
changes guttural ch or gh into 5^ 

Markington (Leeds). Dom. Merchintone. 'Town of Mearca,' 
not in Onom., or, of one of the many names in Mearc-. 

Marks Tey (Colchester). J. H. Bound has shown that Marks in- 
volves the name of the village of March, Pas de Calais, borne 
by AdeloLf de Mark, owner of Marks Tey district in Dom. So 
this name means ' Mark's paddock,' O.E. tih, teah, teag. Cf. 
Great Tey. 

Marlborough. Dom. Marleberge, 1110 O.E. Chron. Mserlebeorg, 
1158 Merleb'ga. Marl, O.Fr. marie, is not found as an Eng. word 
till 1372, nor merle, ' blackbird,' till 1450. So this is prob. 
' Barrow, tumulus of Mcerle/ short form of Mo&rleswegen, 4 in 



Onom. Cf. Dom. Wore. Merleberg. Marl Cliff (Wstrsh.), 
c. 872 chart. Marnan Clive, later Maranclive, Mearnanclif , a. 1790 
Mar Cleeve, is ' marble cliff/ fr. O.E. marma, here perh. rather 
with its meaning ' stifE clay/ which is the meaning of O.Fr. 
marne, marie. Maelewood (Thornbury), in its old forms, 1221 
to Leland, is always Morle-, and so prob. fr. O.Fr. morele, ' night- 
shade/ found so spelt in Eng. fr. c. 1265. 

Mabley (Bingley) and Marley Hill (Swalwell, Durham). Sw. 
M. 1183 Merleia and Bin. M. 1202 Merlegh, which is prob. 
' meadow by the mere ' or ' lake.' 0/. Maklow, etc. But 
Marley (W. Riding) is Dom. Mardelei, Merdelai, prob. ' marten's 
mead/ O.E. meai%. Dom. regularly makes th into d. Cf. 

Marlingford (Norwich). Dom. Merlingeforda, 1161-62 Merlingef'-, 
1454 Marlyof erthe, 1482 Marlyngf orthe. ' Ford of Merlin/ or 
perh. of his descendants. See Caermarthen and -ing. The 
-ferthe or -forth'e for -ford {q.v.) is due to Norse influence. 

Marloes (Milford Haven). Tax. Eccl. Malros, 1603 Owen Marlasse. 
Evidently =Melrose (Sc), O.W. masl rhos, ' bare moor.' 

Marlow (Maidenhead). Dom. Merlawe. 'Hill by the lake or 
mere/ O.E. mere, 2-3 mcere, 4 marre, 5 mer. Cf. Marley and 
Martin. See -low. 

Marown (I. of Man). Named fr. St. Buny or Ronan, Bp. of Sodor 
A.D. 600. Ma- is the common Kelt, endearing prefix, ' my own/ 

Marple (Manchester). Not in Dom. Prob. corrup. of merc- 
pool, or ' pool, lake at the boundary.' See Marwood. 

Marr (Doncaster). Dom. Marra, 4 times, Marie once (error). 
Perh. fr. mar sb. ' a hindrance, obstruction,' found first in Oxf. 
Diet, in a. 1300 Cursor Mundi, fr. O.E. merran, ' to mar.' 

Marrick (Richmond, Yorks). Dom. Marige, Mange {n for ri). 
Prob. ' isle in the mere.' Cf. Margate; but -ey {q^.v.) is rarely 
seen as -ick. 

Marsham (Norwich). Dom. Marsam. Cf. B.C.S. 496 Msersaham. 
Perh. ' home of Mcersa.' See -ham. On marsh see next. 
Marston Moor (Yorks) is Dom. Merstone, prob. fr. same name. 

Marske (2 in Yorks). Dom. Mersc, Mersch. O.E. merisc, mersc, 
' a marsh.' Seen also in Little Marsis (Yorks) Dom. Parvo 
Merse, and Pickering Marishes, Dom. Oudulvesmersc, etc. But 
Baddiley derives Marshfield (Box), Dom. Meresfelde, fr. a 
man Mcerwine. 

Marston (12 in P.O.). Warwk. M. c. 1000 Merston juxta Avonam, 
Dom. Mers(e)ton, two, also near Penkridge ib., 1327 Mershton. 
Glouc. M. Dom. Merestune. Cf. 774 cMrt. ' Mersctun,' (Ro- 
chester). ' Town, dwelHng by the marsh'; O.E. mersc, mcersc, 
merisc, 4 merss, 5- marsh. Cf., too, Dom. Meresberie (Salop). 
Duignan gives 5 Marstons in Warwksh. alone. 


Mabtest (Lines, Dover, Salisbury). Sa. M. (prob. 871 O.E. Chron. 
Meretune), Dom. Mertone, 1227 Meretone. ' Town on the 
mere.' See Mae-low ; and c/. Merton. Martin (Notts), Dom. 
Martune, on the borders of Yorks, is prob. O.E. mearc tun, 
' boundary town.' Marton (7 in P.G.), Dom. Lines Martone, 
Yorks Martun, -tone, 21 times, Mereton 4 times, may not 
always be the same. That near Leamington, 1327 Merton, 
seems to be; but in 1179-80 Pijpe Yorks we have a ' Mareton,' 
which might be fr. O.E. mare, 'a goblin' (c/. nightmare). In 
1157 Pipe Cheshire we have a ' Monte Martin,' prob. fr. St. 
Martin of Tours, dth cny. 

Mabtletwy (Pembksh.). 1603 Owew Marteltwy. The first part is 
corrup. of W. merthyr, ' a martyr,' the second doubtful. 

Martley (Worcester). Dow. Mertelai. 1275 Mertelee. No likely 
name in Onom., nor can it be fr. mart, ' market,' or mart, ' an 
ox' (see Oxf. Diet., s.v.), so prob. 'meadow of the mart,' dial, 
name of the marten, O.E. mear^, mer'6. Cf. foumart and 
Marley (W. Riding) ; see -ley. But Marthry (Pembk.) c. 1130 
Lib. Land. Mathru, some thiak to be W. mai or ma thru, 
' field of woe ' {tru). Prob. it is fr. Merthyr. 

Marwood (Barnard Castle), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Marawude. Mara- 
is doubtful. It may represent a proper name clipped down. C/. 
Onom. under Mar-, Marc-, Mear-, Mearh-. Prob. it is fr. O.N. 
mura, O.E. mare, ' a gobhn.' Gf. nightmare. 

Mary-le-bone (London) . 1742 St. Mary at the Bourne, or brook — 
i.e., the Tyburn. The Cockney has caused the liquid r to 

Maryport. Where, or near where, Q. Ilary landed in her flight 
from Scotland, 1568; but till 1750 called Ellenfoot. 

Masborough (Rotherham). Not in Dom. Prob. contraction of 
' Mcessa's, ' or ' Masso's burgh ' ; both forms in Onom. Cf. 
next, andMaisemore (Glouc), 1221 Meismore, later Meyesmora, 
which is prob. ' Mceg's moor ' ; one in Onom. 

Masham (Yorks). Sic 1296, but Dom. Massan. Prob. as above, 
' Jf assa's home'; only Dom.'s form will be an irregular 
loc, such as Dom. Yorks is full of, ' at Massa's.' Cf. Hal- 
lam, etc. 

Mathern (Chepstow). Addit. Lib. Land. Martharne, -erne, later 
Matharn; prob. W. ma theyrn, ' field of the king or lord ' {G. 
tighearn), and not fr. merthyr, ' martyr.' 

Mathon (Gt. Malvern). Dom. Matma, 1275 Mathine, a. 1500 
Mathan. O.E. ma^um, mu^m, ' a precious thing, a valuable 
gift '; m and n easily interchange. C/. JIedomsley. 

Matlask (Norfolk). Dom. Matelasc. 1453 Matelask. Curious 
name; looks like O.E. mcete, 'small, poor, bad,' and lisk, a M.E. 


word of prob. Scandinavian origin, a. 1200 lesske, 5-6 lasJce, ' the 
flank or loin.' Cf. next. 

Matlock. Not in Dom. ? O.E. m^te loca, ' small enclosure.' C/, 
PoBLOCK and above. But Matford (Berkeley) is c. 1270 Math- 
ford, whilst Matson, same shire, is c. 1121 Matesdona, 1199 
Metteresd', showing that this is for ' Mcethhere'a down.' See -don. 

Mattishall (Dereham). Dom. Mateshala, 1484 Mateshal(l)e. 
' Hall ' or ' nook of Mata/ See -hall. 

Maughold Hd. (I. of Man). St. Maughold was chief of an Irish 
band of robbers converted by St. Patrick and, next to St. Ger- 
man, patron saint of the Isle. 

Maxinby (Thirsk). Dom. Mannebi, Mannesbi, 1202 Magnebi, 1204 
Mageneby. ' DweUing of ' some man with a name in Magen- or 
Msegen-. There are many in Onom., Msegenfrith, Msegenheard, 
etc. It can hardly be fr. the simple Mann, as in Manseegh, etc. 
See -by. 

Mayfield (4 in P.G.). Ashbourne M. Dom. Madevelde, a. 1300 
Mathelefell, Matherfield, a. 1400 Mathefeld, Mayfield. Prob. 
O.E. mcethel felda, ' field of the meeting ' or ' council.' Of. 
K.G.D. 1339 Metheltun. Old forms needed for the other names ; 
not in Dom. They may be fr. may, ' the hawthorn/ found so 
used a. 1548. Meaburn (E. Oambld.) is 1120Maiburn; ? meaning. 

Mayeord (Woking). 955 chart. Mse^^e forda. ' Virgin's ford.' 
O.E. ?W0B3tS or mce^eb, ' a maid, a virgin.' 

Meas-, Meesden (Herts), a. 1300 Mesdune. O.E. meos dun, 
' mossy hill.' 

Mease E.. (Derbysh. and Warwick) and Mees R. (Staffs). O.E. 
meos ; O.N. mose, ' moss,' found in Eng. c. 1639 meese, and still 
in S.W. dial, meesh. So, ' mossy ' river. Measham (Ather- 
stone) is Dom. Messeham, and Mill Meese (Stone) is Dom. 
Mess, a. 1400 Mulneme(e)s, which gives us the old forms of both 
river names. Cf., too, Measden and Missenden. 

Medmenham (Marlow). Dom. Medemeha. 'Home of prob. 
' Moethhelm,' one in Onom. Dom. regularly makes th into d, 
and liquid I easily vanishes. Cf. next. 

Medomsley (Co. Durham) . 1211 Madmesl'. Prob. ' Meadow of the 
valuable gift,' see Mathon; it is found in c. 1200 Ormin. in pi. 
as Tnaddmess. If a man's name be preferred, it may be found in 
Mceldomen or Meldum, var. of Mailduf, or in McBthhelm, as 
above. See -ley. 

Med way R. a. 1000 chart. Msedw8e3a, 1016 O.E. Chron. Medew8e3a, 
a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Meodewage, 1215 Mag. Chart. Medewaj^e. 
Perh. O.E., fr. mcBd, ' a meadow,' and waga, ' deep waters ' 
(M'Clure) . But some think, W. med gwy, ' water, river which is 
extended or full.' Cf. R. Wey and Maidstone. 


Mebdham (Rochester). 774 chart. Msedham. 'Home on tHe 
ineadow '; O.E. moBd, ' a mead '; though Dom. Kent Meddestan 
suggests a man's name. See -ham. Meeth (Devon) may also 
be fr. meed, but is doubtful. 

Meerbeook (Leek). ' Brook on the boundary '; O.E. mcsre ; M.E. 
moer, mer. Of. 1241 Newminst. Chart. Usque ad Merethorne. 
But Meresbbook (Sheffield) and Dom. Meresbroc (Salop) may 
be fr. O.E. mere, ' a lake." Cf. 940 chart. Mserhlinc, Wiley 
(Wilts), ' links at the boundary.' Meering (Notts), Dom. Mer- 
inge, is a patronymic. 

Meieord (Welshpool) . Prob. W. mai fod, aspirated fr. bod, ' field 
with the house or hut in it.' 

MELBOTJRisrE (Cambs, Derby, and E. Riding). Cam. M. chart. 
Meldebume, Dom. MeUebume, 1661 Fuller Meldebum. * Brook 
of Melda.' Cf. Meldreth. De. M. Dom. Milebume (3 times), 
Somerset Meleburne. There are also 1157 Pipe Meleburna 
(Northumberland), and another in 1158 in Wilts. But M., E. 
Riding, is Dom. Middelbume, Midelbome, ' middle brook.' Cf. 
Melton. See -bourne. 

Meldreth (Royston, Herts), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Meldrethe, 
Dom. MeLrede. ' Melda'a enclosure.' See Melbourne, and 
Shepreth near by. 

Melksham (Wilts). Dom. Melchesha, 1155 Pipe Melchesham, 1223 
Melkesham. ' Home of Melc,' or the like. No such name in 
Onom. See -ham. 

Melltng (Carnforth). Dom. Mellinge. Cf. Malling. Prob. a 

Mellis (Eye, Suffolk). Dom. Melles, and Mells (Frome), ? Dom. 
Mulle. Cf. Dom. Melas and Mele (Chesh.). W. melys, ' sweet,' is 
not Kkely; prob. all are fr. O.N. mel-r, *a sandbank,' also 'bent 
grass.' Meals or miols are the common name for * sand-dunes ' 
on the shores of Norfolk, Lanes, etc. See Oxf. Diet., s.v. meal 
sb^. Cf. Melford (Sc.) and Meols. Duignan thinks Melly 
(Halesowen), a. 1200 Melley, to be a form of mill, O.E. mylen, 
1 myll, 4-6 melle ; if so the -ey must be a dimin. Cf. Mtlwich. 

Mellor (Blackburn and Stockport). Not in Dom. W. maelawr, 
* a place of traffic,' cf. Maelor, a hundred in Flint, is conceiv- 
able. But prob. , O.N. mel-r, 'a sandbank,' or 'bent grass.' 
The N. nominative ending r seldom survives in a name. 

Melmerby (E. Cumberland and N. Yorks). Dom. Yorks Mai-, 
Mehnerbi ; 1202 Tories Fines Melmorbi. ' Dwelling of Melmor ' ; 
one is known in the days of K. Eadred, c. 950. See -by. 

Melsonby (Darlington). Dom. Malsenebi. 'Dwelling of some 
unknown man, perh. Mcerleswegen or Merleswain. See -by. 

Melton (Brough, Yorks, and Woodbridge) . Dom. Yorks Medeltone 
— i.e., * middle town.' M. Constable (King's Ljnm), Dom. 


Meltuna, was held under the Bps. of Thetford by their hereditary 
constables, the de Lyons or de Meltons. Little Melton (Norwich) 
is Dom. Meltun parva. M. Mowbray, Dom. Medeltun, is called 
after the family who once held lands here. Roger de Morihray, 
or Mouhray, is on the Roll of Battle Abbey (1066, or later), 
c. 1175 Fantosme Munbrai, 1179-80 Pipe Molbrai, a. 1200 Wm. 
Newbury Monbrai ; origin doubtful. There is a Mowbray south 
of Silloth. Some of the Meltons — e.g., in Norfolk — may possibly 
be as in Mellis, ' village on the sand-dune.' Cf. Dom. Surrey 
Meldone. Meltonby (E. Riding) is Dom. Meltebi, ' dwelling of 
Melte ' or ' Malte '; 2 in Onom. The n is sign of the gen. Cf. 
Meltham (Huddersfield). 

Melverley. See Milverton. 

MJELYNLLYiir (Llaurwst). W. 'yellow lake'; W. felyn, 'yellow,' 
unaspirated. Cf. DimFERMLiNE (Sc). 

Menai Straits (Bangor) . There is a Menei in Taliessin, but the name 
here seems to date only from the construction of the great bridge. 
It is supposed to be W. main gwy, ' narrow water ' or ' strait.' 

Mekdham (Harleston). Dom. Mendaham. Cf. 1179-80 Pipe 
Mendham (Lanes) . This must be ' home of Menda/ an unre- 
corded name. See -ham. 

Mendip Hills (Somerset), a. 1100 cMrt. in Wm. Malmesb. Mons 
Munidop, 1284 Close R. Munedep, 1290 chart. Menedipp. 
Prob. not fr. W. mynydd ; Corn, menit, menyth, ' a hill.' 
' Munidop ' prob. means, ' enclosed land in a privileged district ' ; 
see Minety and -hope. Menith Wood, Lindridge (Wore), is 
1718 Meneth, but a. 1300 Menhey wood, so that the mod. form 
must be corrupt. 

Menheniot (Liskeard). 1536 Menhynyott. Corn, maen hen Neot, 
' old rock of Neot,' eldest brother of K. Alfred. Cf. St. Neots. 

Menston (Leeds). Dom. Mersintone. 'Town of McBvsa'; gen. 
-san. Cf. Marsham. The liquid r has disappeared ! 

Mentmobe (Leighton Buzzard). Dom. Mentemore. It looks Kelt. 
= W. mynydd mawr. Corn, menit meur or mur, 'big hiU.' Cf. 
Mendep and Penmaenmawr. There is no name like Mente in 
Onom., but an origin fr. O.E. minte, 3-7 mente, ' mint,' any plant 
of the aromatic genus Mentha, is quite possible, and so * mint 
moor.' Duignan derives Monmore (Wolverhampton) fr. W. 
mawn mawr, ' great bog,' but it is 1327 Monnemere, which must 
mean ' lake of Monne, Monna,' or ' Monn,' all fairly common 
names in Onom. 

Meole Brace (Shrewsbury), Meols (Wirral), and Meols Cop 
(Southport). Dom. Salop Melicope, Melela. Prob. not fr. W. 
moel, ' a conical hill,' with Eng. plur. s, but fr. O.N. mel-r, ' a 
sand dune,' a 'meal.' See Mellis. AsMielle it is common in 
Channel Is. Brace is a mining term for 'the mouth of a shaft,' 
and Cop is O.E. cop, copp, ' top, summit.' 


Meon E. (S. Hants), and Meonstoke (Bp's. Waltham). 932 chart. 
To Meone. Thought to contain the same root as Bede's province 
of the Meanuari, O.E. vers. Meanwara, ' dwellers in Mean/ We 
can say no more. SeeSTOKE. There is also Meon (Glouc), 1164 
Muna, 1221 Meen, which must be the same. 

Meopham (Gravesend). 940 chart. Meapeham, Meapham; Dom. 
Mepeham. ' Home of Mmpa/ 

Mepal (Ely). 1302-1428 Mephale. 'Nook or corner of Meapa/ 
Cf. above and -hall. 

Mere (Wilts and Knutsford). Wilt. M. Dom. Mere, Mera; 1155 
Pipe Mera. O.E. mcere, ^emcere, ' a boundary, a landmark,' 
or else mere, ' lake ' ; these have often been drained of recent years. 

Meriden (Coventry). 1398 Muridene, 1440 Meryden, c. 1550 
Alspathe, alias Myredene. Prob. not ' merry vale,' but fr. miry, 
4-6 myry, 6-7 myrie, 6 myerry, 7 merie, fr. mire ; O.N. myrr, 4-6 
myr, 4 mure, muyre, 'boggy, swampy ground.' Cf. Mtreield 
and the name Merry lees. See -den. Merry Brook, Cropthome 
(Wore), may have a similar origin. 

Merioneth. Named after Merion, grandson of Cunedda Wledig; 
the -eth or -ydd is an enclitic particle, with no very clear 

Merriott (Crewkeme). Dom. Merret. [? cf. 859 chart. Meritie 
stret to Senfeling forde.] Perh. ' island in the lake ' or mere, 
fr. AIT {q.v. in Oxf. Diet.), 2-8 eyt,, ' island.' 

Mersea (Essex) . 895 O.E. Chron. Meresig ; O.E. = ' isle in the mere ' 
or 'lake'; Dom. Meresai. Cf. Dom. Mersse (Salop), Merse 
(Bucks), and Merestone, now Merston (I. of Wight); also 
Merstowa (Somerset), 1231 Patent R. See -ea. 

Mersey R. a. 1100 Mserse. Doubtful. Prob. 'river of the 
boundary,' from O.E. {ge)mcere, ' boundary, march,' and Sa, i, 
1-3 ce, ' river.' The Mers- may be fr. ' marsh,' O.E. mersc, 
rtherisc. Cf. Dom. Cheshire Mersham, also name of a village near 
Ashford, and 1179-80 Pipe Mershon (Yorks). Cf., too, the 
Mearse (Bromsgrove), ? * the boundary,' of which name there are 
no old forms; and see Mersea and Merstham. 

Merstham (Bed Hill and Ashford). Red. M. Dom. Merstan. Prob. 
' stone at the boundary '; O.E. moere (gemcere) stan ; -an easily 
becomes -ham {q.v.). 

Merthyr Tydvil or Tydeil. W. for ' martyr Tydvil.' She was 
daughter of Brychan, Keltic chief in S. Wales in 5th cny. With 
her father and brother she was murdered here, and a church 
was erected in her memory. Cf. Merthyr Cynog (Brecon). 
C, son of Brychan, was murdered by the Saxon pagans. The 
same root is prob. found corrupted to Marthrey (Pembrk.), c. 1130 
Lib. Land. Marthru, Mathru; c. 1190 Qir. Camb. Martru^ 


Merton (Surrey and Dolton, Devon). Sur. M. O.E. Chron. 755 
Merantun, is ' town of the mare '; O.E. mere, -ran ; Dom. Mere- 
toni. Other Mertons — e.g., Dom. Devon Mertone — will be= 

Messingham (Brigg). Sic a. 1100 clmrt. A patronymic, as shown 
by Messing (Kelvedon). There is one monk Messa, gen. -san, 
in Onom. Cf. Great Massingham (King's Lynn), 1179-80 Pipe 
Mesington (Yorks), and K.C.D. 721 Msessan wyrth. Also cf. 

Mesty Croft (Wednesbury). Prob. 'field, little farm of Meste.' 
Cf. Dom. Derby Mestesford. 

Methley (Leeds). Dom. Medelai. As Dom. for Middleton is 
Medeltone, this is prob. 'middle meadow,' the Meth. being 
influenced by O.N. mith-r, 'mid.' Cf. Middop ('mid hope,' 
q.v.), Craven; Dom. Mithope; and Dom. Yorks ' Mith Hundret ' 
— i.e., ' Middle Hundred.' See -ley. 

MEXBOBOUGH(Rotherham). Dow. Mechesburg. Prob. 1202 7or^ 
Fines Merlns-, Morkisburg ; 1206 Merkesburgh. ' Burgh , fort of,' 
it is not certain what; perh. some name in Mearc- or Marc-, if 
the latter identification be right. But if Dom. is right, then fr. 
some man Mecca, Mecco, or Mecga, aU names in Onom. See 

Micheldever (Winchester). Dom. Miceldevre. Looks like O.E. 
micel, * great ' ; Sc. muchle ; and Kelt, dever, ' water, river.' 
Cf. Dover. There is no river nearer than the Itchen. Cf. 
1322 ' le Mikeldor de Yowberg ' (Wastwater), and 1160-61 Pipe 
Hants Micheldene. There is another Micheldean, old Muchel- 
dene (Forest of Dean). 

MiCHELNEY or MucHELNEY (Somerset). Dom. Michelniu, a. 1130 
^m.I>Mr.Micelnei,c. \\\4: O.E. Chron. M.jGld.m^Q. O.E.= ' great 
island,' O.E. ij. The n is the accus. inflexion. 

Mjckleby (Yorks). Dom. Michelbi. Mickxeham (Dorking) . Dom. 
Michelham. Micklethwaite (W. Riding). Dom. Muceltuoit, 
-tuit, 1202 Fin^ Micle-, Mikelthwaite. Mickleton (Campden, 
Glouc). 1005 chart. Micclantun, Dom. Muceltune; whilst 
M. (Yorks) is Dom. Micleton. All fr. O.E. micel, micle, 
mycel, 'great'; in Sc. muchle. See -by, -ham, -thwaite, and 

Middlesborough. <S'icl586. Prob. 'ilfai7(Zw/'s town.' C/.Malmes- 
bury; and see -borough. But, of course, Middleham (Yorks), 
Dom. Middelha', is ' middle house,' and Middlewich 
(Chesh.) the same, though, by a scribe's freak, Dom. spells it 
Mildest vie. 

Middlesex. 1011 O.E. Chron. Middelseaxe, 1087 ih. Middelsex. 
' Land of the Middle Saxons.' Cf. Essex, Sussex, Wessex. 


MiDDLETON (21 in P.G.). Tamworth M. Dom. Mideltone, King's 
Lynn M. Dom. Middeltona, etc. Cf. Milton. We findMidel-, 
Middeltun, 19 times in Yorks Dom., whilst Middleton (Morley) 
is Dom. Mildentone, ' town of MiUa.' Cf. Melbourne. 

Mtdgham (Berks). K.C.D. iii. 193, 196 Mieghsema gemsera; Dom. 
Migeham, 1316 Migham. Cf. 1161-62 Pipe Migehal close by. 
' Home of the midges ' ; O.E. mycg, micg. See -ham. 

MiDGLEY (Luddenfoot, Yorks). Dom. Micleie. O.E. micel, ' great 
ledge ' and Uah, ' meadow.' Migley (Co. Durham) 1183 Migleia, 
is prob. the same name. Cf. Mitcham. The dg is palatalized c, 
cf. Badgeworthy. 

Mildenhall (Suffk. and Marlbro'). Suf. M. Dom. Mildentune and 
Mitdenehalla {t for I), 1158-59 Pipe Mildehala. Ma. M. Dom. 
Mildenhalle. ' Comer of Milda/ one such woman in Oiiom. 
See -hall. 

Miles Platting (Manchester) . Miles is presumably a man's name. 
Platting is ' a small foot-bridge.' See Oxf. Diet. (s.v.). 

MiLFORD Haven, c. 1190 Girald. Milverdicus portus (harbour), 
c. 1425 Melyford, c. 1450 Mylford, 1593 Millford Ha von. Milford 
is prob.= MELroRD (Sc), 'sandy bay' or 'fjord,' N. mel-r, 'a 
sand-dune' or 'sandbank/ and fjord. Cf. Waterford. The 
-icus, c. 1190, is adjectival. There was a Rhyd y felin, or 'ford 
of the mill/ only a mile away, but this cannot be the origin of 
the present name. North Milford (Tadcaster) is Dom. Mileford, 
' ford at the mill '; O.E. mylen and myll. 

MiLLBANK (London). Sic a. 1560. 

MiLLiNGTON (Yorks). Dom. Mileton, 1206 Fines Milington. ' Town 
of Mile ' or ' Milo '; 4 of the latter in Onom. See -ing. 

MiLLOM (S. Cumberland). Old forms needed. Perh. mill-holm, a 
* holm,' O.E. and Dan. holm, O.N. holm-r, is a small island in a 
river, and also a flat meadow near a river or the sea, easily 

Milton (20 in P.O.). Some of these are prob. 'mill-town,' but 
M. Kent or Essex is 893 O.E. Ghron. Middeltun, c. 1120 Henr. 
Hunt. Middletune. Milton Abbey (Dorset) is also old Middle- 
tune, so is Milton (Cambs), while Milton (Abingdon) is Dom. 
Middeltune, 1291 Middelton, c. 1540 Milton. Milton (Cumbld.) 
is 1230 Muleton, which is O.E. mylen, 3-4 mulle, 'a mill.' 
Milburn (Pontefract) is 1201 Milneburn, or ' mill -brook.' Cf. 

MiLVERTON (Warwick and Somerset). Wa. M. Dom. Malvertone, 
a. 1200 Melv-, Mulvertone. Som. M. c. 1043 chart. Milferton, 
Dow. Milvertone. 'Villagejtownof Jfi^/er.' C/. Mel verley (Salop). 

MiLWicH (Stone). Dom. Melewiche, a. 1200 Mulewich. 'Village, 
dwelling with the mill.' See Milton and -wich. 


MiMMS (Herts). Dom. Mimmise, 1278 Mjaninys. This is simply 
' abode of the Mimmas.' Onom. has only Minna. This is an 
abnormal name. 

MiNAUD (St. Grerman's). Corn, min arth, ' edge of the height.' Cf. 
Miniard (Worcs.), where the central i will be the y of the W. 
article. Not the same as Minaiid (Sc). 

MmcHnnTAMFTON (Stroud). Dom. Hantone, a. 1300 Munnechen-, 
Monneken-, Mynchyn-, Munchun- hampton — i.e., Hampton — 
'home-town of the monks'; O.E. monec, munec, here gen. pi. 
Cf. Grant a. 675, Menechene Rude or Monk's Cross, on borders 
of Hants and Surrey. 

MiNDRUM or -DB.IM (N. Northumberland). Old Minethrum, 1324 
Mundrum. Seems a curious hybrid and tautology. W. 
mynydd ; Corn, menit, ' hill ' ; and G. druim, ' hill-ridge.' Drum 
is very common in Sc. place-names, cognate with L. dorsum, 
' back.' Cf. next. 

Mtndton or MiNTON (Salop). Dom. Munetune. Prob. not hybrid, 
' town beside the hill ' (the Longmynds) ; W. mynydd ; Corn. 
menit, ' a hill.' But, like Minety (Wilts), not in Dom. and not 
in a Kelt, region, it will prob. go with Meend, a name common in 
Forest of Dean, 1263 Mihinde, 1281 La Mimede, 1303 Miinde, 
now derived by Rev. A. L. Mayhew fr. an O.E. or rather Anglo- 
Nor. form of low L. munita, for immunitas, ' privileged district, 
one free from seignorial rights.' Cf. Mint (Westmld.), Dom. 
Munet, and Munet. 

MrNSHULL Vernon (Cheshire). Dom. Manessele, -shale. 'Nook, 
corner of Manne ' or ' Man{n)a/ a common name in Onom. 
This is one of the very rare cases where -hull is really -hall (q.v.). 

Minskip (York). Dom. Minescip. Must be rendered like Inskcp. 

MiNSTERLEY (Shrewsbury) . Dom. Menistrelie. ' Church meadow.' 
Cf. MiNSTERWORTH (Glouc), 1221 Munstreworthe, and Dom. 
Notts Ministretone, now and since 1316 Misterton. See -ley, 
-minster, and -worth. 

MiNwoRTH (Birmingham). Dom. Meneworde, a. 1200 Muneworth, 
a. 1400 Myneworth. No name Mene, Mine known; and O.E. 
mene, myne is ' a necklace, an ornament ' ; but there is a name 
Manne ; see Minshttll. See -worth. 

MiRMELD (Yorks). Dom. Mirefeld, -felt; 1202 Mirfeld; ? 1297 
R. Glouc. 520. ' The churche founded in a miry place, called 
mury felde ' ; fr. Icel. myrr, myri, ' swamp, fen, a (quag)mire.' 

MissENDEN, Great and Little (Bucks). Dom. Missedene and 
Missevorde. Perh. ' Vale of Missa ' or ' Messa '; one in Onom. 
Cf. Messingham; and see -den. However, they are on a little 
R. Mise, which, if not a back formation, is prob.= Mees. There 
is also a Misson (Bawtry), Dom. Notts Misne, 1278 Misin, 


which is prob- an old loc. 'at Missa's,' (place). Missebden 
(Glouc), old Musardere, -ader, seems to be fr. a foreign family 
of Musard. 

MiTCHAM (Surrey). Dom. Michleham, later Miecham, Micham. 
O.E. micel Mm, ' large house.' Of. Mickleham, Mtdglby, and 
Mitcheldean (Glouc). See -dean. 

Mitchell (New Quay). Old Modishole. A curious corruption; 
certainly nothing to do with St. Michael. Prob. 'Hole of 
Modred,' a Corn, name, also spelt Medraut, and name of K. 
Arthur's treacherous nephew. But Mitchel (Wolverhampton) 
is 1332 Mucheale, ' great hall ' or ' big nook.' See -hall. Much 
in M.E. was used for ' great, large,' as in Much Wenlock. 

Mite R. Prob. = Mythe. 

MiTFORD (Morpeth). Prob. ' ford at the water's meet.' See next; 
and c/. MuTFORD and 940 chart. Myjjford (Wilts). 

MiTTON (Blackburn, Warwick, Penkridge, Stourport, Tewkesbury). 
St. M. 841 chart. Mjrthun, Dom. Methune, 1275 Mutton. Tew. 
M. 964 chart. Myttune, 965 ih. Muctone (c common error for t), 
1033 Mytune. Wa. M. Dom. Mutone, a. 1300 Mutton. Pe. M. 
Dom. Mui-, Moitone ; also Dom. Salop Mutone. O.E. {ge)mythan 
or {ge)mythe, ' junction of streams or roads, waters' meet.' 
Penk. M. is at the junction of Avon and Learn. The root is the 
same as (river's) mouth. Cf. MrrroRD, Mythe, and Myton; 
' also see -ton. 

MxKEN (Leek), 1219 Mixne, and Mixenden (Halifax), not in Dom. 
O.E. mixen, -ne, ' a dunghill, a midden.' Cf. Mixebne (Winch- 
combe), 1300 Blakemixeme (O.E. em, ' house '). See -den. 

Mobbebley (Knutsford). Dom. Motburlege, 'Meadow of Mod- 
beorht ' ; 2 in Onom. See -ley. 

MocHDRE (Conway). W. (and Corn.) moch, pi. of mochyn, ' a sow ' ; 
dre must be for W. tre, ' house, shed.' 

Modbury (Ivybridge). Cf. Dom. Devon Modlei. ' Burgh of Mod,* 
or some of the many names in Mod-. Onom. has one Moding, 
the patronymic. 

MoDDERSHALL (Stouc). Dom. Modrcdcshale. 'Nook of Modred/ 
a well-known name. See -hall. 

MoELFRE (Menai and Oswestry). W.= 'bald hill'; moil, 'bald,' 
like a bald head, hence moel, ' a conical hill.' Fre is for hre, ' a 
hill, a brae.' 

Mold (Flint) . Mold is contracted fr. mo -alt ; Norm. Fr. Mont haut 
or MonthauU. The Norman Roger de Montalto is found here in 
1244. L. mons alius means ' high hill.' Cf. Melton Mowbray, 
and Montgomery. The na^me prob. is a translation of the 
W. name Gwyddgrug, ' conspicuous hill.' Also cf. Hainault. 


Mole E. (S. tributary of Thames). It is a river that burrows like 
a mole ; M.E. mulle, molle ; M.Du. mol. Not found in Eng. till 
1398. But Mole Cop, hill, N. Stafford, is prob. tautology; W. 
moel, 'a bare, rounded hill'; and O.E. cop, 'a summit/ See 
Cassop. It may be Dom. Melicope (Salop). 

MoLEswoRTH (Huuts). Dom. Molesworde. ' Farm of Moll '; four 
in Onom. Cf. Dom. Essex Molesham, ib. Bucks Moleshov, ib. 
Yorks Molescroft ; and see -worth. 


MoLLAJfTD BoTREATJX (S. Molton). Exon. Dom. Mollanda. Prob. 
* Land of Moll ' or ' Mole.' See above. The lords of Bottreaux 
lived near Tintagel. Moleston or Molleston (Narberth), 1283 
Moylhistonne, may be fr. a man of similar name. Certainly it 
can have nothing to do with moles ! 

Mollington (Banbury and Cheshire). Ban. M. a. 1000 chart. 
Mollintun; Ches. M. Dom. Mol-, Muhntone; also K.C.D. 759 
Mulantun. ' Town of Moll, Mollo, Mul,' or ' Mula '; several 
persons of these names in Onom. Cf., too, Moleswobth and 
1179-80 Pipe Molebi (Yorks). But Moilgrove (Pembroke) is 
for MaWs — i.e., ' Matilda's grove.' 

Molton, South (Devon). Dom. Sudmoltone. 'Town of Moll.' 
See above. Exon. Dom. also gives ' Molacota.' Cf. Moulton. 

Monks Eleigh (Bildeston, Suffk.). 958 cMrt. Uleyge, 972 ib. 
Ulan lege, 990 i6. Illege. 'Mead of Ylla'; one in Onom. Cf. 
Illey; and see -leigh. 

MoNKSiLVER (Taunton) . Dom. Selvra, Selva. Curious name, prob. 
fr. L. silva, ' a wood.' Monk's Ktbby (Lutterworth) is Dom. 
Chirchberye or ' Churchbury,' but, through Danish influence, 
changed by 1198 into Kjrkebi. See -by. The monks of Anglers 
(Normandy) had property here. 

Monkton (Jarrow). a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Munecatun. ' Town of the 
monks ' (of Jarrow) ; O.E. monec, munec, * a monk.' Cf. Bishop 
Monkton and Monkwick (E. Riding), Dom. Moncwic. Oxf. Diet. 
does not give the contracted form monk or munc until the 13th 
cny. Dom. has the full form in Monechetune or Moor Monkton 
(Ainsty), and Monuchetone — i.e., Monkton (Barkston Ash), 
whilst another, spelt as last, is Nun Monkton (York) . 

MoNMORE. See Mentmore. 

Monmouth. Dom. (Hereford) Monemuta. 1298 Monemuthe. 'At 
the mouth of the E,. Monnow '; W. Mynwy, ? myn gwy, ' kid 
river.' Cf. also W. mawn, ' a bog.' The shire only dates fr. 
1536 ; before that it was part of the Welsh region of 

Montacute (S. of Somerset). 1160-61 Pipe Monte Acuto. Built 
by and called after Drogo of Montacute (' sharp hill ') in Nor- 
mandy, temp. Wm. the Conqueror. 


Montgomery. Dom. Castellum de Montgomeri, also Muntgmneri ; 
c. 1130 Eadmer de Monte Gummeri, c. 1145 Orderic Mons 
Gomerici, Rogerius de Monte Gomerici. ' Hill ' (L. mons, -Us; 
Fr. mont) ' of Gomeric/ a Norman; this name is imique as an 
Eng. or W. comity name. In W. it is Trefaldwyn, ' house of 
Baldwin/ its Norman foimder. His castle was taken by Roger 
Montgomery a. 1086, and thereafter called by his name. 

MoNTON (Eccles, Lanes) . 1478 Mawnton. Prob. O.E. Mawan -tun, 
' town of Mawa '; 2 of that name in Onom. 

MooRSHOLM, Great and Little (Boosbeck, Yorks) . Dom. Morehusun, 
1179-80 Pipe Morhuse. The Dom. form is an O.E. loc, ' at the 
moor houses.' The -holm {q.v.), ' meadow/ must be late. We 
have the simple Moor (Wore), Dom. More. 

MoRCHARD and Norchard (Forest of Dean). No old forms. 
Baddeley thinks the m and n reUcs of the O.E. article, ' at the 
orchard'; O.E. cet thcem ortgearde. Dom. has an Orcartone 
(Devon), and Exon. Dom. an Orcerdleia. But Morchard Bp. 
(Crediton) seems Dom. and Exon. D. Morcet(h), -chet, which 
looks like Kelt, for 'big wood'; Corn, wewr, mer ; W. mawr, 
' big '; and W. coed, pi. coydd; O.W. cet, chet, ' a wood.' 

MoRDEN (Cambs, Wimbledon, and Wareham). War. M. K.G.D. 

722 Mordun; O.E. for 'moor hill.' Cam. M. c. 1080 Inquis. 

Camb. Mordune, 1166 Mordone, 1236 Mordene, where -dene is 

O.E. denu, 'valley.' Cf. Moorsholm, and Moreby (Yorks), 

Dom. Morebi. 
MoREOAMBE. c. 150 PtoUmy MopuKafjifSr], which would .be Keltic 

for ' crooked sea ' or ' bay.' Of. Cjameo (Sc.) and next. But 

no other early forms seem known, so this is prob. an antiquary's 


MoRETON (10 in P.G.). Wallingford M. 962 chart. Mordun, O.E. 
for 'moor hill'; but Dom. Mortune, c. 1290 Morton. Dom. 
Surrey has Moriton, Warwick and Glouc. Mortone, while Dom. 
Yorks has Mortun 17 times. See -don and -ton. 

MoREA Byohan, Nevin, and Waen (all N. Wales), and Moree 
(Bridgnorth). Dow. Stafis Morve. W. mor/a, ' a marsh/ W. 
bych means ' a wretched being,' and gwaen, ' a plain, a meadow.' 

Cf. Nevern. 

MoRQAJSfSTOWN (Cardifi). Morgan is Pict. Morcunn; O.Bret, mor 
cant, ' sea bright.' Of. Tillymgrgan. The man referred 
to here is Morgan Thomas, on whose land the village was 

MoRLEY (5 in P.G.). Leeds M. Dom. Moreleia, -lege, Morleia, 
' Moorland meadow.' Cf. Morden. See -ley. 

MoRNiNGTHORPE (Norfolk). Dom. Maringathorpe. Maringa must 
be a patronymic. See -ing and -thorpe. 


Morpeth. Contin. Sim. Dur. ann. 1138, Morth path; so not, as 
often said, 'moor path,' O.E. pcetS, but 'murder-road,' fr. O.E. 
mor^, 4-5 morth, murth, ' murder/ 

MoR Ros (The Lizard). Corn.= ' sea heath, or moor.' 

MoRT Hoe (N. Devon). Dom. Mortehov, c. 1190 Letter in Canterb. 
Regist. Moreth'. Prob. as above, ' murder hill.' Cf. O.Fris. 
morth, mord, ' murder.' Similar must be Mortham (Yorks), 
sic in Dom. and Mortlake. See Hoe. 

Mortimer (Reading) . 1258 Mortemer. Fr. Ralph de Mortuo Mari 
(' of the Dead Sea '), or Morte mer (a castle and abbey near 
Rouen), who came over with Wm. the Conqueror. He is 
mentioned in Dom. The ' Dead Sea ' origin is a myth. 

Mortlake (London). Dom. Mortelega, -lage, c. 1130 Eadmer 
Murtelac. ' Murder lake.' See Morpeth. Not prob. fr. O.Fr. 
lac, though lace, ' pond, pool,' is found in O.E., but fr. O.E. 
lagu, gen. lage, 3 la^^e, 4-5 laye, ' a lake, a pool.' Cf. Lackford. 

Morton. See Moreton. 

MoRVTLLE Fell (hill, Kirkby Stephen) . Looks like a reduplication, 
' moor ' (O.E. mor), ' fell.' See -feU. 

MoRWiNSTow (Bude). 1536 Morwynstow. 'Place,' O.E. stow, 
' of Morwine '; one such in Onom. Cf. Padstow. 

MoSELEY (Birmingham and Worcester). Wo. M. 816 chart. Mose- 
leage, 851 ib. Mosleage. Bi. M. Dom. Museleia. O.E. mose or 
meos leah, ' moss ' or ' mossy lea.' Cf. Dom. Bucks Moslei, 
Muselai, and Mossley Hill (Liverpool) . 

MosTYN (Flint). Prob. 1301 chart. Moston. Can it be W. mws 
twyn, ' foul, stinking hillock "i T. Morgan suggests, corriip. of 
W. maes ddin, ' field of the fortress.' 

MoTTiNGHAM (Eltham, Kent). O.E. chart. Modingahema and 
-hamme.  ' Enclosure of Moding,' one such in Onom., or ' of the 
sons of Mod ' or ' Mot.' See -ing and -ham, ' enclosure.' 

MoTTiSEONT (Romsey). Z)om. Mortesfunde. 'Spring or fountain.' 
L. fons, -tis, ' of Morta '; one in Onom. Cf. Bedfont. 

Moulin Huet (Guernsey). Eng. pron. moohn whet. It is Fr. 
for ' mill of the httle grey owl ' ; or, as likely, Huet is dimin. of 
Hugh, hence our name Hewett. 

MouLSFORD (WaUingford). Chart. Mullesford. 'Ford of Mul or 
Mula '; 4 in Onom. 

MouLTON (8 in P.O.). Middleton Tyas M. Dom. Moltun. North- 
ampton M. Dom. Moltone. Spalding M. 1272 Muleton. ' Vil- 
lage of Mula ' or ' Mola.' See above. 

Mountain (Bradford and Pembroke). Pe. M. is 1603 Muncton, 
' monk town.' Dom. Yorks has many ' Monuchetones,' but 
J. H. Turner identifies all with various Monktons. 


MousEHOLE (Penzance), c. 1600 iJarew Mowgehole. If the name 
has ever been different from what it now is, it is hard to say 
what it can be corrup. of. There is nothing like mowge in 
Oxf. Diet., nor any spelling of mouse with g. 

Mowii Cop (Cheshire). Tautological hybrid. W. moel, G. maol, 
' a rounded or conical hill ' : and O.E. cop, copp, ' head> summit, 

MowsLEY (Rugby). Prob. ' if w?a's mead." 0/. Mowthorp (Yorks), 
Dom. Muletorp; see -thorpe; and Moulton. 

MoxHTJLL (Coleshill) andMoxLEY (Wednesbury) . a. 1300 Mukes- 
hull, a. 1400 Mockeslowe, Mox(e)lowe. ' Hill ' and ' burial- 
mound of More/ Hull is regular in Mid. names for ' hill ' ; and 
see -low and -ley. But Moxby (Yorks) is Dom. Molzbi, Molscebi, 
1158-59 Pipe Molesbi, 1183 Molseby, ' dwelhng oi' some un- 
recorded ' Molsc.' 

MoYE (Channel Isles). Common name for 'a dangerous point/ 
Fr. moie is ht. ' a mass of stones.' 

Much Wenlock (Salop). Dom. Wenloch, a. 1130 Sim. Dur. 
Waneloc. ' Much ' is early M.E. muche, moehe, meche, miche, 
short form of muehel or michel, Sc. mickle, muckle, and is fre- 
quent in early use for ' great, large.' Cf. Much Dewchukch, 
Much Hoole (Preston), Much Mabcle (Glouc), ' boimdary 
(O.E. mearc) hill,' etc. Much Wenlock in 17th cny. is also 
More Wenlock. ' Waneloc ' is O.E. ween (short for wce^en) 
loca, ' waggon, wain enclosure.' Cf. Matlock. 

Mucklestone (Mket. Drayton). Dom. Moclestone, 1253 Mukle- 
stone. Prob. 'big stone'; O.E. micel, my eel, 'great, large'; 
possibly fr. a man Mucel. Cf. Micheldever, etc. Muckley 
Corner (Lichfield) is a. 1600 Mucklow, which may mean ' great 
mound.' See -low; cf. Mucklow Hill (Halesowen), 1424 Moke- 
lowe, Moghlowe. 

MuMFORDS (S.E. Bucks). Not in Dom. The personal name 
Mumfordis corrup. of the Norm. Montfort, but this may not be 
the same. Cf. Mundford. 

MuNCASTER (Ravenglass). Old Meolcaster, 1290 Mulcaster. Good 
illustration how almost any of the liquids, like I and n, may 
interchange. The first syll. might be W. moel, ' a conical hill,' 
but it is prob. fr. O.N. mel-r, ' a sand dune,' a ' meal.' See 
Mellis, and -caster, ' fort ' ; also cf. next. 

MuNDESLEY (Norfolk). Dom. Muleslai, c. 1150 Mulesle, 1444 
Moneslee. An exact parallel to the above; and d readily 
suffixes itself. The orig. name seems to have been ' Mul'a 
meadow.' Onom. gives us Mon, Monn, Mouna, Mul, Mula, 
Mund, and Munda, any of which may have had influence here. 
There is a Moundesley Hall (King's Norton) ; no old forms ; but 


a Mundes dene is found in 972 chart, near by. C/., too, Dom. 
Kent Mundingeham. See -ley. 

MuNDFOKD (Norfolk). Dom. Mundeford. Prob. 'protected ford/ 
fr. O.E. mund, ' protection.' But cf. Mumfords and Mundes- 


MuNDHAM (Norfolk). Chart. Mundan ham, 'home of Munda.' 
Cf. B.C.S. 1282 Mundes den, and above. 

MuNET (Clun, Salop). Dom. Munete. Perh. Corn, menit, W. 
mynydd, 'hill.' Cf. Mynyd Bidden, O.W. for Edinburgh; but 
more prob. it is fr. Munita, as in Mindton. Mynytho 
(Carnvnsh.) is corrup. of W. mynyddoed, ' mountains.' 

MusTON (Filey and Nottingham). Fi. M. Dom. Mustone, 4 times. 
No. M. not in Dom. Prob. ' town of Mus/ 1 in Onom. But 
N. and S. Muskham (Newark), Dom. Muscha, 1314 Suthe 
Muskham, must be fr. a man Micsca, or the like. Onom. has 
only Mocca ; but cf. Muschenheim, old Muscanheim, Hesse. 

Mtjswell Hnji (N. London). Old MustweU, O.E. must, L. mustum, 
' new wine.' There is one Mus in. Onom. But Mustees (Co. 
Durham) is 1130 de Monasteriis — i.e., ' monasteries.' 

MuTFOBD (Beccles). Dom. Mitteforda, c. 1460 Motford. =Mit- 
EORD, ' ford at the waters' meet '; O.E. {ge)mythe. Cf. Mitton. 

Myddle (Shrewsbury). Not in Dom. Perh. W. midd dol, 'en- 
closed place in the meadow.' W. also has midlan, ' enclosed 
place, Usts,' and middi, ' a pit in a river.' 

Mythe, The (Tewkesbury). Not in Dom. Prob. O.E. {ge)my\a, 
' place where 2 rivers meet,' here the Avon and Severn. M'Ciure 
prefers to derive fr. O.E. muth, dat. mythe, cognate with O.N. 
munn-r, Dan. mund, ' mouth, river -mouth.' The R. Mite 
(Eskdale, Cumbld.) is prob. the same word. Cf. Mitfobd and 
Mitton. Myton-on-Swale is Dom. Mitune, O.E. mythan (see 
Mitton); and Myton (HuU), Dom. Mitune, will prob. be the 
same, though some derive fr. O.N. my, ' a midge,' so ' tiny 

Nabubn (York). Dom. Naborne, 4 times. The Na- is doubtful; 
it seems to be O.N. nd, ' nigh,' ' the nigh or near brook'; only 
nd is found only in comb., as nd-bui, ' neighbours,' etc. Kneeton 
(Yorks) is Dom. Naton, which also seems ' nigh town,' O.N. 
nd, or rather, O.E. nedh, neh, 3-4 nei, 4 neie, ' nigh, near.' 
See -burn. 

Nacton (Ipswich). Dom. Nachetuna, 1455 Nakton. Doubtful. 
No very hkely name in Onom., so perh. ' town at the neck ' ; 
O.E. hnecca, in 4 naJc, O.N. hnakki. Da. nakke, mid. Du. nac, 
' neck.' ' Neck of land ' is not found till 1555. See Necton 
for possibihty of being fr. an unrecorded man Nece. 


Naffekton (Driffield). Dom. Nadfartone. Nadfar must repre- 
sent some imrecorded man's name. Onom. has a Nothfrith and 
a Nothbeorht, which are conceivable as origins. 

Nailbourne (Canterbury). B.C.S. ii. 172 Nseglesbuma, c. 1480 
WarJavorth Naylborne. ' Nail's brook/ the sb. nail, O.E. ncegel, 
here being used as a personal name, as in Nselesbroc and Naegles- 
cumb, in B.C.S. Cf. Nailslea (Bristol), 740 chart. Negles- 
leah, Nailstone (Nimeaton), and Nailsworth (Stroud). See -ea 
and -worth; also Eylebotjbn in Oxf. Diet., where a 'Nail- 
bourne ' is interpreted in several quotations as a sort of inter- 
mittent spring or stream. 

Nantwich. Hybrid. 'Dwelling by the stream'; O.E. wic, L. 
vicus, ' a village,' and W. nant, ' stream, valley.' In W. it is 
Yr heledd Wen., ' the clear or white place for making salt.' Cf. 
Nene and Droitwich. In W. names nant often changes to 
llan, ' church,' as in Nanhyfer (Nevern), now Llanhyfer, 
Nant Carfan, now Llancabvan, Nantyan (ComwL), now 
Lantyan, etc. 

Nantyffin (Crickhowell). W.= ' brook of the boundary'; L. 
finis. See above. It is close to the boundary of Wales, 

Nantymwyn (Carmarthen). W.= ' brook of the mine.' Lead- 
mines abound here. 

Nantysaeson (Montgomy.). W.= ' brook of the Saxon,' or 
Englishman. G. Sassanach. 

Napton (Rugby) . Dom. Neptone. * Town on the crest of the hiU ' ; 
O.E. cncep, the Bible knop, 'a knob, protuberance, button'; 
Icel. knapp-r, Dan. knap, knop. 

Nab R. and Nabboroxjqh (Swaffham). Dom. Nereburh, c. 1150 
Nereburg. ' Burgh, fort on the narrow river ' ; Fris. ndr, O.E. 
neara, neare, 3-4 nare, var. of nearu, ' narrow.' There is also a 
Narborough (Leicester) on R. Soar; not in Dom. 

Naeberth (Pembroke) . 1248-49 Nerberd, but Mabinog. Arberth— 
i.e., ' slope abounding in bushes,' W. perthi. The n comes from 
the prep, yn, ' in,' which was commonly used before the name. 
Cf. Nangle and Nolton (' old town ') in the same shire. 

Naseby (Rugby). Dom. Navesberie, 'Burh' or 'burgh,' now 
changed to ' dwelling, of Hncef,' a known Dan. name, in Onom. 
See -by. 

Nash (Stony Stratford, Glouc.) and Nash Mills (Hemel Hempstd.). 
All prob. for M.E. atten ashe, ' at the ash-tree.' Cf. Prinknash, 
(Painswick), 1121 Prinkenesche. But Nash (Newport, Mon.), 
and prob. once in Glouc. too=NASS on Severn, O.E. and Dan. 
nass, O.N. nes, ' promontory, headland.' 

Nawton (Helmsley) . Dom. Naghelton, Nageltone, Nagletune, 1202 
Nawelton. Prob. not ' Town in the centre ' or ' at the central 


NAZE 378 NEN(E) R. 

point of the district/ O.E. nafela, 3-4 nauele, 5 naweUe, ' the 
navel ' ; used of the central point of a district from Wyclif 's 
time. Prob. fr. a man Nagel; see Natlbourne. 

Naze, The (N. Sussex). 14 . . . Sailing Directions The Naisse, the 
Nasse. It may also be Eadolfes nsesse in 1049 O.E. Chron., 
or that may be Dungeness, called Nsesse a few years later. 
The word is almost certainly contained in Dom. Essex Nesseto- 
cham, Nasestoca, or Ness Stoke. Ozf. Diet, derives fr. O.E. 
nces, nes, O.N. nes, Sw. nds, ' promontory, headland,' related 
to O.E. nasu, M.E. nase, ' nose.' But it is prob. fr. nasu, found 
1390 nase, c. 1407 nasse. O.E. nces gives ' ness,' which is so 
common in this quarter — Orford Ness, Eastness, Foulness, etc. 
Cf. ToTNESS, 1297 Tottenays, Nessculefe, and Gronez, Eouge 
Nez, etc., Channel Is. 

Neasham (Darlington). 1203 Nesham; cf. Dom. Salop Nessham. 
Prob. ' home on the ness ' or ' naze.' O.E. ncBS, O.N. nes, ' a 
promontory,' cognate with nose. Cf. above. 

Neath. Perh. c. 380 Ant. Itin. Nido. In W. Neddr—i.e. ' nest ' 
L. nidus. Cf. Nedd (Sc.) and Needwood. The root idea seems 
to be ' place of rest, abode.' 

Nechells (Birmingham and Wolvermptn.) . In both cases a. 1300 
de Echeles, les Echelis, c. 1500 Nechels, later ' Echells otherwise 
Nechells.' This seems O.Fr. echelles, ' ladders, stairs,' implying 
a two-storied house, ? with outside stair. The n is fr. the old 
art. atten, ' at the,' as Nash is atten Ash, etc. There are several 
other Etchells in Chesh. and elsewhere in Midlands. 

Necton (Swaffham). Dom. Neketuna, 1160-61 Pipe Necheton, 
1167-68 ib. Neketona, 1298 Neketon, 1472 Neyghton. Seems 
to be 'town at the neck or pass'; O.E. hnecca, 'neck.' Cf. 
Nacton. But though there is no likely name in Onom., it is 
prob. fr. some man. Cf. 1179-80 Pipe Neckesford and Nekes- 
feld (Yorks). 

Needles, The (I. of Wight), c. 1400 Anc. Pet. Les nedeles del 
Isle de Wight. O.E. ncedl, nidi, * a needle.' This is the earliest 
known instance of the word used for ' a sharp rock ' ; as 'a 
pillar or obelisk ' it is found in 1387. 

Needwood (Burton-on-T.). a. 1200 Nedwode._, Prob. 'wood of 
Nedda.' Cf. K.C.D. 624 Neddan leah; Duignan suggests 
W. nedd, nydd, ' a dingle, a resting-place.' Cf. Nidd (Ripon), 
Dom. Nit. 

Neen Sollaes (Cleobury Mortimer) and Neenton (Bridgnorth). 
Dom. Nene. Doubtful; perh. same as next. It can hardly be 
fr. Neavana, or Nafana, d. 1016. See O.E. Chron. 

Nen(e) R. c. 950 Nyn, Nen. Local pron. N6an. Also called in 
early times — e.g., by Leland, c. 1542 — ^the Avon or 'river.' 


It must be a form of W. nant, inflected nentydd, neint, ' a ravine, 
dingle, or brook/ There is also nennig, ' a small brook/ 

Nesscliffe (Shrewsbury). 'Fr.ness or Naze, 'promontory/ Such 
may be far inland, as in Great and Little Ness, in same shire. 
Cf. Dom. Nessham. In Yorks we have the simple Ness, Dom. 
Nesse, and also Neswick, Dom. Nessewic; see -wick. But 
Neston (Chesh.), Dow. Nestone, might perh. be fr. iVesf, found, 
e.g., as name of a daughter of GrufEydd, K. of Wales. 

Netherton (5 in P.G.). Pershore N. 780 chart. Neotheretune. 
Persh. and Dudley N. Dom. Neotheretune. Rothbury N. a. 
1130 Sim. Dur. Nedertun. 'Lower town'; O.E. niolperra, 
nipera, 3 neothere, 5-6 neder, ' nether.' 

Netley (Southampton). O.E. Chron. 508 says called Natanleaga 
('Natan's meadow'), after a British K. Natanleod, slain near 
there in 508 ; Dom. Nataleie. Cf. 1161-62 Pipe Netha (Hants). 

Nettlestead (Maidstone). 939 chart. Netles stede, O.E. for 
' nettles' place.' Onom. gives no personal name Nettle, yet c/. 
Nettleham (Lines), Nettlestone, and Nettlesworth (Chester- 
le-Street), also Nettlewobth (Notts), c. 1300 Nettelwurd. 
But the plant seems plain enough in Nettlebed (Henley) and 
' Netelcumb,' Dom. Devon. 

Nettlestone (Ryde) . Dom. Hotelstone, error for Notel-. ' Stone,' 
or more prob., 'town of Nothhelm,' a name fairly common in 
Onom. See -ton. 

Nevern R. (N. Pembrokesh.). 1603 Owen. Ysh nyver. In Bain 
says= Naver (Sc), fr. Kelt, nav, snav, G. sndmh, ' to flow, swim.' 

Newark. 1066 chart. Newarcha, Dom. Newerche, Newerca, 1154-66 
chart. Niwerca, Newerc. 'New work or fort.' Cf. bulwark, 
outwork, and Wark. 

Newbald (Yorks), Dom. Niwebolt; Newbold (Tredington), 991 
chart. Nioweboldan; and Newbold Abbey (Congleton), Dom. 
Newbold. There are 4 other Newbolds in Warwk., Dom. Newe-, 
Niwebold, and several elsewhere. Newbold-on-Stour is 991 
chart. Niowebolda, a. 1200 Newebolt, 1275 Newebold. New- 
bold (Kinoulton) is Dom. Neubold. O.E. niwe bold, ' new 
dwelKng.' Cf. N. bol, O.E. botl, ' house,' and Newbiggin. 

Newbiggin (5 in P.O.). 1183 Newbiginga (Darlington). 'New 
building.' Biggin is N. Eng. and Sc. for 'building'; O.N. 
bygging, ' a building.' Cf. Newbigging (Sc), But, as new is 
Eng., not Norse, all these names must have been given by 
Angles or Englishmen. 

Newbottle (Fence Houses, Durham). 1183 Newbotill. O.E. 
niwe botl, ' new dwelling.' Cf. Harbottle (Rothbury) and New- 
battle (Sc). 

New Brighton (Birkenhead). It was founded c. 1845. 


Newburn (Northumbld.). a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Nywe bume. * New 
brook/ Of. Newbubn (Sc). See -bourne. 

Newbuby (Berks), a. 1135 Chron. Abingd. Niuuberia, 1310-11 
Newburye. ' New burgh or castle.' See -bury. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. c. 1097 Flor. Wore. Novum Castellum, c. 
1175 Fantosme Noef-Chastel-sur-Tine, a. 1200 Wm. Newbury 
Castellum Novum super fluvium Tinum. Sim. Dur. tells us it 
was so named when built by Robert, son of Wm. the Conqueror, 
in 1081. In c. 410 Notit. Dignit. it is Pons Mlii, and in 1073 
Munechecaster or ' monks' castle.' Newcastle -irtsDEE.-LYME 
is 1166 Novum Oppidum (= New-town), a. 1200 Novum Castrum 
super Limam, which is L. for the present name. Newcastle 
(Pembk.) is 1594 Newcastell. 

New Cross (London). 1675 Evelyn's Diary ' New Crosse.' There 
used to be a famous inn here called 'the Golden Cross.' In 
1160-61 Pipe Mdsex. we have a Nona firma, or New Farm. 

Newent (Glouc). Sic 1228 in Close R., but Dom. Noent. Doubt- 
ful. Possibly W. newydd gwent, 'new clearing '; as likely Eng. 
fr. new, O.E. niowe, neowe, and went, M.E. and dial, for ' path/ 
fr. root wend. Cf. Nether- and Over -went. 

New Forest, c. 1097 Flor. Wore. In Nova Foresta, quae lingua 
Anglorimi Ytene nuncupatur. Freeman thought Ytene must 
be connected with Jutes. 1155 Pipe ' Censu None foreste.' 1297 
M. Glov/}. The nywe forest pat ys in SouJ>amte8syre. Wm. the 
Conqueror cleared away several hamlets to make this Forest in 

Newhaven (Sussex). Sic 1563. In the 16th cny. this was also 
the Eng. name of Havre. 

New Hey (Rochdale). 'New hedge.' See Hay, and cf. 1330 
'Neweheye' (Staffs). 

Newington (Glouc, London, and 2 in Kent). Gl. N. Dom. Newe- 
ton, also ib. Yorks, Chesh., Wore, Newentune. O.E. Niwan 
tun, a dat. ' at the new town.' In Glouc. it also becomes 
Naunton, Dom. Niwetone, later New-, Nawenton. Cf. Newnham. 

Newlyn (Penzance). Sic 1536. St. Newlyna (? Kelt, for 'white 
cloud '), a Kelt of noble birth, went to Brittany, and is there 
commemorated at Noualen, the same name. 

Newmarch (Yorks). 1161-62 Pipe de Nouomcato, 1179-80 ib. De 
Novo Mercato; and Newmarket (Cambs, Louth, Stroud, Flint). 
Ca. N. 1219 Novus Mercatus, 1383 Newe market. The two names 
are thus the same. Market is G.Nor.Fr.,not found in Eng. till 
c. 1120, whilst march here is mod. Fr. marche, with the same 
meaning. We also find a. 1161-62 Pipe de Nouomcato, Hants. 

Newnham (7 in P.O.). Monk's Kirby N. Dom. Niweham, a. 1300 
Newnham. Cam. N. chart. Niwanham, later Newenham, 1436 


■Newynham. Tenbury N. 1007 chart. Neowanham, 1043 Neowen- 
ham. Severn N. Dom. Nimeham. This is an O.E. dat., ' at 
the new home/ Gf. Newington, also 1160 Pipe Niweham 
(Hereford). N. Padox (Warwksh.) is for paddocks, a late 

Newport (10 in P.G.) . N. Pagnell is Dom. Nevport, 1297 Neuport, 
1571 N. Pannel. O.E. port., L. porta, ht. ' gate/ comes to mean 
'a town, a market-town.' But see Oxf. Diet. s.v. Port sbS ^, 
and ^. Pagnell is fr. the Norm, family of Pagenel, now Paynell. 
Ralf Pagenel is foimd in Dom. in Somerset. 

New Quay (N. Cornwall) is of 19th cny. origin. 

Newsham. At least 4 places so caUed. Kirby Wiske (Yorks) N. 
is Dom. Newehusu', Neuhuson, 1201 Newesmn. Newe huson 
is a late O.E. loc, of the type very common in Yorks, ' at the 
new houses.' Cf. Hallam, Howsham, etc. There are also 
Newsham in Leckonfield and Newsham in SpofiEorth, both 
Yorks, and both Dom. Neuson(e), an early contraction; whilst 
Newsham, or Newsome, (N. Lanes) is Dom. Newhuse. 
Newstead (Notts) is 1189 de Novo Loco, ' new place ' or ' dwelling.' 
Newton (40 in P.G.). Oambs N. chart. Neutun. Lanes and 
Norwich N. Dom. Neweton(a), N. Reigney (Penrith) 1189 
Pipe Niweton, Dom. Yorks Neutun, Neweton, 43 times. ' New 
town.' Gf. Nbwington. Newton Abbot (S. Devon), Dom. 
Niueton, was given by Ld. Brewer to the abbot of Tor. 

NocTON (Lincoln). 1233 Noketon. Doubtful, but it must be fr. 
some man named Nok or the Hke, though Onom. has none such. 
Oxf. Diet, has more than one nock sb., but none are hkely here; 
nor does there seem anything in O.E. which would yield Noke-. 

Noe R. (trib. of Derwent, Derbysh.). Perh. a.' 900 Bav. Geogr. 
Anava. Gf. Navione, a place given as near. ? some connexion 
with G. naomh (niiv), ' holy.' 

NoRBiTON (Wimbledon). Name invented c. 1840 as a contrast to 
Stjrbiton. The parent town is Kingston. 

NoRBXJRY (E. Salop). Dom. Cheshire Nor(d)berie, a. 1300 North- 
byri. 'North town'; O.E. nor^. See -bury. 

NoRE, The (Essex). 1049 O.E. Ghron. Innan Nor«mu«an, _ 'In 
North mouth ' of Thames. But Nore is N. nor, ' a bay with a 
narrow entrance.' There seems to be a White Nore near 
Lulworth, Weymouth. 

Norfolk. Dom. Nordfolc, Norf, 1160 Pipe Norfolch, 1258-1658 
Northfolk, 1397 Norfolk. 'Land of the north folk.' Gf. 
SuiTOiiK — i.e., the North and South Angles. 

NoRHAM-ON-TwEED. Sic 1183, 1461 Norame. 'North home'; 
O.E. Mm, on the Northern border of England. Gf. c. 1 100 chart. 


NOBMACOTT (Longton, Staffs). Dom. Normanescote, 1242 Nor- 
mancote. ' The Norman's cottage.' See next. (7/. the name 

NoRMANBY (Doncaster, Middlesbrough, and 2 others). Sic in 
spurious grant of 664 (a. 1100). Mid. N. Dom. Normanebi, a. 
1130 8im. Dur. Northmann-bi, 1179-80 Pijpe Normannesbi. 
' Dwelling of the Northmen ' or ' Normans/ who in Flodoard 
of Rheims, d. 966, are Nortmanni; but already in chart, of 
963-84 {B.C.S. iii. 367) ' Into Normannes cros.' 

NoRMANTON (6 in P.G.). Yorks N. Dom. Norma'tune, Normetune. 
Grantham N. Dom. Norman-, -entone. ' Town of the Normans,' 
or the ' Northmen,' the Scandinavians. See above and -ton. 

NoRTHALL or NoRTHOLT (Southall). Dom. Nort hala. 'North 
hall ' or ' corner,' as opposed to ' South hall.' But holt is O.E. 
and N. for ' a wood, a copse.' See -hall. 

Northallerton. Dom. Alvretune, 1298-1538 North alverton. 
See Alverton. 

Northampton. 1088 O.E. Ghron. NorSamtune, c. 1097 Flor. W. 
Northamtunensis, a. 1145 Orderic Northantonia, 1373 Northamp- 
tonia. ' North home-town.' See Hampton, and cf. Southamp- 
ton and Northam (N. Devon and Southampton) . 

Northaw (Potter's Bar), also old Northall; but 1539 Northawe. 
' North haw ' or ' hedge '; O.E. ha^a. 

Northcote (S. Devon) and North Cotes (Lines). Dev. N. Dom. 
Norcote. 'North cot or cottage'; O.E. cot, cott, 'a chamber, 
a hut.' 

North Cttrry (Taunton). 1155 Pipe Nordcuri, 1161 ib. Norcuri. 
See Curry Mallet. 

North Hylton (Sunderland). ? a. 1000 chart. Does chfes nortS 
hyldan. Corrup. of O.E. hylda, dan, ' a slope.' 

NoRTHLEW (Bea worthy). 1219 Patent B. Lyu. Doubtful. ? = 

NoRTHOWRAM (Halifax). Dom. Oure, Ufron, 1202 Northuuerum. 
Ufron is the common Yorks O.E. loc, 'on the river -banks ' ; 
O.E. o/er, Ger. ujer. See Over, Hallam, etc., and -ham. 
Northover (Somst.) is 1219 Northovre. 

North Stainley (Ripon). Dom. Nordstanlaia, which is meant to 
be O.E. for ' north stony meadow.' Cf. Stanley. The stain 
is a sign of Dan. influence. See -by. 

North Stoke (WalUngf ord) . a. 1087 chart. NorS stoke; late O.E. 
for ' north place.' Cf. Stoke. 

Northumberland. Sic c. 1175 Fantosme, but Bede Nordanhymbri, 
c. 890 Alfred On Norj^anhymbra ]>eode, 898 O.E. Chron. Norjj- 
hymbre, c. 1000 ^Ifric NorShymbralande. This name for a 


district far ' North of Humber ' came early into use. Deira, 
to the S.J became largely Danish; but Bemicia, to the N., was 
never so. Cf. 1065 O.E. Ghron. Wore, ' In Yorkshire and in 
Northumberland.' Sim. Dur. ann. 883 already distinguishes 
Eboracum and Northimbri; and even more noteworthy is his 
' Sohus Northumbriae Comitatum.' c. 1097 Flbr. W. has 
* Suthymbria '= Deira. 

NoRTHwiOH. Dom. Norwich. 'North dwelHng'; O.E. wic. In 
W. it is Yr Heledd ddu, ' the dark place for making salt.' Cf. 
Droitwich and Norwich. 

NoRTHWOLD (Stoke Ferry, Norfk.). a. 1200 Nordwolde, c. 1220 
Norwolde, c. 1225 Northwaude. O.E. nor^ wald, 'north 
wood ' or Norwood. 

Norton (22 in P.G.). Often in Dom. Nortone. 'North town.' 
Eleven times in Dom. Yorks alone. 

Norwich. 1004 O.E. Ghron. NorSwic, Dom. Norwic, 1297 Nor- 
wiche. O.E. nor^ wic, 'northern dwelling' or 'village.' See 
-wich. NORWELL (Newark) is Dom. Nortwelle. 

Norwood (London) . a. 1697 Aubrey Perambltn. Surrey, ' The 
great wood called Norwood/ or 'north wood/ Cf. North- 

NosTELL (Pontefract). a. 1114 cTiart. Ecclesia sancti Osuualdi, 
1119 chart. Nostell, c. 1160 Nostl'. Here was the priory of Saint 
Oswald, so that the corrup. is a very early one. Cf. Oswestry 
and St. Austell's, pron. St. Ossle's. The n, of course, comes 
fr. the prefixed saint. Horsfall Turner identifies Nostell with 
Dom. Osele (p. 37b), but this seems doubtful. Noverton 
(Worcestrsh.) is really Overton; it also appears as Nurton 
(Abberley), which in 1327 is given both as Noverton and 

NosTERMELD (Cambs). c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Nostresfelda. 
Skeat derives fr. a tenure by saying Paternosters, and compares 
the name of an AUce Paternoster, who held lands at Pusey 

Nottingham. Asser ann. 868, ' Scnotingaham quod Britannice 
Tigguocobauc interpretatur, Latine Speluncarum domus,' or 
' house of caves.' Tigguocobauc is prob. Kelt, for ' house in 
the Uttle cave ' ; cf. W. ty, G. tigh, ' a house,' Corn, ogo, ' a 
cavern,' and W. bach, O.W. becc, 'little.' Dom. Snotingeham, 
a. 1190 Walter Map Notingam, 1461 Snotingham. ' Home of 
the Snotinga,' a patronymic. Onom. gives Snoding and Snot. 
Snoddy is still used as a personal name. Cf. Sneinton. There 
are also 2 Nottinghams in Gloster. See -ing. 

Notting Hill (London) is said to have been formerly ' EJQoltoh 
Barn Hill.' Cf. Knolton Bryn. 


Notion (Barnsley). Dom. Notone. 'Nut town/ O.E. hnut. 
Cf. NuTTLES, Dom. Notele. 

NxjNBTJB,]srHOLME (York). Dom. Brunha', but 1206 Brunnum, a 
loc. 'At the burn' or 'bourne/ O.N. brunn-r. See -bourne 
and -hobne (' a meadow by a river '). -ham and -holme often 
interchange, and many Yorkshire places in -ham or -am are 
orig. locatives. 

Nuneaton (Warwicksh.). a. 1200 Etone, O.E. ea-tun, 'town on 
the river ' Anker, where the nuns live. A Benedictine nunnery 
was built here in the 12th cny. Cf. Eaton. Similarly Ntjn 
Keeling (Yorks) is in Dom. simply Chehnge, ChiUnghe, ' place 
of the sons of Gille ' or ' Cilia.' See -ing. 

Nunney (Frome). Dom. Nonin. 'Nun's isle'; L. nunna, O.E. 
nunne, 3-6 nonne, ' a nun.' See -ey. 

Ntjnnington (York). Dom. Nonninctune; Noningtune, Nunnige- 
tune. Patronymic. ' Town of the sons of Nun ' or ' Nunna,' 
several in Onwa. Cf. Altabnun. See -ing and -ton. 

NuESLiNG (Southampton). Dom. Notesselinge, later Nutshalling. 
A curious and unexplainable corrup. ; prob. patronymic fr. some 
unrecorded man. See -ing. 

NuRTON. See Nostell. 

NuTEiELD (Redhill). Dom. Notfelle. ' Field of nuts,' O.^E. hnut. 

NuTHHEST (Horsham). Cf. 704-9 chart. Hnuthyrste (Warwicksh.), 
O.E. for 'nut wood.' See -hurst. Nuttles (Holderness) is 
Dom. Notele, 'nut meadow'; see -ley. Cf. Nuttall (Notts), 
Dom. Nutehale; see -hall. But Notgrove (Stow-on-Wold) is 
743 chart. Natangraf, ' trench, ditch of Nata.' 

Nymphsfield (Stonehouse). 872 chart, and 1280 Close E.Nymdes- 
feld, Dom. Nimdesfelde (1287 Kingesnemeton, see King's 
Nympton). W. and Bret, nemet, also aspirated in W. nevet, 
* a wood,' then prob. ' a sacred grove,' and then ' a temple.' 
There are several Nymets in Devon, as well as 3 Nymphs near 
Tawton. It will be noted that p after m is almost always a 
mod. intrusion; cf. Bampton, Brompton, Hampton, etc. 

Oaken (Wolverhampton). Sic 1398, but Dom. Ache, a. 1300 Ake, 
Oce, Oken. Prob. an old loc, O.E. aeon or acum, ' at the oaks/ 
Cf. Hallam, etc. 

Oakeobd (Bampton). 1174 chart. Acforde. O.E. dc, 'an oak.' 

Oakham, Local pron. Yekkm. 1298 Okham. This will prob. 
mean ' home, house built of oak.' Oakhampton (Ast